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3-Methoxytyramine
3-Methoxytyramine
(3-MT), also known as 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethylamine, is a human trace amine that occurs as a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine.[1] It is formed by the introduction of a methyl group to dopamine by the enzyme catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). 3-MT can be further metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) to form homovanillic acid (HVA), which is then typically excreted in the urine. Originally thought to be physiologically inactive, 3-MT has recently been shown to act as an agonist of human TAAR1.[1][2] Occurrence[edit] 3-Methoxytyramine
3-Methoxytyramine
occurs naturally in the prickly pear cactus (genus Opuntia),[3] and is in general widespread throughout the Cactaceae.[4] It has also been found in crown gall tumors on Nicotiana sp.[5] In humans, 3-methoxytyramine is a trace amine that occurs as a metabolite of dopamine.[1]

Biosynthetic pathways for catecholamines and trace amines in the human brain[6][7][8]

L-Phenylalanine L-Tyrosine L-DOPA Epinephrine Phenethylamine p-Tyramine Dopamine Norepinephrine N-Methylphenethylamine N-Methyltyramine p-Octopamine Synephrine 3-Methoxytyramine AADC AADC AADC primary pathway PNMT PNMT PNMT PNMT AAAH AAAH brain CYP2D6 minor pathway COMT DBH DBH

In humans, catecholamines and phenethylaminergic trace amines are derived from the amino acid L-phenylalanine.

See also[edit]

Tyramine 3,4-Dimethoxyphenethylamine

References[edit]

^ a b c Khan MZ, Nawaz W (October 2016). "The emerging roles of human trace amines and human trace amine-associated receptors (hTAARs) in central nervous system". Biomed. Pharmacother. 83: 439–449. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2016.07.002. PMID 27424325.  ^ Sotnikova TD, Beaulieu JM, Espinoza S, et al. (2010). "The dopamine metabolite 3-methoxytyramine is a neuromodulator". PLOS ONE. 5 (10): e13452. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013452. PMC 2956650 . PMID 20976142.  ^ Neuwinger, Hans Dieter (1996). "Cactaceae". African ethnobotany: poisons and drugs: chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology. CRC Press. p. 271. ISBN 978-3-8261-0077-2.  Retrieved on June 12, 2009 through Google Book Search. ^ Smith T. A. (1977). " Phenethylamine
Phenethylamine
and related compounds in plants". Phytochemistry. 16: 9–18. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(77)83004-5.  ^ Mitchell S. D.; Firmin J. L.; Gray D. O. (1984). "Enhanced 3-methoxytyramine levels in crown gall tumours and other undifferentiated plant tissues". Biochem. J. 221: 891–5. doi:10.1042/bj2210891.  ^ Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The vascular effects of trace amines and amphetamines". Pharmacol. Ther. 125 (3): 363–375. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.11.005. PMID 19948186.  ^ Lindemann L, Hoener MC (May 2005). "A renaissance in trace amines inspired by a novel GPCR family". Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 26 (5): 274–281. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2005.03.007. PMID 15860375.  ^ Wang X, Li J, Dong G, Yue J (February 2014). "The endogenous substrates of brain CYP2D". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 724: 211–218. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.12.025. PMID 24374199. 

v t e

Neurotransmitter
Neurotransmitter
metabolic intermediates

catecholamines

Anabolism (tyrosine→epinephrine)

Tyrosine
Tyrosine
→ Levodopa → Dopamine
Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine
→ Epinephrine

Catabolism/ metabolites

dopamine:

DOPAL DOPAC MOPET Hydroxytyrosol 3-Methoxytyramine Homovanillic acid

norepinephrine:

3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid Normetanephrine Vanillylmandelic acid 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol Dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol

epinephrine:

Metanephrine

tryptophan→serotonin

anabolism:

5-Hydroxytryptophan

catabolism:

