Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives,
4-6-2 represents the wheel arrangement of four leading wheels on two
axles, six powered and coupled driving wheels on three axles and two
trailing wheels on one axle. The
4-6-2 locomotive became almost
globally known as a Pacific type.
1.2 Origin of the name
1.3 Global popularity
1.4 Tank locomotives
2.15.1 Broad gauge
2.15.2 Narrow gauge
2.24 New Zealand
2.29 Russia/Soviet Union
2.30 South Africa
2.30.1 Cape gauge
18.104.22.168 Natal Government Railways
22.214.171.124 Cape Government Railways
126.96.36.199 Central South African Railways
188.8.131.52 South African Railways
2.30.2 Narrow gauge
2.35.1 Standard gauge
2.35.2 Metre gauge
2.36 United Kingdom
2.36.1 Tender locomotives
2.36.2 Tank locomotives
2.37 United States of America
The introduction of the
4-6-2 design in 1901 has been described as "a
veritable milestone in locomotive progress". On many railways
worldwide, Pacific steam locomotives provided the motive power for
express passenger trains throughout much of the early to mid-20th
century, before either being superseded by larger types in the late
1940s and 1950s, or replaced by electric or diesel-electric
locomotives during the 1950s and 1960s. Nevertheless, new Pacific
designs continued to be built until the mid-1950s.
The type is generally considered to be an enlargement of the 4-4-2
Atlantic type, although its prototype had a direct relationship to the
4-6-0 Ten-wheeler and
2-6-2 Prairie, effectively being a combination
of the two types. The success of the type can be attributed to a
combination of its four-wheel leading truck which provided better
stability at speed than a
2-6-2 Prairie, the six driving wheels which
allowed for a larger boiler and the application of more tractive
effort than the earlier 4-4-2 Atlantic, and the two-wheel trailing
truck, first used on the New Zealand
2-6-2 Prairie of 1885. This
permitted the firebox to be located behind the high driving wheels and
thereby allowed it to be both wide and deep, unlike the 4-6-0
Ten-wheeler which had either a narrow and deep firebox between the
driving wheels or a wide and shallow one above.
The type is well-suited to high speed running. The world speed record
for steam traction of 126 miles per hour (203 kilometres per hour) has
been held by a British Pacific locomotive, the Mallard, since 3 July
The two earliest
4-6-2 locomotives, both created in the United States
of America, were experimental designs which were not perpetuated. In
Lehigh Valley Railroad
Lehigh Valley Railroad experimented with a
design with a Strong's patent firebox, a cylindrical device behind the
cab which required an extension of the frame and the addition of two
trailing wheels to support it. In 1889, the Chicago, Milwaukee and St.
Paul Railway rebuilt a conventional
4-6-0 with trailing wheels as a
means of reducing its axle load.
In 1896, six Q class
4-6-2 tank locomotives were introduced on the
Western Australian Government Railways.
The first true Pacific, designed as such with a large firebox aft of
the coupled wheels, was ordered in 1901 by the New Zealand Railways
Department (NZR) from the
Baldwin Locomotive Works
Baldwin Locomotive Works of Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania. The NZR Chief Mechanical Engineer, A.L. Beattie, ordered
thirteen new Q class locomotives with a sufficiently large firebox
that would be able to efficiently burn poor grade lignite coal from
South Island mines. Even before Baldwin had completed the
order from New Zealand, their engineers realised the advantages of the
new type and incorporated it into their standard designs for other
customers. The design was soon widely adopted by designers throughout
Origin of the name
There are different opinions concerning the origin of the name
Pacific. The design was a natural enlargement of the existing Baldwin
4-4-2 Atlantic type, but the type name may also be in recognition of
the fact that a New Zealand designer had first proposed it.
Usually, however, new wheel arrangements were named for, or named by,
the railroad which first used the type in the United States. In the
case of the Pacific, that was the
Missouri Pacific Railroad
Missouri Pacific Railroad in
In the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, the first Pacifics were
Kitson and Company
Kitson and Company in 1903 and designated the Karoo
Class, from the region of the Cape Western System of the Cape
Government Railways that they were designed to work in.
The Pacific type was used on mainline railways around the world. The
railways of New Zealand and Australia were the first in the world to
run large numbers of Pacific locomotives, having introduced 4-6-2
types in 1901 and 1902 respectively and operating them until the
Builder's photograph of Altoona-built K5 no. 5698, 1929
During the first half of the 20th century, the Pacific rapidly became
the predominant passenger steam power in North America. Between 1902
and 1930, about 6,800 locomotives of the type were built by North
American manufacturers for service in the United States and Canada.
With exported locomotives included, about 7,300 were built in total.
About 45% of these were built by the American Locomotive Company
(ALCO) which became the main builder of the type, and 28% by Baldwin.
Large numbers were also used in South America, most of which were
supplied by manufacturers in the United Kingdom, the United States and
Cape Government Railways
Cape Government Railways Enlarged
Karoo Class, SAR Class 5
Africa was the third continent upon which the Pacific was regularly
used, following the introduction of the
Karoo class on the Cape
Government Railways in the Cape of Good Hope in 1903. The earliest
African examples were built in the United Kingdom by Kitson and
The earliest examples of the Pacific in Europe were two French
prototypes, introduced in 1907 and designed by the Compagnie du chemin
de fer de Paris à Orléans (PO) to overcome the insufficient power of
their 4-4-2 Atlantics. Within a few weeks, these were followed by a
German Pacific type that, although already designed in 1905, only
entered service in late 1907. The next was a British type, introduced
in January 1908. By the outbreak of the First World War, the type was
being widely used on the railways of Continental Europe.
The Pacific type was introduced into Asia in 1907, the same year that
it was first used in Europe. By the 1920s, Pacifics were being used by
many railways throughout the Asian continent.
In 1923, the Pacific gave its name to Arthur Honegger's orchestral
work, Pacific 231, which successfully reflectively interprets the
emotive sounds of a steam locomotive. (231 after the French system of
counting axles rather than wheels.)
During the first two decades of the 20th century, the Pacific wheel
arrangement enjoyed limited popularity on tank locomotives. On a
4-6-2T locomotive, the trailing wheels support the coal bunker rather
than an enlarged firebox and such a locomotive is therefore actually a
tank engine version of the
4-6-0 Ten-wheeler tender locomotive.
Indeed, many of the earliest examples were either rebuilt from tender
locomotives or shared their basic design.
Around 1920, it became apparent to designers that the 4-6-2T wheel
arrangement allowed a too limited bunker size for most purposes, with
the result that most later designs of large suburban tank classes were
of the 4-6-4T Hudson or 2-6-4T Adriatic wheel arrangement.
LNER Peppercorn Class A1
LNER Peppercorn Class A1 60163 Tornado, built in 2008
The Pacific became the major express passenger locomotive type on many
railways throughout the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s. Examples were also
built for fast freight and mixed traffic duties. However, due to the
increasing weight of trains during the 1940s, larger developments of
the type became necessary in the United States and elsewhere. The most
notable of these was the
4-6-4 Hudson or Baltic type, which had a
four-wheel trailing bogie that permitted an even larger firebox,
albeit at a loss of some adhesive weight, and the
4-8-2 Mountain type
which used an extra pair of driving wheels to deliver more tractive
effort to the rails. Nevertheless, the Pacific type remained widely
used on express passenger trains until the end of steam traction. The
last examples were built in the United Kingdom and Japan in the
British Railways introduced its Standard class 6 and class
7 designs in 1951 and 1952, and the final United Kingdom design, the
Standard Class 8, in 1954.
However, the story of the
4-6-2 type did not end in the 1960s. One
further mainline example of the LNER Peppercorn Class A1, No. 60163
Tornado, was completed at
Darlington by the A1 Steam Locomotive Trust
in 2008. Designed to meet modern safety and certification standards,
Tornado runs on the United Kingdom’s rail network and on
mainline-connected heritage railways.
Vulcan Foundry built twenty Pacific locomotives for the former
Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway
Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway (BAGSR) in 1926, two of which
still survive. A further single 12B class locomotive was built in
1930, and the 12K class of twelve Pacific locomotives was built for
the BAGSR by Vulcan in 1938.
In 1930, the
Central Argentine Railway
Central Argentine Railway (Ferrocarril Central Argentino
or FCCA) ordered twenty large three-cylinder PS11 class Pacific
locomotives with Caprotti valve gear, which were at the time the most
powerful locomotives on the FCCA. In 1939, one of these set up a South
American speed record, averaging 65.7 miles per hour (105.7 kilometres
per hour) on the El Cordobes express across the 188 miles (303
kilometres) non-stop run from
Rosario to Buenos Aires, hauling a
500-ton train and at times attaining a maximum speed of nearly 100
miles per hour (160 kilometres per hour).
Vulcan Foundry built a further fifty locomotives of a modernised
PS12 class version of this design for the nationalised Ferrocarriles
Argentinos (FCA) between 1950 and 1953.
In Australia, the first known example of the wheel arrangement was the
Q class tank locomotive of the 3 ft 6 in
(1,067 mm) gauge
Western Australian Government Railways
Western Australian Government Railways (WAGR).
The six 4-6-2T locomotives were introduced in 1896, but four of them
were soon converted to a 4-6-4T Hudson configuration.
The WAGR was the largest user of Pacific tender types in Australia. In
total, the WAGR operated at least 223
4-6-2 locomotives, acquired
between 1902 and 1950, making it by far its most numerous wheel
The first simple expansion (simplex)
4-6-2 tender locomotives in
Australia were ordered from British manufacturers for the WAGR.
However, due to slow delivery times by the British companies as a
result of full order books and their preference for larger orders,
twenty compound expansion
4-6-2 locomotives were also ordered from
Baldwin Locomotive Works
Baldwin Locomotive Works in Pennsylvania and placed in service in
1902, designated the Ec class. From 1923, these locomotives, designed
for heavy goods and passenger traffic, were converted into light-lines
L class engines, but without altering their
4-6-2 wheel arrangement.
The British-built locomotives, the WAGR E class, were built by
Nasmyth, Wilson and Company,
North British Locomotive Company
North British Locomotive Company (NBL)
Vulcan Foundry between 1902 and 1912. These were the first of the
type to be introduced in quantity, with 65 locomotives in the class.
Other Pacific type locomotives operated by the WAGR included the
twenty-strong C class, introduced in 1902, which were converted from a
4-6-0 to a
4-6-2 wheel arrangement from 1909.
