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The 7th century
7th century
BC began the first day of 700 BC
700 BC
and ended the last day of 601 BC. The Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Empire
continued to dominate the Near East
Near East
during this century, exercising formidable power over neighbors like Babylon
Babylon
and Egypt. In the last two decades of the century, however, the empire began to unravel as numerous enemies made alliances and waged war from all sides. The Assyrians finally left the world stage permanently when their capital Nineveh
Nineveh
was destroyed in 612 BC. These events gave rise to the Neo-Babylonian Empire, which would dominate the region for much of the following century.

Contents

1 Events

1.1 690s BC 1.2 680s BC 1.3 670s BC 1.4 660s BC 1.5 650s BC 1.6 640s BC 1.7 630s BC 1.8 620s BC 1.9 610s BC 1.10 600s BC

2 Significant people

2.1 Literature 2.2 Sports

3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Sovereign States 5 Decades and years 6 Notes

Events[edit]

A 16th-century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, by Martin Heemskerck, with Tower of Babel
Tower of Babel
in the background.

690s BC[edit]

699 BC: Khallushu succeeds Shuttir-Nakhkhunte as king of the Elamite Empire. 697 BC: Death of King Huan of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
of China. 696 BC: King Zhuang of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
of China. 696 BC: The Cimmerians
Cimmerians
ravage Phrygia, possible migration of the Armenians. 691 BC: King Sennacherib
Sennacherib
of Assyria
Assyria
defeats king Humban-nimena of Elam in the Battle of Halule. 690 BC: Taharqa, a king of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, ascends the throne of Egypt
Egypt
(approximate date).

680s BC[edit]

689 BC: King Sennacherib
Sennacherib
of Assyria
Assyria
sacks Babylon. 687 BC: Gyges becomes king of Lydia. 687 BC: Hezekiah
Hezekiah
succeeded by Manasseh as king of Judah. 682 BC: Death of King Zhuang of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
of China. 681 BC: King Xi of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
of China. 681 BC: Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
succeeds Sennacherib
Sennacherib
as king of Assyria.

670s BC[edit]

677 BC: Death of King Li of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
of China. 677 BC: Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
leads the Assyrian army
Assyrian army
against rebellious Arab tribes, advances as far as the Brook of Egypt. 676 BC: King Hui of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
of China. 675 BC: Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
begins the rebuilding of Babylon. 674 BC: Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
puts down a revolt in Ashkelon
Ashkelon
supported by Taharqa, king of Egypt. In response, the Assyrians invade Egypt, but Taharqa
Taharqa
is able to hold the invaders off. 673 BC: Tullus Hostilius
Tullus Hostilius
becomes king of Rome. 671 BC: Esarhadon again invades Egypt, capturing Memphis as well as a number of the royal family.

660s BC[edit]

669 BC: Assurbanipal
Assurbanipal
succeeds his father Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
as king of Assyria. 669 BC: Argos defeats Sparta for the last time, this time using a hoplite phalanx, at the battle of Hysiae. 668 BC: Shamash-shum-ukin, son of Esarhaddon, becomes King of Babylon. 668 BC: Egypt
Egypt
revolts against Assyria. 668 BC: Nineveh, capital of Assyria
Assyria
becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Thebes in Egypt.[1] 667 BC: Byzantium
Byzantium
founded by Megaran colonists under Byzas. (traditional date) 664 BC: First naval battle in Greek recorded history, between Corinth and Corcyra. 664 BC: Assurbanipal
Assurbanipal
captures and sacks Thebes, Egypt. 664 BC: Psammetichus I
Psammetichus I
succeeds Necho I
Necho I
as king of Lower Egypt. 664 BC: Taharqa
Taharqa
appoints his nephew Tantamani
Tantamani
as his successor of Upper Egypt. February 11, 660 BC—Traditional founding date of Japan
Japan
by Emperor Jimmu. 660 BC: First known use of the Demotic script. 660 BC: Psammetichus I
Psammetichus I
drives the Assyrians out of Egypt. 660 BC: Estimated date of the impact that created the Kaali crater

650s BC[edit]

650s BC: The Spartan Creed
The Spartan Creed
by Ancient Greek poet Tyrtaeus 650s BC: Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras, Guatemala. 657 BC: Cypselus becomes the first tyrant of Corinth. 656 BC: Psammetichus extends his control over all of Egypt. End of Twenty-fifth Dynasty. 653 BC: Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak and Khumbanigash II succeed Shilhak-In-Shushinak and Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak as kings of the Elamite Empire. 652 BC: Babylonia
Babylonia
rises in revolt under Shamash-shum-ukin
Shamash-shum-ukin
against the Assyrians. 652 BC: Achaemenid dynasty
Achaemenid dynasty
in Persia. 651 BC: King Xiang of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
of China. 650 BC: The town of Abdera in Thrace
Thrace
is founded by colonists from Clazomenae. 650 BC: A climate change affects all the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
cultures in Europe with colder and wetter climate, and tribes from the Scandinavian Nordic Bronze Age
Bronze Age
cultures are pushed downwards into the European continent.