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid

serotonin→melatonin

Normelatonin

v t e

Human trace amine-associated receptor ligands

TAAR1

Agonists

Endogenous†

Classical monoamine neurotransmitters

Dopamine Histamine Norepinephrine Serotonin

Trace amines

3-Iodothyronamine 3-Methoxytyramine N-Methylphenethylamine N-Methyltyramine m-Octopamine p-Octopamine Phenethylamine Phenylethanolamine Synephrine Tryptamine m-Tyramine p-Tyramine

Synthetic‡

Amphetamine DOB DOET 4-Hydroxyamphetamine Isoprenaline MDA (tenamfetamine) MDMA
MDMA
(midomafetamine) 2-Methylphenethylamine 3-Methylphenethylamine 4-Methylphenethylamine β-Methylphenethylamine Methamphetamine 3-MMA Norfenfluramine Phentermine o-PIT Propylhexedrine RO5166017 N,N-Dimethylphenethylamine

Neutral antagonists

 

Inverse agonists

EPPTB
EPPTB
(RO5212773)

TAAR2

Agonists‡

3-Iodothyronamine Phenethylamine Tyramine

Neutral antagonists

 

TAAR5

Agonists‡

Dimethylethylamine Trimethylamine

Neutral antagonists

 

Inverse agonists‡

3-Iodothyronamine

† References for all endogenous human TAAR1
TAAR1
ligands are provided at List of trace amines

‡ References for synthetic TAAR1
TAAR1
agonists can be found at TAAR1
TAAR1
or in the associated compound articles. For TAAR2
TAAR2
and TAAR5
TAAR5
agonists and inverse agonists, see TAAR for references.

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators

v t e

Phenethylamines

Phenethylamines

Psychedelics: 25B-NBOMe 25C-NBOMe 25D-NBOMe 25I-NBOMe 25N-NBOMe

2C-B 2C-B-AN 2C-Bn 2C-Bu 2C-C 2C-CN 2C-CP 2C-D 2C-E 2C-EF 2C-F 2C-G 2C-G-1 2C-G-2 2C-G-3 2C-G-4 2C-G-5 2C-G-6 2C-G-N 2C-H 2C-I 2C-iP 2C-N 2C-NH2 2C-O 2C-O-4 2C-P 2C-Ph 2C-SE 2C-T 2C-T-2 2C-T-3 2C-T-4 2C-T-5 2C-T-6 2C-T-7 2C-T-8 2C-T-9 2C-T-10 2C-T-11 2C-T-12 2C-T-13 2C-T-14 2C-T-15 2C-T-16 2C-T-17 2C-T-18 2C-T-19 2C-T-20 2C-T-21 2C-T-22 2C-T-22.5 2C-T-23 2C-T-24 2C-T-25 2C-T-27 2C-T-28 2C-T-30 2C-T-31 2C-T-32 2C-T-33 2C-TFE 2C-TFM 2C-YN 2C-V

Allylescaline DESOXY Escaline Isoproscaline Jimscaline Macromerine MEPEA Mescaline Metaescaline Methallylescaline Proscaline Psi-2C-T-4 TCB-2 Stimulants: Phenylethanolamine Hordenine Phenethylamine α-Methylphenethylamine (amphetamine) β-Methylphenethylamine m-Methylphenethylamine N-Methylphenethylamine o-Methylphenethylamine p-Methylphenethylamine