Western Australian Government Railways
Western Australian Government Railways P class no. 508
It was not until the introduction of the WAGR P class in 1924 that
Western Australia received what many considered a true Pacific, a
large, well balanced locomotive designed primarily for fast passenger
traffic. The P class consisted of 25 locomotives, built in 1924 and
1925 by NBL as well as locally at the WAGR’s Midland Railway
Workshops. The P class engines revolutionised express passenger travel
Western Australia by drastically reducing passenger travel times
The first batch of ten WAGR Pr River class locomotives, named after
prominent rivers in
Western Australia and with a boiler pressure
rating of 175 pounds per square inch (1,210 kilopascals) compared to
the 160 pounds per square inch (1,100 kilopascals) of the P class,
were built in 1938 at the Midland Railway Workshops. Between 1941 and
1944, eight of the P class locomotives were also converted to Pr
class. One of them was preserved.
The WAGR U class of fourteen oil burning locomotives, one of which was
preserved, were purchased from NBL in 1946 as surplus war-work
engines, following the Second World War.
The WAGR’s final Pacific design was its Pm and Pmr classes of 35
locomotives, introduced in 1950, five of which have been preserved.
These locomotives were intended to replace the Pr class, but were
quickly relegated to goods workings after proving to be rigid
The 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Midland Railway of
Western Australia, one of the longest-lived privately owned railways
in Australia, followed the WAGR’s example by introducing five
Pacific locomotives which were built by
Kitson and Company
Kitson and Company to the
Karoo design of the
Cape Government Railways
Cape Government Railways as basis.
In the 1920s, heavy Pacific locomotives were introduced by both South
Australian Railways (SAR) and
Victorian Railways (VR), in response to
increasingly heavy passenger trains and the demand for faster
services. Although similar in size, power and top speed, their designs
reflected different approaches.
The SAR 600 class reflected contemporary American locomotive practice,
both in design features and appearance, with two large 24 by 28 inches
(610 by 711 millimetres) cylinders. The SAR owned altogether twenty
Pacific locomotives, of which the first ten were of the 600 class,
Armstrong Whitworth of the United Kingdom in 1922. The
remainder were of the 620 class, built at Islington Workshops between
1936 and 1938.
Victorian Railways S class
The VR S class, on the other hand, showed a strong British London and
North Eastern Railway influence, with three 20 1⁄2 by 28 inches
(521 by 711 millimetres) cylinders and with Gresley conjugated valve
gear driving the third inside cylinder. The VR’s four S class
locomotives were built at Newport Works between 1928 and 1930.
Victorian Railways Dde class, c. 1910
The VR also built a 4-6-2T locomotive class, the Dde class that was
developed from a successful Dd class 4-6-0T design in 1908, intended
for outer suburban passenger services in Melbourne.
The 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge Queensland Railways
(QR) had two Pacific locomotive classes. Between 1926 and 1947, 83
B18¼ class 4-6-2s were introduced to haul mail trains. The prototype,
built by QR’s Ipswich Workshops, began trial runs on 16 July 1926
and was followed by two batches of eight locomotives in 1927 and 1929.
The last locomotive of this class was delivered in 1947. In 1950,
QR ordered 35 BB18¼ class locomotives from Vulcan Foundry, developed
from the successful B18¼ class. Another twenty were built by
Walkers Limited of Maryborough between 1955 and 1958. Of these, no.
1089 was the last mainline steam locomotive to be built in
New South Wales Government Railways
New South Wales Government Railways C38 class no. 3801
New South Wales Government Railways
New South Wales Government Railways (NSWGR) introduced its C38
class for express passenger service in 1943. These two-cylinder
Pacifics had a free-steaming 245 pounds per square inch (1,690
kilopascals) boiler and were renowned for their performance. Retired
class leader no. 3801 has achieved considerable fame in preservation,
with notable feats such as a transcontinental journey from
Perth in 1970.
Tasmanian Government Railways
Tasmanian Government Railways owned fourteen Pacific locomotives.
Four locomotives of class R (R1 to R4) were built for passenger trains
by Perry Engineering in Adelaide. The final batch of ten Pacific
locomotives of class M (M1 to M10) arrived in
Tasmania in 1952, built
Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns
Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns in 1951, and were used on all
trains on major lines in northern Tasmania.
ČSD no. 354.195, a Czechoslovakian version of the Austrian class 629
The only Pacific type to be built in Austria was the class 629 4-6-2
tank locomotive of the
Imperial Royal Austrian State Railways
Imperial Royal Austrian State Railways (kkStB),
later the Österreichische Bundesbahnen (ÖBB), of which 95 were built
between 1913 and 1927. This highly successful locomotive remained
in service until 1975.
The class 629 was later also produced and developed in Czechoslovakia
as the class 354.1 of the
Czechoslovak State Railways
Czechoslovak State Railways (ČSD). Between
1921 and 1941, 219 of these locomotives were built there and, in
addition, seventeen of the original Austrian class 629 locomotives
were used there. They survived in service until 1978. Three examples
have been preserved. (Also see Czechoslovakia)
The Pacific tender locomotives that worked passenger services in
Austria between 1938 and 1945 all belonged to the railways of other
countries, such as the Deutsche Reichsbahn, the Czechoslovak State
Railways and the Yugoslav State Railways.
Bulgarian State Railways
Bulgarian State Railways (BDZ) bought its first four-cylinder
simple expansion Pacific type locomotive from John Cockerill of
Belgium in 1912. It hauled express trains from
was rebuilt in 1933.
In 1938, BDZ improved its express service between
placed an order with
Germany for five three-cylinder Pacific
type locomotives. Because of the disruption caused by the Second World
War, the locomotives were only delivered to Bulgaria in 1941. They had
470 by 660 millimetres (19 by 26 inches) cylinders, 1,850 millimetres
(73 inches) coupled wheels and were capable of a maximum speed of 120
kilometres per hour (75 miles per hour). They were initially
designated class 07.01 to 07.05, but in 1942 their classification was
changed to 05.01 to 05.05. They all survived until the end of steam
traction in Bulgaria in the 1980s. Engine no. 05.01 has since been
restored and, as of 2015, was in working order.
Burma was administered as a province of British India from 1886 until
1937. In 1932, the
Vulcan Foundry built three
4-6-2 locomotives of the
YC class for the 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in)
Burma Railways. Since most of Burma’s locomotive stock
was destroyed during the Japanese occupation of
Burma in the Second
Vulcan Foundry delivered sixty Pacific locomotives of the
YB class in 1947, after the war.
Canadian Pacific G3c class no. 2317
Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) employed several Pacific classes,
beginning with 39 G1 class locomotives, built between 1906 and 1914 by
the CPR at its Angus Workshops and by the Montreal Locomotive Works.
After 1921, 166 examples of a new G2 class locomotive with a
superheater were built by the
American Locomotive Company
American Locomotive Company at
Schenectady, Angus and Montreal. The last of these remained in service
After the First World War, the CPR needed heavier mixed traffic
locomotives since steel passenger cars replaced the older wooden ones
on its mainlines. This resulted in the introduction in 1919 of 23 G3a
class 4-6-2s with 75 inches (1,905 millimetres) driving wheels, built
by Angus for service over flat terrain, and five G4 class locomotives
with smaller 70 inches (1,778 millimetres) drivers, built by Montreal
for hilly terrain. A further 152 G3 class locomotives were built in
batches between 1926 and 1948. These locomotives were withdrawn from
service between 1954 and 1965.
102 examples of the G5 class locomotive were built after 1944. The
first two were built by Angus and the rest by Montreal and the
Canadian Locomotive Company. They were considered fast, efficient and
handsome locomotives and remained in service on many secondary lines
of the CPR until the end of steam.
Canadian National’s Pacific no. 593
The Reid-Newfoundland Company Limited, which operated the railways in
Newfoundland, took delivery of ten Pacific locomotives with 42 inches
(1,067 millimetres) drivers between 1920 and 1929, built by Baldwin,
Montreal and ALCO Schenectady. Numbered 190 to 199, they had two 18 by
24 inches (457 by 610 millimetres) cylinders and weighed 56.3 tons.
They all passed to the Government-owned Newfoundland Railway, and then
to Canadian National Railways (CN) when Newfoundland joined the
Confederation of Canada. CN renumbered them 591 to 599 and classified
them as J-8-a (BLW 54398–54401 and 54466–54467 of 1920), J-8-b
(BLW 59531 and MLW 67129, both of 1926) and J-8-c (ALCO-Schenectady
67941–67942 of 1929).
They were the only Pacific type locomotives built to operate on
3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge in North America. The
only surviving Newfoundland steam locomotive, the Newfoundland Railway
no. 193, later CN no. 593, is preserved and on display at the
Humbermouth Historic Train Site in Newfoundland. (Also see Mexico)
The Japanese introduced several classes of Pacific locomotive during
their occupation of Manchuria, but the Pashiro became the standard and
was China's most numerous class of steam passenger locomotive. Between
1933 and 1944, around 272 were built for the South Manchuria Railway
(SMR), the Manchurian National Railway and the railways of occupied
North China. They were built by various Japanese builders, including
Dalian and Sifang, while the SMR’s own workshops were also involved
in the construction.
The Japanese-built Pashina locomotives were used on the Asia Express
train between 1934 and 1943, during Japanese control of the SMR. These
were built by Kawasaki and Dalian.
Chinese National Railway RM Class No. 1163 at Central Park, Aioi,
The name Shengli (Victory) was used for all classes of Pacific
inherited by the new China in 1951. The Pashiro became the Shengli 6
(SL6 class), while the Pashina locomotives were designated Shengli 7
(SL7 class) under Chinese ownership.
The Sifang works resumed production of SL6 class locomotives in 1956
and completed 151 locomotives before moving on to RM class
construction in 1958. The inability of the class to haul the heavier
passenger trains that were introduced in the 1970s and 1980s, saw them
progressively being re-allocated to secondary duties. By 1990, most of
the survivors were concentrated in Manchuria at the Dashiqiao, Jilin
and Baicheng depots.
The RM class was China's last steam passenger design. It was a late
1950s development of the successful pre-war SL6 class Pacific and
became the standard passenger class. The class, numbered RM 1001 to
1258, entered service in 1958 and a total of 258 were built before
production ceased in 1966. In the 1970s, they were gradually displaced
from premier services by locomotives more suited to handling heavier
trains and they ended their service lives on secondary passenger
Czechoslovakian 387.043 at the Lužná u Rakovníka Museum
Between 1926 and 1967, two Pacific tender locomotive classes were
Czechoslovakia and operated by the Czechoslovak State
Railways (Československé státní dráhy or ČSD). These were the
ČSD Class 387.0
ČSD Class 387.0 and Class 399.0 express passenger locomotives.