640s BC[edit]

640s BC: Assyrian king Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
founds library, which included our earliest complete copy of the Epic of Gilgamesh. 649 BC: Indabigash succeeds Tammaritu as a king of the Elamite Empire. 649 BC: Babylonian revolt under Shamash-shum-ukin
Shamash-shum-ukin
is crushed by the Assyrians. 648 BC: Pankration
Pankration
becomes an event at the Ancient Olympic Games. April 6, 648 BC: Earliest Greek-chronicled solar eclipse.[2] 647 BC: King Assurbanipal
Assurbanipal
of Assyria
Assyria
sacks Susa 642 BC: Ancus Marcius
Ancus Marcius
becomes king of Rome
Rome
(traditional date). c.641 BC: Josiah
Josiah
becomes king of Judah. 640 BC: Decisive victory of Assyria
Assyria
over Elamite Empire; Assurbanipal captures its last king Khumma-Khaldash III, annexes Elam, and lays waste the country.[3]

630s BC[edit]

632 BC: Cylon, Athenian noble, seizes the Acropolis in a failed attempt to become king. 632 BC: In the Battle of Chengpu, the Chinese kingdom of Jin and her allies defeat the kingdom of Chu and her allies. 631 BC: Founding of Cyrene, a Greek colony in Libya
Libya
(North Africa) (approximate date). 631 BC: Sadyates
Sadyates
becomes king of Lydia.

620s BC[edit]

627 BC: Death of Assurbanipal, king of Assyria; he is succeeded by Assur-etel-ilani (approximate date). 626 BC: Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
revolts against Assyria, founds the Neo-Babylonian Empire. 625 BC: Medes
Medes
and Babylonians
Babylonians
assert their independence from Assyria and attack Nineveh
Nineveh
(approximate date). 623 BC: Sin-shar-ishkun succeeds his brother Assur-etel-ilani as king of Assyria
Assyria
(approximate date). 622 BC: Text of Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
found in the Temple in Jerusalem.The Hebrew prophet Ezekiel
Ezekiel
said to be born this year.

610s BC[edit]

619 BC: Alyattes becomes king of Lydia. 619 BC: Death of King Xiang of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
of China. 618 BC: King Qing of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
of China. 616 BC: Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
becomes king of Rome. 614 BC: Sack of Asshur by the Medes
Medes
and Babylonians. 613 BC: Death of King Qing of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
of China. 612 BC: King Kuang of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
of China. 612 BC: An alliance of Medes, Babylonians
Babylonians
and Susianians besiege and conquer Nineveh. King Sin-shar-ishkun of Assyria
Assyria
is killed in the sack. 612 BC: Ashur-uballit II attempts to keep the Assyrian empire alive by establishing himself as king at Harran. 612 BC: Babylon, capital of Babylonia
Babylonia
becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Nineveh, capital of Assyria.[1] 610 BC: Necho II
Necho II
succeeds Psammetichus I
Psammetichus I
as king of Egypt.

600s BC[edit]

609 BC: King Josiah
Josiah
of Judah dies in the Battle of Megiddo against Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Necho II
Necho II
of Egypt, who is on his way north to aid the rump Assyrian state of Ashur-uballit II. 609 BC: The Babylonians
Babylonians
defeat the Assyrian army
Assyrian army
of Ashur-uballit II and capture Harran. Ashur-uballit, the last Assyrian king, disappears from history. 609 BC: Jehoahaz succeeds his father Josiah
Josiah
as King of Judah, but is quickly deposed by Necho, who installs Jehoahaz's brother Jehoiakim
Jehoiakim
in his place. 607 BC: Death of King Kuang of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
of China. 606 BC: King Ding of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
of China. 605 BC: Battle of Carchemish: Crown Prince
Crown Prince
Nebuchadrezzar
Nebuchadrezzar
of Babylon defeats the army of Necho II
Necho II
of Egypt, securing the Babylonian conquest of Assyria. The Babylonians
Babylonians
pursue the Egyptians through Syria
Syria
and Palestine. 605 BC: Nebuchadnezzar II
Nebuchadnezzar II
succeeds his father Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
as King of Babylon. 601 BC: The Medes
Medes
from Media (western Iran) and the Scythians
Scythians
from modern Russia
Russia
and Ukraine
Ukraine
invade the northern and eastern parts of Assyria. 600 BC: Foundation of Capua. 600 BC: India—Age of the Mahajanapadas—16 great kingdoms rule India—Kasi, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji
Vajji
(or Vriji), Malla, Chedi, Vatsa
Vatsa
(or Vamsa), Kuru, Panchala, Machcha
Machcha
(or Matsya), Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara, Kamboja 600 BC: Foundation of Milan
Milan
by Celts
Celts
(approximate date). 600 BC: Foundation of Marseille
Marseille
by Phoceans
Phoceans
(traditional date). 600 BC: Smyrna
Smyrna
sacked and destroyed. 600 BC: Nebuchadnezzar builds the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