Entactogens: Lophophine MDPEA MDMPEA Others: BOH DMPEA

Amphetamines

Psychedelics: 3C-BZ 3C-E 3C-P Aleph Beatrice Bromo-DragonFLY D-Deprenyl DMA DMCPA DMMDA DOB DOC DOEF DOET DOI DOM DON DOPR DOTFM Ganesha MMDA MMDA-2 Psi-DOM TMA TeMA Stimulants: 2-FA 2-FMA 3-FA 3-FMA Acridorex Alfetamine Amfecloral Amfepentorex Amphetamine
Amphetamine
(Dextroamphetamine, Levoamphetamine) Amphetaminil Benfluorex Benzphetamine Cathine Clobenzorex Dimethylamphetamine Ephedrine Etilamfetamine Fencamfamin Fencamine Fenethylline Fenfluramine
Fenfluramine
(Dexfenfluramine, Levofenfluramine) Fenproporex Flucetorex Fludorex Formetorex Furfenorex Gepefrine 4-Hydroxyamphetamine Iofetamine Isopropylamphetamine Lefetamine Lisdexamfetamine Mefenorex Metaraminol Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine
(Dextromethamphetamine, Levomethamphetamine) Methoxyphenamine MMA Morforex Norfenfluramine L -Norpseudoephedrine N,alpha-Diethylphenylethylamine Oxifentorex Oxilofrine Ortetamine PBA PCA Phenpromethamine PFA PFMA PIA PMA PMEA PMMA Phenylpropanolamine Pholedrine Prenylamine Propylamphetamine Pseudoephedrine Sibutramine Tiflorex Tranylcypromine Xylopropamine Zylofuramine Entactogens: 4-FA 4-FMA 4-MA 4-MMA 4-MTA 5-APB 5-APDB 5-EAPB 5-IT 5-MAPB 5-MAPDB 6-APB 6-APDB 6-Chloro-MDMA 6-EAPB 6-IT 6-MAPB 6-MAPDB EDA IAP 2,3-MDA 3,4-MDA (tenamfetamine) MDEA MDHMA MDMA
MDMA
(midomafetamine) MDOH Methamnetamine MMDMA Naphthylaminopropane TAP Others: 3,4-DCA Amiflamine DiFMDA Selegiline
Selegiline
(also D -Deprenyl)

Phentermines

Stimulants: Chlorphentermine Cloforex Clortermine Etolorex Mephentermine Pentorex Phentermine Entactogens: MDPH MDMPH Others: Cericlamine

Cathinones

Stimulants: 3-FMC 4-MC 4-BMC 4-CMC 4-EMC 4-FMC 4-MEC 4-MeMABP 4-MPD Amfepramone Benzedrone Brephedrone Buphedrone Bupropion Cathinone Dimethylcathinone Ethcathinone Eutylone Hydroxybupropion Methcathinone Methedrone NEB Pentedrone Pentylone Radafaxine Entactogens: 3,4-DMMC 3-MMC Butylone Ethylone Methylone Methylenedioxycathinone Mephedrone

Phenylisobutylamines

Entactogens: 4-CAB 4-MAB Ariadne BDB Butylone EBDB Eutylone MBDB Stimulants: Phenylisobutylamine

Phenylalkylpyrrolidines

Stimulants: α-PBP α-PHP α-PPP α-PVP MDPBP MDPPP MDPV 4-MePBP 4-MePHP 4-MePPP MOPPP MOPVP MPBP MPHP MPPP Naphyrone PEP Prolintane Pyrovalerone

Catecholamines (and close relatives)

6-FNE 6-OHDA a-Me-DA a-Me-TRA Adrenochrome Ciladopa D -DOPA (Dextrodopa) Dimetofrine Dopamine Epinephrine Epinine Etilefrine Ethylnorepinephrine Fenclonine Ibopamine Isoprenaline Isoetarine L -DOPA (Levodopa) L -DOPS (Droxidopa) L -Phenylalanine L -Tyrosine m-Tyramine Metanephrine Metaraminol Metaterol Metirosine Methyldopa N,N-Dimethyldopamine Nordefrin
Nordefrin
(Levonordefrin) Norepinephrine Norfenefrine
Norfenefrine
(m-Octopamine) Normetanephrine Orciprenaline p-Octopamine p-Tyramine Phenylephrine Synephrine

Miscellaneous

AL-LAD Amidephrine Arbutamine Cafedrine Denopamine Desvenlafaxine Diphenidine Dizocilpine Dobutamine Dopexamine Ephenidine Etafedrine ETH-LAD Famprofazone Fluorolintane Hexapradol IP-LAD Lysergic acid amide Lysergic acid 2-butyl amide Lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide Lysergic acid diethylamide Methoxamine Methoxphenidine MT-45 PARGY-LAD Phenibut PRO-LAD Pronethalol Salbutamol
Salbutamol
(Levosalbutamol) Solriamfetol Theodrenaline Thi

.