The 2100 horsepower Pacific Class 387.0 was the most successful of
these, nicknamed Mikádo because of its short chimney. Between 1926
and 1937, 43 were built in five series by the
Škoda Works in Plzeň,
intended for the heaviest long-distance express trains. This class is
considered to have been among the most successful locomotives in
Europe. The locomotives began to be withdrawn in 1967, with the last
one being retired in 1974. One locomotive, no. 387.043, has been
preserved. (Also see Austria)
Prior to 1954, the
Egyptian State Railways
Egyptian State Railways used 4-4-2 Atlantic or
4-6-0 Ten-wheeler types on express passenger trains. However, in 1953
a requirement arose for a locomotive capable of hauling 550-tonne
trains over the 150 kilometres (93 miles) from
two hours. These were originally going to be
4-6-4 Hudson locomotives,
but the specification was eased to suit a 500-tonne train load,
4-6-2 type to be used.
They were ordered from Société Alsacienne (SACM) at Grafenstaden in
France. The class was unusual in being designed for oil burning, with
a long narrow firebox and combustion chamber fitted between the plate
frames. They had a short lifespan in express train service, since the
1956 war put an end to fast train running in Egypt. The Pacifics were
then transferred to haul slower night express trains to
Aswan. Some remained in service up to 1967.
The French-owned Imperial Railway Company of Ethiopia, with 784
kilometres (487 miles) of 1,000 mm
(3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge trackage, had four
Pacific type locomotives on its roster.
The first one was bought from Forges, Usines et Fonderies de
Haine-Saint-Pierre in Belgium in 1923. This locomotive had been
ordered by the Spanish railway Ferrocarril Madrid-Aragon in 1914,
prior to the outbreak of the First World War, but it was never
delivered for reasons unknown. The locomotive used saturated steam and
had 1,250 millimetres (49 inches) diameter coupled wheels, which made
it well suited to run the 473 kilometres (294 miles) between Addis
Dire Dawa in Ethiopia. (Also see Spain)
Three more similar Pacific locomotives, but superheated, were ordered
in 1936. They arrived after the Italian conquest of
Ethiopia and were
allocated to the
Addis Abeba and
Dire Dawa sheds. They continued to
haul passenger trains until the mainline diesels arrived in 1956,
after which all were soon withdrawn from service and scrapped in the
Twenty-two Pacific locomotives of the Class Hr1, numbers 1000 to 1021
and named Ukko-Pekka after the nickname of Finnish President Pehr
Evind Svinhufvud, were constructed in Finland by
Tampella and Lokomo
between 1937 and 1957. They were the largest passenger locomotives to
be built and used in Finland and remained the primary locomotives on
express trains for Southern Finland until 1963, when the class Hr12
diesel locomotives took over.
A Finnish "Ukko-Pekka" class Hr1
The last two Class Hr1 locomotives to be built in 1957, numbers 1020
Lokomo works numbers 474 and 475, were equipped throughout
SKF C-type roller bearings, even on the coupled rod big ends, and
represented a fine combination of American and German locomotive
building practices. They were, along with the Deutsche Bundesbahn
class 10, the last new-built Pacific type locomotives in Europe.
When tested after delivery from
Lokomo or Tampella, each locomotive
reached 140 kilometres per hour (87 miles per hour), but in everyday
service their speed was limited to 110 kilometres per hour (68 miles
per hour). All the locomotives were initially located at Pasila depot
in Helsinki, but in 1959 the last seven to be built were transferred
to Kouvola depot.
By European standards, Class Hr1 locomotives ran high annual kilometre
figures, between 125,000 and 140,000 kilometres (78,000 and 87,000
miles) per locomotive per year between 1937 and 1963. The two fully
roller bearing-equipped locomotives even exceeded the 150,000
kilometres (93,000 miles) mark in 1961, the highest annual kilometre
figure to be obtained by a steam locomotive in Northern Europe. The
only similar annual kilometres by European Pacific type locomotives
were run in
Germany and by the roller bearing-equipped Peppercorn
Class A1 locomotives of the
London and North Eastern Railway
London and North Eastern Railway in the
At least twelve class Hr1 locomotives were preserved as at April 2008,
of which two were in operational condition. These were no. 1021, owned
by the VR Group, and the privately owned no. 1009. No. 1001 was
reserved for the Railway Museum in Hyvinkää and no. 1002 was
reserved for the city of Helsinki as a possible static monument.
France was a major user of the
4-6-2 Pacific type. Following the
introduction of two successful Paris à Orléans prototypes in 1907, a
further 1,362 Pacific locomotives were built for or acquired by the
major French railway companies, including those acquired from Germany
following the terms of the Armistice in 1918.
Paris à Orléans 4546 at the Cité du train at Mulhouse
The Paris à Orléans ordered a further 98 Pacific locomotives that
were delivered between 1908 and 1910, and another 89 in 1909 and 1910.
Another fifty were ordered from the
American Locomotive Company
American Locomotive Company in
1921 and forty of the type TP-État were bought in 1923. The company
was particularly famous for the Chapelon Pacifics of 1929 to 1932.
The L'Ouest followed with two prototype
4-6-2 locomotives in 1908, but
did not continue with the Pacific type.
The Alsace-Lorraine built eight Pacific locomotives in 1909, at the
time when the railway was still under German control. These became
French locomotives in 1920.
The Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée (PLM) was the largest French
user of Pacific locomotives, owning 462, built between 1909 and 1932.
These were both compound and simplex locomotives and were built both
with and without superheaters. Large numbers were later rebuilt to
compounds or to incorporate superheaters by both the PLM and the
Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français
Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français (SNCF).
Nord E 41 at St-Pierre-des-Corps
The Nord built 139 Pacific locomotives from 1912, including the
various so-called Superpacific types of 1923 to 1931. The company also
ordered Chapelon type rebuilds from the Paris à Orléans in 1934, and
new-built locomotives between 1936 and 1938.
231 G Ouest
231 G Ouest no. 558, preserved by the Pacific Vapeur Club
The L'État owned 352 Pacific locomotives, some of which were
transferred from the Bavarian Railways and Württemberg Railways as
Armistice reparations in 1918.
The Midi likewise owned altogether forty Pacific locomotives, acquired
in three batches.
The eastern L'Est never built a 4-6-2, preferring its 4-6-0
Ten-wheeler types until it progressed straight to the much larger
4-8-2 Mountain type. The L'Est nevertheless bought Pacific locomotives
to the designs of other companies, including forty TP-État type class
11 s locomotives between 1921 and 1923, and twelve class 12 s Chapelon
rebuilds in 1934.
After nationalisation in 1938, the SNCF built no more Pacifics,
although it continued to rebuild some of the existing stock running on
lines already established by the private railway companies,
particularly by continuing to apply the great improvements brought
about by the work of André Chapelon.
Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways
Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways Class IVf
The first Pacific locomotive for a German railway was the Badische IVf
class for the
Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways
Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways (Großherzoglich
Badische Staatseisenbahnen), designed by Maffei in 1905. However, due
to manufacturing delays, the first three locomotives were not
introduced until 1907, shortly after the first French Pacifics. They
were four-cylinder compound locomotives of the Von Borries type. After
the Maffei locomotives, a further 32 were built under license by
Karlsruhe Engineering Works and delivered between 1907 and 1913.
Bavarian S 3/6
Bavarian S 3/6 class, later Class 18.4-5 of the Deutsche Reichsbahn
However, the most successful early German Pacific class was the
Bavarian S 3/6
Bavarian S 3/6 class of the
Royal Bavarian State Railways
Royal Bavarian State Railways (Königliche
Bayerische Staats-Eisenbahnen), designed by Anton Hammel and Heinrich
Leppla of Maffei. This was a larger development of the Baden IVf
class, with a four-cylinder compound arrangement. Altogether 159 of
them were built between 1908 and 1931, with the last one being retired
from ordinary service in 1969.
When the various pre-
First World War
First World War Pacific locomotives from the
different German state railway companies were grouped together by the
Deutsche Reichsbahn as the Class 18 with seven sub-classes, the Baden
Class IVf became the DRG 18.2 class while the
Bavarian S 3/6
Bavarian S 3/6 class
became the DRG 18.4-5 class.
Deutsche Reichsbahn Class 01, rebuilt in the early 1960s, at
During the 1920s and 1930s the
Deutsche Reichsbahn continued to build
new Pacific designs, such as the Class 01.10 to Class 03.10
The Class 01, a two-cylinder standard type of the Deutsche Reichsbahn
introduced between 1926 and 1938, was the first standardised steam
express passenger locomotive class to be built for the unified German
The Class 02 four-cylinder compound locomotive version was less
successful, being costly to maintain. Only ten were built and all of
them were rebuilt into two-cylinder 01 class locomotives between 1937
The Class 03 was a lighter version of the 01 class, built between 1930
and 1938. Ten locomotives of the 03.10 class remained in Poland after
Second World War
Second World War and were designated the Polish State Railways
(PKP) class Pm3. (Also see Poland)
In 1957, only two prototypes of the streamlined Class 10 were built by
Krupp for the Deutsche Bundesbahn. They were nicknamed Schwarze
Schwäne (Black Swans) and survived until 1968.
The Hungarian locomotive builder
MÁVAG (Magyar Királyi Államvasutak
Gépgyára) built several classes of
4-6-2 locomotives after 1914,
both for the
Hungarian State Railways (Magyar Államvasutak or MÁV)
and for export elsewhere in Europe. MÁV Pacific number 301.016 has
been preserved at the Hungarian Railway Heritage Park Museum in
The earliest Indian
4-6-2 locomotives were two Class C locomotives,
built for the narrow gauge
Darjeeling Himalayan Railway
Darjeeling Himalayan Railway by the North
British Locomotive Company in 1914. Both were retired in 1976. From
the mid-1920s until the 1970s, the Pacific type became very common on
both the broad gauge and narrow gauge lines in India.
Indian XB class of 1927
In 1924, the Locomotive Standards Committee of the Indian Government
recommended eight basic types of locomotive for use on the
sub-continent, three of which were 4-6-2s. These were the XA class for
branch line passenger working, the XB class for light passenger trains
and the XC class for heavy passenger trains. The Vulcan Foundry
built large numbers of all these classes for the different Indian
railways between the late 1920s and early 1930s, beginning with
fourteen each for the
East Indian Railway Company
East Indian Railway Company (EIR) and the Great
Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR) in 1927.