Significant people[edit]

Esarhaddon

Ashurbanipal

Psamtik I

Thales
Thales
of Miletus

Alcman

Alyattes, king of Lydia Ancus Marcius, king of Rome Anlamani, king of Kush Arganthonios, king of Tartessos Argishti II, king of Urartu Battus I of Cyrene, king of Cyrene Cyaxares, king of Medes Cypselus, tyrant of Corinth Cyrus I of Anshan, head of the Achaemenid dynasty Draco, Athenian statesman Esarhaddon, king of Assyria Gaius Cluilius, king of Alba Longa Gyges, king of Lydia Guan Zhong, Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of the Chinese state of Qi Jeremiah
Jeremiah
Jewish prophet Josiah, king of Judah Hezekiah, king of Judah King Hui of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
of China Madius, king of the Scythians Manasseh of Judah Mettius Fufetius, king of Alba Longa Nabopolassar, king of Babylon Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon Necho I, pharaoh of Egypt Numa Pompilius, King of Rome Pittacus, Mytilene
Mytilene
leader Psammetichus I, pharaoh of Egypt Sennacherib, king of Assyria Solon, one of the Seven Sages of Greece
Greece
(638 BC–558 BC) Taharqa, pharaoh of Egypt Tantamani, pharaoh of Egypt Tullus Hostilius, pharaoh of Rome

Literature[edit]

Alcman, Greek poet Archilochus, Greek poet Callinus, Greek poet Mimnermus, Greek poet Semonides of Amorgos, Greek poet Stesichorus, Greek poet Thales
Thales
of Miletus, Greek mathematician Tyrtaeus, Greek poet

Sports[edit]

Arrhichion, Greek pankratiast Chionis of Sparta, Greek runner Cleondas of Thebes, Greek runner Onomastus of Smyrna, Greek runner

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

The Chinese invent printing. First metal coins used by the Lydians of western Anatolia. Until c. 525 BC, coins bore an image on one side only. Greeks
Greeks
adopt coins from Asia Minor. Iron allegedly discovered in China. 7th century
7th century
BC – 4th century BC
4th century BC
– Etruscan cemetery of La Banditaccia, Cerveteri
Cerveteri
is made.

Sovereign States[edit] See: List of sovereign states in the 7th century
7th century
BC. Decades and years[edit]

v t e

Decades and years

7th century
7th century
BC 9th century
9th century
BC ←  8th century
8th century
BC ← ↔ → 6th century BC →  5th century
5th century
BC

700s BC 709 BC 708 BC 707 BC 706 BC 705 BC 704 BC 703 BC 702 BC 701 BC 700 BC

690s BC 699 BC 698 BC 697 BC 696 BC 695 BC 694 BC 693 BC 692 BC 691 BC 690 BC

680s BC 689 BC 688 BC 687 BC 686 BC 685 BC 684 BC 683 BC 682 BC 681 BC 680 BC

670s BC 679 BC 678 BC 677 BC 676 BC 675 BC 674 BC 673 BC 672 BC 671 BC 670 BC

660s BC 669 BC 668 BC 667 BC 666 BC 665 BC 664 BC 663 BC 662 BC 661 BC 660 BC

650s BC 659 BC 658 BC 657 BC 656 BC 655 BC 654 BC 653 BC 652 BC 651 BC 650 BC

640s BC 649 BC 648 BC 647 BC 646 BC 645 BC 644 BC 643 BC 642 BC 641 BC 640 BC

630s BC 639 BC 638 BC 637 BC 636 BC 635 BC 634 BC 633 BC 632 BC 631 BC 630 BC

620s BC 629 BC 628 BC 627 BC 626 BC 625 BC 624 BC 623 BC 622 BC 621 BC 620 BC

610s BC 619 BC 618 BC 617 BC 616 BC 615 BC 614 BC 613 BC 612 BC 611 BC 610 BC

600s BC 609 BC 608 BC 607 BC 606 BC 605 BC 604 BC 603 BC 602 BC 601 BC 600 BC

590s BC 599 BC 598 BC 597 BC 596 BC 595 BC 594 BC 593 BC 592 BC 591 BC 590 BC

v t e

Centuries and millennia

Millennium Century

BC (BCE)

4th 40th 39th 38th 37th 36th 35th 34th 33rd 32nd 31st

3rd 30th 29th 28th 27th 26th 25th 24th 23rd 22nd 21st

2nd 20th 19th 18th 17th 16th 15th 14th 13th 12th 11th

1st 10th 9th 8th 7th 6th 5th 4th 3rd 2nd 1st

AD (CE)

1st 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th

2nd 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th

3rd 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th

Notes[edit]

^ a b "Largest Cities Through History". About.com Geography.  ^ F. Espenak and Xavier Jubier. "Total Solar Eclipse of -647 April 06". NASA.  ^ Potts, D. T. (1999) "The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State" (Cambridge

.