A THREE-POINT FIELD GOAL (also called a THREE-POINTER) is a field goal in a basketball game made from beyond the three-point line, a designated arc surrounding the basket. A successful attempt is worth three points, in contrast to the two points awarded for field goals made within the three-point line and the one point for each made free throw .
The distance from the basket to the three-point line varies by
competition level: in the National
In 3x3 , a FIBA-sanctioned variant of the half-court 3-on-3 game, the "three-point" line exists, but shots from behind the line are only worth 2 points. All other shots are worth 1 point.
* 1 History * 2 Rule specifications * 3 Related concepts * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links
The three-point line was first tested at the collegiate level in a 1945 NCAA game between Columbia and Fordham but it was not kept as a rule. At the direction of Abe Saperstein , the American Basketball League became the first basketball league to institute the rule in 1961. Its three-point line was a radius of 25 feet (7.62 m) from the baskets, except along the sides. The Eastern Professional Basketball League followed in its 1963–64 season.
The three-point shot later became popularized by the American
In the 1979–80 season , after having tested it in the previous pre-season, the NBA adopted the three-point line despite the view of many that it was a gimmick. Chris Ford of the Boston Celtics is widely credited with making the first three-point shot in NBA history on October 12, 1979. Kevin Grevey of the Washington Bullets also made one on the same day.
The sport's international governing body, FIBA , introduced the three-point line in 1984, at a distance of 6.25 m (20 ft 6 in).
During the 1994–95 , 1995–96 , and 1996–97 seasons, the NBA attempted to address decreased scoring by shortening the distance of the line from 23 ft 9 in (7.24 m) (22 ft (6.71 m) at the corners) to a uniform 22 ft (6.71 m) around the basket. From the 1997–98 season on, the NBA reverted the line to its original distance of 23 ft 9 in (22 ft at the corners, with a 3 inch differential). Ray Allen is currently the NBA all-time leader in career made three-pointers with 2,973.
In 2008, FIBA announced that the distance would be increased by 50 cm (19.69 in) to 6.75 m (22 ft 1 3⁄4 in), with the change being phased in beginning in October 2010. In December 2012, the WNBA announced that it would be using FIBA's distance, too, as of the 2013 season. The NBA has discussed adding a four-point line, according to president Rod Thorn.
A three-point line consists of an arc at a set radius measured from the point on the floor directly below the center of the basket, and two parallel lines equidistant from each sideline extending from the nearest end line to the point at which they intersect the arc. In the NBA and FIBA standard, the arc spans the width of the court until it is a specified minimum distance from each sideline. The three-point line then becomes parallel to the sidelines from those points to the baseline. The unusual formation of the three-point line at these levels allows players some space from which to attempt a three-point shot at the corners of the court; the arc would be less than 2 feet (0.61 m) from each sideline at the corners if it was a continuous arc. In the NCAA and American high school standards, the arc spans 180° around the basket, then becomes parallel to the sidelines from the plane of the basket center to the baseline (5 feet 3 inches or 1.60 metres). The distance of the three-point line to the center of the hoop varies by level:
ARC RADIUS MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM SIDELINES
National Collegiate Athletic Association
American High school basketball 19 feet 9 inches (6.02 m) 5 feet 3 inches (1.60 m)
A player's feet must be completely behind the three-point line at the time of the shot or jump in order to make a three-point attempt; if the player's feet are on or in front of the line, it is a two-point attempt. A player is allowed to jump from outside the line and land inside the line to make a three-point attempt, as long as the ball is released in mid-air.
An official raises his/her arm with three fingers extended to signal the shot attempt. If the attempt is successful, he/she raises his/her other arm with all fingers fully extended in manner similar to a football official signifying successful field goal to indicate the three-point goal. The official must recognize it for it to count as three points. Instant replay has sometimes been used, depending on league rules. The NBA, WNBA, FIBA and the NCAA specifically allow replay for this purpose. In NBA, FIBA, and WNBA games, video replay does not have to occur immediately following a shot; play can continue and the officials can adjust the scoring later in the game, after reviewing the video. However, in late game situations, play may be paused pending a review.
If a shooter is fouled while attempting a three-pointer and subsequently misses the shot, the shooter is awarded three free-throw attempts. If a player completes a three-pointer while being fouled, the player is awarded one free-throw for a possible 4-point play. Conceivably, if a player completed a three-pointer while being fouled, and that foul was ruled as either a Flagrant 1 or a Flagrant 2 foul, the player would be awarded two free throws for a possible 5-point play.
Major League Lacrosse features a two-point line which forms a 15-yard (14 m) arc around the front of the goal. Shots taken from behind this line count for two points, as opposed to the standard one point.
In gridiron football , a standard field goal is worth three points;
various professional and semi-pro leagues have experimented with
four-point field goals.
NFL Europe and the Stars Football League
adopted a rule similar to basketball's three-point line in which an
additional point was awarded for longer field goals; in both leagues
any field goal of 50 yards (46 m) or more was worth four points. The
Arena Football League
During the existence of the
World Hockey Association in the 1970s,
there were proposals for two-point hockey goals for shots taken beyond
an established distance (one proposal was a 44-foot (13.4m) arc, which
would have intersected the faceoff circles), but this proposal gained
little support and faded after the WHA merged with the
Super Goal is a similar concept in
Australian rules football
The National Professional Soccer League II , which awarded two points for all goals except those on the power play , also used a three-point line, drawn 45 feet (14 m) from the goal. It has since been adopted by some other indoor soccer leagues.
50–40–90 club , exclusive group of players who have made at
least 50% of two-pointers, 40% of three-pointers, and 90% of free
throws in a season.
* List of National
* ^ "Article 5: Scoring" (PDF). 3x3 Official Rules of the Game.
FIBA. January 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
* ^ Frazier, Walt; Sachare, Alex (1998). The Complete Idiot\'s
Guide to Basketball.
New York City
* ^ "Carr\'s shot makes cage Hall of Fame". Gadsden Times. Alabama.
Associated Press. May 31, 1981. p. 36.
* ^ "Three-pointer turns 25". Eugene Register-Guard. Associated
Press. December 3, 2005. p. B3.
* ^ Butts, David (April 3, 1986). "NCAA adds three-point basket".
Bryan Times Agency=UPI. p. 12.
* ^ A B "NCAA Women\'s
* NBA.com\'s Top