In 1937, two XP class locomotives were built for the GIPR by Vulcan
Foundry. These were experimental locomotives that formed the basis for
India's renowned WP class, designed by Railway Board designers in
India specifically to use low-calorie, high-ash Indian coal. The WP
class was introduced after the
Second World War
Second World War and remained the most
prestigious locomotive of the
Indian Railways (IR) until the 1980s. A
few reconditioned WP class locomotives were later sold to countries in
the Middle East.
There were also two WL classes. The first four locomotives, built in
Vulcan Foundry for the North Western Railway, went to Pakistan
upon the India-Pakistan partition. A second Indian WL class was
introduced in 1955 and ten of these locomotives were built by Vulcan
Bengal Nagpur Railway
Bengal Nagpur Railway had a saturated C class, a superheated CS
class, and a CC class comprising C class locomotives that had been
converted from saturated to superheated steam.
SIR class YB
4-6-2 of 1928
The South India Railway (SIR) ordered six YB class and two XB class
Pacific locomotives from the
Vulcan Foundry in 1928.
Mysore State Railway had the E, ES and ES/1
Scindia State Railway had a class of eight NM class locomotives,
W. G. Bagnall
W. G. Bagnall in 1931.
The only post-
Second World War
Second World War 4-6-2s on narrow gauge Indian Railways
were the five ZP class locomotives with six-wheel tenders, built by
Nippon Sharyo in Japan in 1954.
The earliest Pacific classes in
Indonesia were the NISM 371 of the
Nederlandsch-Indische Spoorweg Maatschappij (NISM), the private
railway company that had opened the first railway line in Central Java
in 1873, and the class C51 of the Staatsspoorwegen (State Railway).
Both were built in 1910 by the
North British Locomotive Company
North British Locomotive Company and
Beyer, Peacock and Company
Beyer, Peacock and Company respectively.
Four-cylinder Pacific of the Staatsspoorwegen on Java, c. 1922
Twenty class C53 locomotives were delivered to the Staatsspoorwegen in
1917 and 1922. They were designed by Dutch engineers and were
manufactured in the
Netherlands by the Nederlandse Fabriek van
Werktuigen en Spoorwegmaterieel (Werkspoor). The combination of a
4-6-2 wheel arrangement with four cylinders was expected to provide
the stability required to haul express trains, but this was not
achieved. There were complaints that the C53 locomotives oscillated
when driven at high speed, while excessive wear on the rear driving
wheels and the inaccessibility of the inside cylinders led to
maintenance difficulties.
The majority of the class were scrapped by the Indonesian Railway soon
after Indonesia’s independence. The last survivor was number C5317,
which lasted until the final days of steam locomotives in Indonesia.
During its last days in service before retirement, it was used to haul
local passenger trains between Bangil and Surabaya Kota.[citation
When the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard
Baghdad Railway was nearing completion between
Mosul and the
town of Tel Kotchek on the border with Syria, the Iraqi State Railways
ordered four streamlined Pacific locomotives from Robert Stephenson
and Hawthorns in the United Kingdom, to haul the international Taurus
Iraq on the Iraqi
stage of its journey.
Three were delivered in 1941 and designated the PC class, but the
fourth was lost en route. When the Iraqi standard gauge railways were
dieselised in the 1960s, the class was withdrawn from service.
Italian Class 691 no. 022 at Milan
Between 1911 and 1914, 33 Pacific locomotives of the 690 class were
built for the
Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane
Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane (Italian State Railways),
twenty by Breda in Milan, ten by Ansaldo in
Genoa and three by
Officine Meccaniche in Milan.
Between 1928 and 1931, these locomotives were rebuilt with larger
boilers and reclassified as Class 691. One of them, no. 691.011,
established the Italian speed record for steam locomotives at 150
kilometres per hour (93 miles per hour).
The whole class was withdrawn between 1962 and 1963. One locomotive,
no. 691.022, has been preserved at the Museo della Scienza e della
Tecnologia di Milano (National Museum of Science and Technology of
Japanese Government Railways
Japanese Government Railways C51 class C51201 on 7 June 1940
Japanese Government Railways
Japanese Government Railways built a number of
between 1920 and the 1950s. The most notable was possibly the C51
class, the first Japanese-built high-speed passenger locomotive, used
for express services on the Tōkaidō mainline and later on regional
trunk lines. Five of these locomotives were built in 1920.
Other Japanese Pacific designs included the C52 class, built from 1926
to 1929, the C53 and C54 classes that were both built in 1935, the C55
class, the C57 class built from 1937 to 1953, and the C59 class.
The C57 Class, of which 135 were built by Kawasaki, Kisha Seizō,
Mitsubishi and Hitachi, was the JNR's last steam locomotive and was
used until 1975 to work passenger trains on the Muroran mainline
between Iwamizawa and Muroran in Hokkaido.
The 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm)
Cape gauge Nyasaland
Malawi Railways after independence) obtained six Class F
Pacific type locomotives from the
British War Department
British War Department in 1946, to
work on the Trans-Zambesi Railway (TZR). The locomotives had been
built by the
North British Locomotive Company
North British Locomotive Company in 1942 and were
numbered TZR 25 to 30. All six were still in service on the Malawi
Railways in 1973.
The 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge
Malayan Railway was amongst the earliest railways in Asia to adopt
Pacific type locomotives. Sixty locomotives of the Federated Malay
States Railways (FMSR) Class H were built between 1907 and 1914. With
a small volume of highly rated freight traffic, it was possible to
adopt standard engines for both passenger and freight services. Three
coupled axles were sufficient to move the trains at moderate speeds
over the whole Malayan rail network.
As a result of experience gained with the first batch of 4-6-2
locomotives, the design of Malayan Pacific locomotives was finalised
and 68 engines of this design were eventually built. They had bar
frames, steel fireboxes and three cylinders, each of 13 by 24 inches
(330 by 610 millimetres). The coupled wheels were 54 inches (1,372
millimetres) in diameter. The heating surface of the boiler was 1,109
square feet (103 square metres), of which 218 square feet (20.3 square
metres) was superheating surface, while the grate area was 27 square
feet (2.5 square metres). The total weight in working order was 60.5
tons, with a maximum axle load of 12.9 tons. Its maximum speed in
ordinary service was 50 miles per hour (80 kilometres per hour). The
three cylinders were provided with rotary cam poppet valves with the
camshaft divided into two parts, independently driven from each side
of the engine, which avoided complete immobilisation in case of a
breakdown on a long stretch of single track. These locomotives were
all later converted to burn oil fuel.
During the Second World War, after the fall of Singapore, the Japanese
Southern Army’s Railway Engineering Troops transferred a number of
older Malayan Pacific locomotives to operate their 471 kilometres (293
miles) Taimen Rensetsu Tetsudo, the Thailand-
Burma Railway. Some
Pacifics were not returned to Malaya after the war but remained in
Thailand. When the rail connection was established between the Malayan
and Thai railways, the Pacifics were a common sight at the head of the
Singapore and Bangkok expresses as well as on the other passenger
trains in domestic Malayan service.
After the arrival of the mainline diesel-electric locomotives in the
latter part of the 1950s, the Pacifics were transferred to less
important trains. Many survived up the end of Malayan steam traction
in the 1970s.
Canadian National Railway
Canadian National Railway (CN) sold a 3 ft 6 in
(1,067 mm) gauge Pacific locomotive, the former CN no. 591, to
Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México, where it was numbered
139. (Also see Canada)
The Caminhos de Ferro de Lourenço Marques in Portuguese Mozambique
ordered its first three class 300 Pacific locomotives from Baldwin in
1919. They hauled passenger trains on the 88 kilometres (55 miles)
line between Lourenço Marques (Maputo) and Ressano Garcia, and also
crossed the South African border at
Komatipoort in South Africa, 93
kilometres (58 miles) from Lourenço Marques, where South African
Railways locomotives took over for the rest of the way to Pretoria.
Two more locomotives were added in 1923 and a further order for four
additional Pacific locomotives was placed with
Henschel in 1955, for
use on the Beira-
Henschel also supplied three more modern Pacific type locomotives to
Mozambique in 1955. These
Henschel Pacifics weighed 73.75 tons in
working order while its total weight, tender included, was 128 tons.
The firegrate area was 3.8 square metres (40.9 square feet) and it had
480 by 660 millimetres (18.90 by 25.98 inches) cylinders and 1,524
millimetres (60 inches) diameter driving wheels. These locomotives
were good examples of Pacific type 3 ft 6 in
Cape gauge passenger locomotives in Southern
Africa. When they arrived, their older American-built counterparts
were relieved of mainline duty to haul the Lourenço Marques local
suburban services. All the Pacifics were allocated to the Lourenço
Marques shed for the whole of their service lives and all were still
in service in 1971.
The first true Pacifics, the original thirteen Q class 4-6-2
locomotives built by Baldwin for the New Zealand Railways Department
(NZR) in 1901, worked until withdrawal in 1957. None has been
These were followed by 58 Pacific locomotives of the A class, built in
1906 by the NZR’s
Addington Railway Workshops
Addington Railway Workshops and by A & G Price
Limited. Two of these have been preserved. A further ten locomotives
of the AA class were built by Baldwin in 1914.
AB class no. 778 on the Kingston Flyer
The most notable
4-6-2 class in New Zealand was the AB class, built
between 1915 and 1927 by Addington, Price and the North British
Locomotive Company in Scotland. These were reputed to be the first
locomotives to generate one horsepower for every 100 pounds (45
kilograms) of weight and eventually became the most numerous class of
steam locomotives in New Zealand, with a total of 143 built, and a
further 12 rebuilt from WAB class Hudson tank engines. When they were
superseded by new locomotives on the principal express and heaviest
freight trains during the 1930s, they were utilised on secondary
duties. The AB class locomotives remained in service until 1969, two
years before the end of steam locomotive operations in New Zealand. As
a result, seven of them have been preserved.
4-6-2 type was the G class. These were six three-cylinder
Pacific locomotives that were rebuilt from three unsuccessful G class
Garratt locomotives by NZR’s Hillside Workshops in 1937.
They were equipped with AB class boilers, new roller bearing trailing
trucks, new cabs and Vanderbilt type tenders of similar design to that
of the AB class. Like the Garratts they were created from, the
rebuilds were not considered successful.
In 1960 Ted Blomfield, locomotive fitter at Rotorua, New Zealand,
built a Super Q Pacific for the 1 foot gauge Toot and Whistle Railway.
The engine operated at Toot and Whistle's Kuirau park railway for six
years before officialdom demanded the locomotive be retired. It was
replaced by a
Black Five replica. Another Super Q exists as a 5
Between 1926 and 1928, the 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm)
gauge Nigerian Railways ordered ten Class 405 Pacifics from Nasmyth,
Wilson & Company in Manchester, for express services on the 1,126
kilometres (700 miles) line between
Lagos and Kano. They used
saturated steam and had 18 by 26 inches (457 by 660 millimetres)
outside cylinders and 60 inches (1,524 millimetres) diameter driving
wheels. All ten were named and they hauled named trains like the North
Mail and Boat Express, both averaging only 35 kilometres per hour (22
miles per hour) between stops. They were ousted from principal
passenger trains when the first mainline diesel locomotives arrived,
but continued working less important secondary train services well
into the 1970s.
Manila Railroad Company (MRR) operated ten three-cylinder simple
expansion Pacific locomotives, built in the United States by Baldwin
in 1926, 1927 and 1929. They were numbered 141 to 150 and worked the
main express trains out of Manila. These were amongst the finest
looking modern 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge
locomotives to appear in Asia. All were presumably destroyed during
the 1944 and 1945 battles on
Luzon during the Second World War.
Polish State Railways
Polish State Railways (Polskie Koleje Państwowe or PKP)
locomotive classification system, locomotives with a 2C1 (
4-6-2 ) axle
arrangement were identified with the letter "m" in the class prefix.
Express locomotives therefore had a "Pm" prefix, passenger locomotives
an "Om" prefix and tank passenger locomotives an "OKm" prefix.
Pm36-2 Beautiful Helene in Poznań
PKP class Pm36
PKP class Pm36 consisted of two experimental Polish prototype
express locomotives, built by
Chrzanów in 1937. One of
them, no. Pm36-1, was streamlined, while the other had a standard
appearance in order to compare their respective performances in terms
of top speed, acceleration and coal and water consumption.
The Pm36-1 won a gold medal at the International Exposition of Modern
Art and Technology in Paris in 1937. It was damaged and later scrapped
during the Second World War, but Pm36-2 survived and worked on the PKP
until 1965, when it was given to the Warsaw Railway Museum. In 1995,
it was rebuilt and restored to mainline specifications and nicknamed
Beautiful Helene. As of 2011, while still remaining museum property,
the locomotive was in regular service at Wolsztyn.
Besides these two Polish-built locomotives, several German DRG class
03, class 0310 and class 181 locomotives (ex Württemberg Class C) and
Austrian class 629 tank locomotives saw service in Poland as the
classes Pm2, Pm3, Om101 and OKm11 respectively. (Also see Germany)
One 600 mm (1 ft 11 5⁄8 in) narrow gauge
Pacific locomotive, the Belgijka, built in 1935 by Ateliers
Nivelles and Tubize in Belgium, was also used in
Poland and is preserved at the Narrow Gauge Railway Museum in Wenecja,
The Portuguese Railways (Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses or CP) had two
batches of Pacific 2C1-h2 class locomotives running on its
1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in) broad gauge
lines, built by
Henschel & Son in 1924 and 1925. The first batch
of ten locomotives, numbered 551 to 560, were used on lines south of
the river Tagus, while the second batch of eight, numbered 501 to 508,
were built for the Porto line north of the Tagus. Both Pacific classes
had deep and narrow fireboxes and the same cylinders, coupled wheels
and motion as the
4-6-0 Ten-wheelers of the class CP 351 to
The Pacifics were capable of very fast running. Before the Second
World War, the CP was renowned for the speed of its trains. The track
was carefully maintained, laid with 45 kilograms per metre (91 pounds
per yard) rails, and the speed limit of 120 kilometres per hour (75
miles per hour) was frequently reached with steam locomotives.
In normal service, these engines could haul 400 tons behind the tender
at 120 kilometres per hour (75 miles per hour) on level track. In
1939, a four-coach train weighing 170 tons and hauled by a Pacific
locomotive of the class 501-508, covered the 343 kilometres (213
miles) from Porto to Lisbon-Campolide in 189 minutes, at an average
speed of 107.8 kilometres per hour (67 miles per hour), with stops at
Papilhosa and Entroncamento. A distance of 100 kilometres (62 miles)
of slightly falling, level or slightly rising gradient could be
covered at speeds of 140 to 145 kilometres per hour (87 to 90 miles
per hour), while station stops lasting less than a minute were
These locomotives began to be replaced by diesels in the 1960s and
disappeared from the scene in the early 1970s. One of the Pacific
locomotives, no. 553, is preserved at the Santarém depot museum.
Pacifics were not common in Russia. The only known examples were the
four-cylinder L class express passenger locomotives, built by the
Putilov Works at
Saint Petersburg for the
Vladikavkaz private railroad
in 1914. The chief designer was Vazlav Lopushinskii, who later
emigrated from Soviet Russia. These locomotives were the most powerful
passenger locomotives in Tsarist Russia. Eighteen locomotives were
built between 1914 and 1919, allocated to the Rostov-on-Don,
Tihoretskaya, Kavkazkaya, Armavir and
Mineralnye Vody depots. They
hauled principal express and heavy passenger trains between
Rostov-on-Don and Vladikavkaz, a distance of 698 kilometres (434
miles). All were oil fired.
After the October Revolution, a further 48 L class locomotives were
built at Putilov Works between 1922 and 1926. At first, these coal
fired locomotives were allocated to the October Railway to haul
principal passenger trains over a distance of 650 kilometres (400
miles) of double track line between the two largest cities in Soviet
Russia, Moscow and Leningrad. At the time, train speeds in Soviet
Russia were slow and the fastest train took fourteen hours and thirty
minutes between the two cities. The trains, which were running four
return workings daily, were rather heavy with train loads often
exceeding 700 metric tons behind the tender. In 1936, the express
trains were running at an average speed of 65 kilometres per hour (40
miles per hour) with four intermediate stops between these cities.
Locomotives were usually changed at Tver.
When the production of the heavier
2-8-4 Berkshire class IS Joseph
Stalin got under way in 1937, the Pacifics were modified from coal to
oil firing and transferred to join other older locomotives on the
North Caucasus lines, from where they worked as far south as to Baku.
In 1941, seventeen locomotives were allocated to the North Caucasus
Railway, 29 to the
Transcaucasus Railway and six to the Orenburg
Railway. In 1942, during the German summer invasion into North
Caucasus, all the class L Pacifics were evacuated from there to the
Transcaucasus Railway. After the Second World War, in 1947, they were
designated Lp class and were relieved from heavier duties. A number
were withdrawn from service between 1956 and 1959. The last one, Lp
class no. 151, was retired from
Grozny depot in 1967.
In 1945, 34 Pacific locomotives of the Deutsche Reichsbahn’s Class
03 and two streamlined Class 03.10 Pacific locomotives fell into
Russian hands in East Prussia. They were regauged to 5 ft
(1,524 mm) gauge and allocated to the Lithuanian Railways, where
they hauled express and passenger trains from
Vilnius to Kaliningrad
(Königsberg) and to Minsk. The last ones were withdrawn from service
Natal Government Railways
Havelock as Hairy Mary, c. 1898
The first use of the
4-6-2 wheel arrangement in South Africa was c.
1890. During 1887, designs for a
2-8-2 Mikado type tank-and-tender
locomotive were prepared by the
Natal Government Railways
Natal Government Railways (NGR). The
locomotive was built in the
Durban workshops and entered service in
1888, named Havelock, but it was soon rebuilt to a
configuration. Havelock was the first locomotive to be designed and
built in South Africa. During the
Second Boer War
Second Boer War Havelock saw action
in service on armoured trains. Unlike usual practice in such cases,
the engine was not equipped with armour plate protection, but was
draped in strands of thick hemp rope which earned it the apt nickname
Hairy Mary amongst the troops.
Ex NGR Class K&S, SAR Class C1
In 1901, the NGR rebuilt one of its Class K&S
locomotives to a 4-6-2T locomotive to extend its range by providing a
larger bunker. In 1912, when it was assimilated into the South African
Railways (SAR), it was designated Class C1. In that same year, four
more of these locomotives were built from surplus material in the
No more tank locomotives with the Pacific wheel arrangement saw use on
3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm)
Cape gauge in South Africa.
Two Class 2 variants were introduced on the NGR between 1905 and 1910.
Ex NGR Class Hendrie A, SAR Class 2
In 1905, two Class A Pacific tender locomotives entered service on the
NGR, designed by Locomotive Superintendent D.A. Hendrie and built by
NBL. They had plate frames, used saturated steam and had Stephenson
valve gear. To accommodate the wide and deep firebox, Hendrie used a
bridle casting similar to that introduced on the CGR by Beatty with
his Class 6
2-6-2 Prairie in 1903. This method of widening the frames
for the firebox continued in South African locomotive design until
1927, when the general adoption of bar frames rendered it no longer
necessary. In 1912, they were designated Class 2 on the SAR.
In addition, two more Class A locomotives, also known as Class Hendrie
C, were built in the NGR’s
Durban workshops in 1910. They were a
redesigned version of the Hendrie A, similar in general proportions,
but with Walschaerts valve gear, slightly larger diameter coupled
wheels, a larger boiler and a more enclosed cab that offered better
protection to the crew. In 1912, the SAR designated them Class
Cape Government Railways
The first locomotives with a Pacific wheel arrangement in the Cape
were two tank locomotives that entered service in 1896 on the private
Metropolitan and Suburban Railway that operated a suburban passenger
Cape Town and Sea Point. In 1901, both locomotives
were sold to the Mashonaland Railway.
Three Class 5 and one experimental
Karoo tender locomotive variants
were introduced on the
Cape Government Railways
Cape Government Railways (CGR) between 1903 and
Karoo Class, SAR Class 5A
In 1903, the first two
Karoo locomotives entered passenger service on
the CGR. It was a development of the CGR Class 6
2-6-2 and was
designed by Chief Locomotive Superintendent H.M. Beatty. The
locomotives, built by Kitson and Company, were acquired to cope with
the increasing weight of passenger trains on the one in eighty ruling
Beaufort West and
De Aar in the Karoo, hence the
Karoo Class name. In 1912, when they came onto the SAR roster, they
were designated Class 5A.
Following on the success of the first two
Karoo Class locomotives, a
further four were ordered from
Beyer, Peacock and Company
Beyer, Peacock and Company in 1904.
They were modified slightly in view of the experience gained with the
original two. On the SAR, they were all designated Class 5B, until one
was later reboilered with a Watson Standard no. 1 boiler and
reclassified Class 5BR. All of them were later equipped with piston
valve cylinders and superheaters.
In 1907, the CGR placed a single experimental three-cylinder compound
Pacific in service, based on the second
Karoo Class. Built by the
North British Locomotive Company
North British Locomotive Company (NBL), it was not classified and was
simply referred to as the Three Cylinder Compound. The cylinders were
arranged in the Smith system of compounding, with a single
high-pressure cylinder situated between the two low-pressure
cylinders. The locomotive had a bar frame,
Walschaerts valve gear
Walschaerts valve gear and
used saturated steam. Compared to a simplex two-cylinder Karoo, the
compound could take a heavy train up a long continuous grade at a much
higher speed, while experienced drivers found it could outperform the
Karoo in terms of power as well as fuel and water consumption. In
1912, the SAR classified it as Class Experimental 1.
The Enlarged Karoo, built by Vulcan Foundry, was one of the locomotive
types that were designed and ordered by the CGR before the SAR was
established and that ended up being delivered to the newly established
national railways of the
Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa in 1912. It was a
larger and heavier version of the Class 5B, with a higher pitched
boiler, Belpaire firebox, larger diameter leading and coupled wheels
and larger cylinders. The four locomotives were designated Class 5.
One of them was later reboilered with a Watson Standard no. 1 boiler,
equipped with a superheater and reclassified to Class 5R.
Central South African Railways
CSAR Class 9 no. 600, SAR no. 727
Five Class 9 Pacific passenger locomotives, designed by P.A. Hyde, the
first Chief Locomotive Superintendent of the Central South African
Railways (CSAR), were delivered from
Vulcan Foundry in 1904. They had
Stephenson valve gear
Stephenson valve gear and used saturated steam, and proved
very useful for passenger work with moderate loads, working the mail
Durban as far as Charlestown on the
Transvaal-Natal border for many years. They retained their Class 9
classification on the SAR.
CSAR Class 10 no. 656, SAR no. 738
Five Class 10 variants were introduced between 1904 and 1910.
Also in 1904 and also designed by Hyde, fifteen Class 10 Pacific
locomotives were delivered to the CSAR from NBL. The locomotives were
of an extremely advanced design, superheated and with the highest
boiler pitch yet in South Africa, with plate frames, wide Belpaire
fireboxes, outside admission piston valves and Walschaerts valve gear.
In 1912, when they were assimilated into the SAR, they retained their
Class 10 classification.
Ten heavy Pacific passenger locomotives, designed by CSAR Chief
Mechanical Engineer (CME) G.G. Elliot based on Hyde’s Class 10
design, were ordered from NBL and delivered in 1910. They had plate
frames, Belpaire fireboxes and
Walschaerts valve gear
Walschaerts valve gear and were
delivered in two variants, five of them using saturated steam while
the rest were superheated. While similar to the Class 10, their
boilers were arranged further forwards, their firebox throats and back
plates were sloped instead of being vertical, they used inside
admission piston valves and their valve gear was reversed by means of
a vertical steam reversing engine mounted on the right-hand running
board. They were all classified as Class 10-2 by the CSAR but, in
1912, the SAR designated the saturated steam locomotives Class 10A and
the superheated ones Class 10B. A further five superheated Class 10B
locomotives were delivered to the SAR from Beyer, Peacock in
Twelve light Pacific locomotives were also placed in service by the
CSAR in 1910, classified as Class 10-C. Designed by Elliot and built
by NBL, they were similar to the Class 10-2, but slightly smaller and
with smaller coupled wheels. They used saturated steam and had
Belpaire fireboxes and Walschaerts valve gear, but they were soon
reboilered and equipped with superheaters. In 1912 they were
designated Class 10C by the SAR.
One more Pacific was ordered by the CSAR from ALCO in 1910. It was
superheated and built to very much the same specifications as that of
the Class 10-2 of that same year, but with a bar frame. It was
slightly more powerful than the Class 10-2 and was designated Class 10
by the CSAR, along with the fifteen locomotives of 1904. In 1912, the
locomotive became the sole Class 10D on the SAR.
South African Railways
Seven Class 16 variants were introduced on the South African Railways
(SAR) between 1914 and 1935.
SAR Class 16 no. 800, c. 1930
The Class 16 Pacific was designed by Hendrie, CME of the SAR from 1910
to 1922, and was built by NBL, who delivered twelve locomotives in
1914. The design closely followed that of the Class 15
type that was introduced at the same time from the same builders, and
many parts were made interchangeable. They had Walschaerts valve gear,
were superheated and had Belpaire fireboxes. At the time, it
was considered a very large and powerful express locomotive, even when
compared to British locomotives built to run on
4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge.
With 60 inches (1,524 millimetres) coupled wheels, the ratio of wheel
diameter to rail gauge was the same as that of a Standard gauge
locomotive having 81 inches (2,057 millimetres) coupled wheels. Their
tractive effort of 29,890 pounds-force (133.0 kilonewtons) at 75%
boiler pressure exceeded the 27,800 pounds-force (123.7 kilonewtons)
at 85% boiler pressure of Churchward’s The Great Bear on the Great
Western Railway and equalled, also at 85% boiler pressure, that of
Gresley’s subsequent Great Northern Pacifics. This made the Class 16
the most powerful express passenger locomotive design yet to have been
built in Britain at the time.
The Class 16A four-cylinder simplex Pacific of 1915 was designed by
Hendrie and built by NBL. Two locomotives were delivered, identical in
most respects to their predecessor Class 16 except that they had four
cylinders instead of the usual two. All four cylinders were arranged
in line below the smokebox and were the same size, with the outer
cylinders driving the centre coupled wheels while the inner cylinders
operated on a cranked leading coupled wheel axle. The result was a
very smooth running locomotive, capable of very fast running, but
since the available space on a
Cape gauge locomotive prevented larger
cylinders from being fitted, the four-cylinder design was never
repeated by the SAR.
Class 16B No. 805 restored to its as-delivered appearance
The Class 16B Pacific, also designed by Hendrie, was also built by
NBL, who delivered ten locomotives in November 1917. They were
identical to the predecessor Class 16 and successor Class 16C in most
respects, except that they had wider cabs than the Class 16, while the
Class 16C had a combustion chamber in the firebox. All ten were
eventually reboilered with Watson Standard no 2B boilers and Watson
cabs with slanted fronts, and reclassified to Class 16CR.
Ten Class 16C locomotives, also designed by Hendrie and built by NBL,
were delivered in 1919 with another twenty following in 1922.
Identical to predecessors Class 16 and Class 16B in most respects
except for the addition of a combustion chamber, they proved to be
excellent free-steaming, fast and reliable locomotives with a reserve
of power greater than either of the predecessors. All thirty were
later reboilered with Watson Standard no 2B boilers and also
reclassified to Class 16CR.
Class 16D no. 860
Seven Class 16D Pacific locomotives were built for the SAR by Baldwin
Locomotive Works in 1925 and 1926. The Class was designed for working
the Union Limited and Union Express fast passenger trains, forerunners
of the Blue Train, between
Johannesburg and Cape Town. The builders
conformed to SAR requirements, but also incorporated the latest
American railway engineering practices and introduced several new
features to the SAR, such as top feeds to the boiler, self-cleaning
smokeboxes, Sellar’s drifting valves, grease lubrication and arch
tubes to support the brick arch and improve circulation. It had a bar
frame extending from the front buffer beam to the rear dragbox, while
its size earned it the nickname Big Bertha. In 1926, no. 860 made
locomotive history by hauling the Union Limited over the 956 miles
(1,539 kilometres) from
Cape Town in 29 hours.
When orders for more Pacific locomotives were placed in 1928, the
Class 16D design was modified by the CME, Colonel F.R. Collins DSO,
who shortened the frame to end at the front of the firebox and added a
bridle casting. This resulted in a wider frame below the firebox and
cab and consequently more ashpan room. Fourteen Class 16DA locomotives
were built to this design, six by
Hohenzollern Locomotive Works
Hohenzollern Locomotive Works in
1928 and eight by Baldwin in 1929. The Hohenzollern and Baldwin
locomotives differed from the Class 16D only by virtue of its
Henschel-built Class 16DA of 1930
When A.G. Watson succeeded Collins as CME in 1929, he designed a
boiler with a very wide firebox of the Wootten type, with a grate area
of 60 square feet (5.574 square metres) to improve the steaming
properties of these locomotives. The grate was 15 square feet (1.394
square metres) larger than that of the Hohenzollern and Baldwin
locomotives and these boilers were installed on the final six Class
16DA locomotives, built by
Henschel in 1930. These locomotives were
sufficiently different from the Baldwin and Hohenzollern-builts to
justify a separate classification such as Class 16DB, but this did not
happen. The steaming ability of these six, known as the Class 16DA
Wide Firebox, was phenomenal and led to the adoption of wide fireboxes
without combustion chambers as the standard on all subsequent SAR
Class 16E No. 858
The Class 16E Pacific was designed by Watson and built by Henschel,
who delivered six locomotives in 1935. With its 72 inches (1,829
millimetres) diameter coupled wheels, it was considered to be the most
Cape gauge express passenger locomotive ever built. The
coupled wheels were the largest ever used on any less than
4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
locomotive, and it had an all-up weight and tractive effort equal to
or exceeding that of most Pacifics outside North America. It used
rotary cam poppet valve gear driven by outside rotary shafts, which
resulted in extremely free-running characteristics. It also boasted
the largest fire grate on any Pacific outside North America. The Class
16E had a Watson Standard no. 3A boiler and, at 9 feet
3 inches (2.819 metres) above rail level, its boiler centre-line
was the highest-pitched on the SAR. This and the limitations of the
loading gauge made it impossible to install a normal steam dome and
its place was taken by an inspection man-hole. Steam was collected
through numerous small feeder pipes fixed into two collector pipes,
which were arranged as high as possible above the water surface. The
collector pipes joined together to form a main steam pipe, 7 inches
(177.8 millimetres) in diameter, which led to the superheater header
and multiple valve regulator, situated in the smokebox.
In 1906, two small
4-6-2 side-tank locomotives, designed by Hendrie
and built by Hunslet, entered service on the 2 ft (610 mm)
Estcourt-Weenen narrow gauge railway of the NGR. They had outside
plate frames and used Walschaerts valve gear. They were commonly known
Hunslet Side Tanks since all narrow gauge locomotives on the NGR
were designated Class N. Although they came onto the SAR roster in
1912, they were never classified since they were sold to the
Moçâmedes Railway in
Portuguese West Africa
Portuguese West Africa in 1915, long before a
system of grouping narrow gauge locomotives into classes was
introduced by the SAR somewhere between 1928 and 1930.
NGR Hawthorn Leslie, SAR Class NG3
In 1907, the NGR placed another six 4-6-2T tank locomotives in
service, designed by Hendrie based on his
Hunslet Side Tank. Built by
Hawthorn Leslie and Company, they also had outside plate frames and
used Walschaerts valve gear. They were commonly known as the Hawthorn
Leslie Side Tanks and were acquired specifically for the new narrow
gauge Donnybrook-Esperanza Railway in Natal. They came onto the SAR
roster in 1912 and were later classified as Class NG3.
In 1908, two Pacific tank locomotives with bar frames and Walschaerts
valve gear, built by Bagnall, entered service on the narrow gauge
Walmer Branch of the CGR in Port Elizabeth. They came onto the SAR
roster in 1912 and remained in service until the Walmer branch was
closed in 1929.
In 1911, shortly before being amalgamated into the SAR, the NGR placed
the first two of seven 4-6-2T narrow gauge locomotives in service,
Kerr, Stuart and Company
Kerr, Stuart and Company using the Hawthorn Leslie drawings
for the Class NG3. Two more followed in 1913 and another three in
1914, also from Kerr, Stuart. While virtually identical to the
Hawthorn Leslie Side Tanks, their boiler pitch had been raised 3
inches (76 millimetres) to make a larger firebox possible. They also
had higher side tanks and less ornate sand boxes on top of the boiler.
Between 1928 and 1930 they were all classified as Class NG4.
SAR Class NG10 no. NG62, c. 1930
In 1916, the SAR ordered six narrow gauge Pacific tender locomotives
from Baldwin Locomotive Works. They had outside bar frames and
Walschaerts valve gear
Walschaerts valve gear and became popularly known as the Sixties,
based on their engine number range. Typically American in appearance,
with an ornate chimney cap and steam dome as well as a separate engine
number on a disk on the front of the smokebox door, they were the only
narrow gauge Pacific tender locomotives to see service on the SAR.
Later designated Class NG10, they were placed in service on the
Langkloof line between
Port Elizabeth and Avontuur in the Eastern
Cape, where they spent most of their working lives. In 1948, two of
them were transferred to
South West Africa
South West Africa (SWA). All six were
withdrawn from service by 1962 as a direct result of the widening of
the narrow gauge lines in SWA to 3 ft 6 in
(1,067 mm) Cape gauge.
A Pacific locomotive was ordered by the Ferrocarril Madrid-Aragon from
Forges, Usines et Fonderies de Haine-Saint-Pierre in Belgium in 1914,
but was not delivered, presumably due to the disruption to trade
caused by the First World War. The locomotive was eventually sold to
the French-owned Imperial Railway Company of
Ethiopia in 1923. (Also
In 1958, the Ferrocarril La Robla purchased four vintage 1,000 mm
(3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge Pacific locomotives
from the Tunisian Railways. These had been built in 1914 by Société
Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques (SACM). They were numbered 181
to 185 and were scrapped in the early 1970s after having served in
Spain for more than ten years. (Also see Tunisia)
SJ Class F
In 1913, the
Swedish State Railways
Swedish State Railways (Statens Järnvägar or SJ)
ordered eleven four-cylinder compound Pacific type locomotives from
Nydqvist & Holm (NOHAB) for the Stockholm-
Malmö heavy express
train service. They had 1,880 millimetres (74 inches) diameter coupled
wheels with two 420 by 660 millimetres (17 by 26 inches) and two 630
by 660 millimetres (25 by 26 inches) cylinders. They were designated
the SJ class F, numbered from 1200 to 1209 and 1271.
The locomotives were limited to a maximum speed of 90 kilometres per
hour (56 miles per hour). They hauled express trains on this southern
mainline until the electrification of the Stockholm-
Malmö line in
1933. The SJ then tried them on the
section, but they were not a success on this line which was also due
to be electrified. They were then all sold to the neighbouring Danish
State Railways (DSB) in 1937.
After they were withdrawn from service in Denmark, DSB no. 964 (ex SJ
no. 1200) was presented to the
Swedish Railway Museum
Swedish Railway Museum at
1964, while DSB no. 966 (ex SJ no. 1202) was presented to
SJ AB by the
Danish Railway Museum in 1999, to haul heritage trains.
Main article: List of Taiwanese Pacific locomotives
The first Pacific type locomotives appeared in Formosa (now Taiwan) in
1912 when ALCO-Rogers delivered three locomotives that were derived
Japanese Government Railways
Japanese Government Railways type 8900. They were numbered
from 200 to 202. One more locomotive, number 203, was delivered in
1913. They hauled the most important passenger express trains between
Taihoku and Takao.
In 1935, five more locomotives of the Japanese Government Railways
Class 55 were added, numbered 551 to 555, and in 1938 four more were
delivered, numbered 556 to 559.
Hitachi delivered eight more Japanese Class 57 locomotives, presumably
as war reparations, to the
Taiwan Railway Administration. These were
the last Pacific type locomotives to arrive in
Taiwan under the Chiang
Kai-shek administration.
The Royal State Railways of Siam (RSR), the predecessor of the State
Thailand (SRT), introduced new standard Pacific locomotives
for express trains and mixed traffic trains to supersede the E-Class
locomotives which had been commissioned between 1915 and 1921. The
first type of Pacific Locomotive was purchased from
Batignolles-Châtillon in France in 1925. Others followed from Baldwin
Locomotive Works between 1926 and 1929 and were prominent on Southern
lines. There were also the successful
Hanomag Pacific locomotives of
1928-1929, the design of which late became a model for the Pacific
locomotives imported from Japan.
The final type of Pacific steam locomotive was when RSR imported the
parts for 10 locomotives, based on the
Hanomag design, from Japan
during 1942 and 1943. However, assembly of these at the Makkasan
Factory was not completed until 1945.
After the Second World War, RSR imported a further thirty Pacific type
locomotives from Japan in 1949-50, numbered 821 to 850. Two of them,
numbers 824 and 850, were still in service with SRT in 2014 for
special nostalgic trips.
In 1914, the Tunisian
Chemins de fer Bône-Guelma
Chemins de fer Bône-Guelma placed five
4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Pacific locomotives in service at Tunis, built by Société Alsacienne
de Constructions Mécaniques (SACM). They were numbered 181 to 185,
later to be renumbered to
Tunisian Railways (Société Nationale de
Chemins de Fer Tunisiens) numbers 231.181 to 231.185. A further four
were supplied in 1923 and three more in 1938, also built by SACM. They
worked the 211 kilometres (131 miles) line from
the Algerian border, hauling the Tunis-
Algiers direct express trains.
They also worked some semi-fast passenger trains on the 98 kilometres
(61 miles) line between
Tunis and Bizerta.
They hauled all principal express and passenger trains between Tunis
Ghardimaou until 1951, when the new mainline diesels
relegated them to secondary trains. All were withdrawn from service
during 1954 and 1955.
Also in 1914, the
Chemins de fer Bône-Guelma
Chemins de fer Bône-Guelma ordered five
1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge
locomotives from SACM. The engine weight in working order was 56.6
metric tonnes, with coupled wheels of 1,500 millimetres (59 inches)
diameter and two 465 by 610 millimetres (18.3 by 24.0 inches)
They were considered very successful and
Tunisian Railways ordered
three more in 1928. These were used on the 149 kilometres (93 miles)
mainline south from
Sousse and the 279 kilometres (173 miles)
line to Sfax. Between the two World Wars, they were renowned for
providing the fastest metre gauge service in the world and speeds of
over 100 kilometres per hour (62 miles per hour) were common in
Metre gauge Pacific No. 231.808
Tunisian Railways dieselised between 1951 and 1955, these
locomotives were withdrawn from service and placed in staging, even
though as late as in 1952 they still regularly achieved speeds of up
to 110 kilometres per hour (68 miles per hour). In 1958, numbers
231.801, 231.805, 231.807 and 231.808 were sold to the Ferrocarril La
Robla in Spain. Those which remained in Tunisia were scrapped in
1959. (Also see Spain)
GWR no.111, The Great Bear
Prior to the 1923 Grouping, only five
4-6-2 locomotives had been built
in the United Kingdom. The first of these was no. 111, The Great Bear,
introduced by the
Great Western Railway
Great Western Railway (GWR) in 1908. This was an
experimental locomotive which proved to be more powerful than the
railway's requirements and also too heavy for much of its
infrastructure. As a result, it was scrapped in 1924 and many of the
parts were used to build a GWR 4073 Castle Class
The Great Northern Railway (GNR) and the North Eastern Railway (NER)
each built two Pacific types in 1922, later to become the Classes
A1/A3 and A2 on the
London and North Eastern Railway
London and North Eastern Railway (LNER). Further
examples of these two classes were built by the LNER after 1923.
LNER Class A3 4472, the Flying Scotsman
The GNR Class A1, designed by Sir
Nigel Gresley and later rebuilt into
the improved Class A3, featured three cylinders and an innovative
conjugated valve gear. The class eventually consisted of 79
locomotives. After initial teething problems, it proved to be an
excellent design and one of them, the Flying Scotsman, was the first
British locomotive to be officially recorded as reaching 100 miles per
hour (160 kilometres per hour).
LNER Class A4
LNER Class A4 "Mallard", holder of the world speed record for
This speed was surpassed by the streamlined
LNER Class A4
LNER Class A4 of 1935,
when no. 2509 Silver Link reached 112 miles per hour (180 kilometres
per hour) on its inaugural run in 1935. Three years later, on 3 July
1938, no. 4468 Mallard touched 126 miles per hour (203 kilometres per
hour), which is still the world speed record for steam traction. 35
locomotives of the class were built by 1938.
A further 89 Pacific locomotives of the Peppercorn Class A1, Thompson
Class A1/1, Peppercorn Class A2, Thompson Class A2/1, Thompson Class
A2/2 and Thompson Class A2/3 were either built or rebuilt for the LNER
by Edward Thompson and Arthur Peppercorn, although many actually only
appeared in the
British Railways (BR) era after 1948. In 2008, one
further locomotive of the Peppercorn Class A1 design, the 60163
Tornado, was built by the A1 Steam Locomotive Trust.
LMS Princess Royal Class
LMS Princess Royal Class "Princess Elizabeth"
London, Midland and Scottish Railway
London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) introduced its twelve
Princess Royal Class
Princess Royal Class Pacific locomotives in 1933 and then enlarged the
design with the streamlined
Princess Coronation Class
Princess Coronation Class of 1937. 37
locomotives of the Coronation Class were built by 1947, with one more
appearing in 1948 in the BR era. Coronation no. 6220, the first of the
class, reached 114 miles per hour (183 kilometres per hour) on 29 June
1937 and briefly held the British speed record for steam traction,
until it was bettered by the LNER Mallard a year later. The LMS
Princess Royal Class
Princess Royal Class was also used as the basis for an unusual
experimental locomotive, the Turbomotive, which used turbines instead
Battle of Britain class no. 34072 257 Squadron
During the Second World War, the Southern Railway (SR) introduced two
classes of Pacific, designed by New Zealander Oliver Bulleid. These
were the Merchant Navy Class and the West Country and Battle of
Britain Class. These two classes continued to be built in the BR era
and eventually totaled thirty Merchant Navy Class locomotives and 110
West Country and Battle of Britain Class locomotives.
BR Standard Class 7
BR Standard Class 7 Britannia Pacific locomotives, introduced
in 1951, were of a simple expansion two-cylinder design with
Walschaerts valve gear. Their conservative design reflected a
requirement for a more cost-effective, lower maintenance locomotive.
Ten locomotives of a lighter version, the BR Standard Class 6, were
introduced in 1952.
BR standard class 8 Duke of Gloucester
The final Pacific design in the United Kingdom was the BR Standard
Class 8 no. 71000 Duke of Gloucester, of which only one was built in
1954. It had many parts in common with the Britannias, but had three
cylinders and Caprotti valve gear. It was used as a test-bed of sorts
to be further developed with improved efficiency and power as the
4-6-2 tank locomotive designs were introduced in the United
Kingdom during 1910 and 1911.
Charles Bowen-Cooke of the London and
North Western Railway (LNWR) introduced his Prince of Wales Tank Class
in 1910. It was a tank locomotive version of his successful 4-6-0
Prince of Wales Class. 47 were built for suburban services out of
In the same year, the NER Class Y, designed by
Wilson Worsdell and
later to become the LNER Class A7, was introduced by Worsdell’s
successor for hauling coal trains. It had been developed from the NER
Class X 4-8-0T heavy shunters, later the LNER Class T1.
LB&SCR class J1 of 1910
Also in 1910,
D. E. Marsh of the London, Brighton and South Coast
Railway (LB&SCR) designed an entirely new J1 class 4-6-2T
locomotive for London to Brighton express trains. Only one was built
before his successor, Lawson Billinton, altered the design to create
the J2 class.
The most successful and longest surviving British 4-6-2T class was the
9N class, later the LNER A5 class, of the
Great Central Railway
Great Central Railway (GCR),
introduced in 1911. It was designed by
John G. Robinson
John G. Robinson and the last
of the class survived until 1961. Four batches were built between 1911
and 1923 and a fifth batch was ordered by the LNER in 1926.
4-6-2 tank class, the
Caledonian Railway 944 Class designed by
William Pickersgill, appeared in 1917 with twelve locomotives built by
North British Locomotive Company. They were nicknamed the Wemyss Bay
Pugs since several of the class were allocated to do the
Wemyss Bay suburban express work. In Scotland, all tank locomotives
were called Pugs, even large ones like this Caledonian Pacific class
and the large
Glasgow and South Western Railway 4-6-4T Baltic
In 1921 and 1922,
Robert Urie of the London and South Western Railway
(LSWR) built five H16 class 4-6-2T locomotives for short-distance
transfer freight trains in the London area. These survived in service
United States of America
A Reading & Northern Railroad
4-6-2 locomotive in 1993
The Pacific Type was first used in the United States in 1886. This was
an unusual double-cab or Mother Hubbard type with an unusually huge
firebox, designed to use the waste tailings from anthracite coal
mines. While this design did not become popular, the
rediscovered for the same reason, to improve the
with a larger firebox.
With altogether 697 Pacific locomotives, the Pennsylvania Railroad
(PRR) was the largest user of the type in the United States. The
railroad bought its first experimental K-28 class
4-6-2 from ALCO in
1907. After testing, a further 257 Pacific locomotives in various
versions, designated classes K-2, K-2a, K-2b and K-3, were built by
the PRR at its
Altoona Works and by ALCO and Baldwin between 1910 and
Pennsylvania Railroad K4s
In 1911, the PRR ordered an experimental K-29 class
4-6-2 from ALCO,
with a larger boiler, superheater, mechanical stoker and other
innovations. A similar K4s class locomotive was built by the PRR in
1914, but no more were built until 1917. Between 1917 and 1928, the
PRR built 349 K-4s locomotives and Baldwin a further 75, bringing the
total of the K4s class to 425.
The last PRR Pacific locomotives were two large K-5 class locomotives,
built in 1929. No. 5698 was built at the PRR
Altoona Works and had
Walschaerts valve gear, while no. 5699 was built by Baldwin and had
Caprotti valve gear. Although successful, these locomotives were not
replicated, since the larger
4-8-2 Mountain types began to be
introduced. No. 5698 was dropped from the roster in October 1952 and
no. 5699 was retired in September 1953.
The first modern example of the type to be built for duty in the
United States, was built for the Missouri Pacific in 1902, but the
chief proponent of the type west of the Mississippi River was the
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, who began buying the type the
next year and ultimately owned 274. The road would have pioneered the
type, if not for a belief that a two-wheeled lead truck would be
sufficient for high speed passenger service. They began buying 2-6-2
Prairie types in quantity from Baldwin in 1901, with the four cylinder
Vauclain compound system, a weight of 190,000 pounds (86,183
kilograms) and 79 inches (2,007 millimetres) diameter coupled wheels.
When these proved insufficiently stable for high speed service, the
road ordered the 1200 class of
4-6-2 Pacifics, which were two cylinder
simplex engines weighing 220,000 pounds (100,000 kilograms) and fitted
with 69 inches (1,753 millimetres) diameter coupled wheels on
unusually long axle centers. Immediately upon their arrival on the
property, their drive wheels were swapped with the 79 inches (2,007
millimetres) diameter drivers off the earlier Prairie types, which
became fast freight locomotives. These would wind up in branch line
service, where they were very successful and ultimately outlasted the
The Santa Fe ordered additional Pacific types of both four cylinder
balanced compound and two cylinder simple types in seven classes
through 1914. These gradually increased to 276,500 pounds (125,418
kilograms) and invariably rode on 73 inches (1,854 millimetres)
drivers. The simple types tended to run conservative pressures at 170
to 175 pounds per square inch (1,170 to 1,210 kilopascals), while the
compounds ran at 220 to 175 pounds per square inch (1,520 to 1,210
kilopascals). The early examples utilized a firebox grate of 54 square
feet (5 sq. m), but the last few classes had larger grates of 57.6 sq.
ft. (5.35 sq. m). All of these were considered light Pacifics by the
road, and there were a few engines of orphan classes as well. Some of
these were scrapped as compounds, but most were rebuilt with two 23½"
X 28" (597 x 711 mm) simple cylinders and 220 pounds per square
inch (1,500 kilopascals) operating pressure.
The railroad began scrapping these in 1932, and regretted scrapping
those few during the massive traffic of the Second World War. Two were
semi-streamlined for a brief period during 1939. They hauled all
manner of passenger trains, and saw occasional duty in local freight
and helper service. All were out of service by 1955. They initially
served on the western portion of the Santa Fe system, west of La
Junta, Colorado, where the line traversed the Rocky Mountains and
tackled the mountains of California. 4-4-2 Atlantic types were
generally used on the Great Plains. Later, as passenger cars grew to
85 feet (26m) in length and gained weight due to all-steel
construction, Pacifics would replace the Atlantic types in the east
and the western stretches would be served by new
4-8-2 Mountain and
4-8-4 Northern types.
These engines were not dissimilar to the USRA Light Pacifics
introduced during the First World War, but differed in certain
respects. The Santa Fe, like most large United States railroads, was
accustomed to custom-designing their own power and refused to buy USRA
designs during the ill-fated nationalization of the United States
railroads under Wilson. This era, however, did allow many smaller
railroads, who could not afford to custom-design power, to modernize
their fleets and it also saw the rise of the USRA Heavy Pacific. The
Pennsylvania K-series served as a prototype for these, but they
differed in important aspects such as the PRR's Belpaire fireboxes.
The Santa Fe did not buy any USRA Heavy Pacifics, either, but after
the war, Baldwin began building the new and even heavier 3400 Class
for the road. These were huge at 288,000 to 310,350 pounds (130,635 to
140,772 kilograms), but were otherwise a conservative design with two
simple 25 x 28 cylinders, Walschaerts valve gear, 66.8 square feet
(6.2 sq m) of grate and 200 pounds per square inch (1,400 kilopascals)
boilers. Fifty were built by Baldwin through 1924 but, while
improvements to the light Pacifics were mostly confined to
simplification and other updates were only sporadically applied, all
of the 3400s were built or retrofitted with feedwater heaters and all
but six were to receive 79 inches (2,007 millimetres) diameter driving
wheels before or during the Second World War. All got a pressure
increase to 220 pounds per square inch (1,500 kilopascals), nine
received thermic syphons, and a little experimentation was done with
combustion chambers and roller bearings. Weights ultimately reached
312,000 to 326,000 pounds (141,521 to 147,871 kilograms). These, too,
were mostly out of service by 1955. Six Santa Fe Pacific types
survive, most of them of the heavy 3400 Class.
Soo Line 2719
Soo Line 2719 at Two Harbors, Minnesota, 2009
Most of the United States railroads which offered passenger service,
used Pacific types. Except for the custom design and sheer volume of
units produced, the experience of railroads in the eastern and western
United States was not dissimilar to that of the Pennsylvania and Santa
Fe, respectively. Some roads developed these into the Hudson (or
Baltic) type 4-6-4, others preferred the versatility of the 4-8-2
4-8-4 Northern types, and some, like the Santa Fe, bought
both. One railroad, the St. Louis-San Francisco or Frisco, actually
converted a few existing Pacific types to Hudsons with larger
fireboxes in their Springfield shops. The Pacific type, however, was
far and away the predominant passenger service steam engine in the
United States until the end of steam. Lighter streamlined cars led to
a resurgence of the light Pacific, with several railroads applying
streamlined shrouds to older engines. The last Pacific built for
service in the United States was delivered to the Reading in 1948.
Most or all Pacifics were out of regular service by 1960.
One notable 4-6-2, the Soo Line no. 2719 which hauled the last of the
Soo Line Railroad’s steam-powered trains in 1959, was preserved and
was restored to operating condition for excursions. She is now on
display at the
Lake Superior Railroad Museum
Lake Superior Railroad Museum in Duluth, Minnesota.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to 4-6-2.
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2-8-2 Back in Steam".
Trains magazine. 57 (2): 24–25.
Steam locomotive wheel arrangements
Single engine types
Divided drive and
Duplex engine types
Fairlie, Meyer and
(includes Triplex types)
Other notation fo