4 killed 13 injured
People present at the 20 July conference OUTCOME VICTIMS
SERIOUSLY INJURED 3
SLIGHTLY INJURED 7
On 20 July 1944,
Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators
attempted to assassinate
Adolf Hitler ,
The plot was the culmination of the efforts by several groups in the German resistance to overthrow the Nazi German government. The failure of the assassination and the military coup d'état which was planned to follow led to the arrest of at least 7,000 people by the Gestapo , of whom 4,980 were executed.
* 1 Background
* 1.1 Motivation and goals of the plot
* 2 Planning a coup
* 2.1 Von Stauffenberg joins the conspirators * 2.2 A new plan * 2.3 Previous failed attempts * 2.4 Preparations
* 3 Countdown to Stauffenberg\'s attempt
* 3.1 1–6 July 1944 * 3.2 Aborted attempts on 7, 14 and 15 July
* 4 20 July 1944
* 4.1 Beginning of Operation Valkyrie * 4.2 Escape from the Wolf\'s Lair and flight to Berlin * 4.3 Failure of the coup
* 5 Alternative possibilities
* 6 Participants at the meeting
* 7 Aftermath
* 8 Planned government
* 9 Rommel and the
20 July plot
* 10 Criticism of members of the plot
* 10.1 Involvement in war crimes and atrocities
* 10.2 Attitude towards
* 11 Commemoration and collective memory * 12 In popular culture * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 External links
Map of WW II battle fronts in Europe as of 15 July 1944
Since 1938, conspiratorial groups planning an overthrow of some kind
had existed in the German Army and in the German Military Intelligence
Organization (Abwehr). Early leaders of these plots included Major
Hans Oster , Colonel General
Ludwig Beck and Field Marshal
Erwin von Witzleben . Oster was the deputy head of the Military
Intelligence Office. Beck was a former Chief-of-Staff of the German
Army High Command (Oberkommando des Heeres, OKH). Von Witzleben was
the former commander of the German 1st Army and the former
Commander-in-Chief of the German Army Command in the West
(Oberbefehlshaber West, or OB West). They soon established contacts
with several prominent civilians, including
Carl Goerdeler , the
former mayor of
Military conspiratorial groups exchanged ideas with civilian,
political, and intellectual resistance groups in the Kreisauer Kreis
(which met at the von Moltke estate in Kreisau ) and in other secret
circles. Moltke was against killing Hitler; instead, he wanted him
placed on trial. Moltke said, "we are all amateurs and would only
bungle it". Moltke also believed killing
Plans to stage an overthrow and prevent
In 1942, a new conspiratorial group formed, led by Colonel Henning
von Tresckow , a member of Field Marshal
Fedor von Bock 's staff, who
commanded Army Group Centre in
Operation Barbarossa . Tresckow
systematically recruited oppositionists to the Group's staff, making
it the nerve centre of the army resistance. Little could be done
During 1942, Oster and Tresckow nevertheless succeeded in rebuilding an effective resistance network. Their most important recruit was General Friedrich Olbricht , head of the General Army Office headquarters at the Bendlerblock in central Berlin, who controlled an independent system of communications to reserve units throughout Germany. Linking this asset to Tresckow's resistance group in Army Group Centre created a viable coup apparatus.
In late 1942, Tresckow and Olbricht formulated a plan to assassinate
MOTIVATION AND GOALS OF THE PLOT
While the main goal of the plotters was to remove
PLANNING A COUP
Main article: Operation Valkyrie
VON STAUFFENBERG JOINS THE CONSPIRATORS
By mid-1943, the tide of war was turning decisively against Germany.
The army plotters and their civilian allies became convinced that
A NEW PLAN
Olbricht now put forward a new strategy for staging a coup against
Replacement Army (Ersatzheer) had an operational plan
Operation Valkyrie , which was to be used in the event that the
disruption caused by the Allied bombing of German cities caused a
breakdown in law and order, or an uprising by the millions of forced
labourers from occupied countries now being used in German factories.
Olbricht suggested that this plan could be used to mobilise the
Reserve Army for the purpose of the coup. In August and September
1943, Tresckow drafted the "revised" Valkyrie plan and new
supplementary orders. A secret declaration began with these words:
Adolf Hitler is dead! A treacherous group of party
leaders has attempted to exploit the situation by attacking our
embattled soldiers from the rear in order to seize power for
themselves." Detailed instructions were written for occupation of
government ministries in Berlin, Heinrich Himmler\'s headquarters in
East Prussia, radio stations and telephone offices, and other Nazi
apparatus through military districts, and concentration camps.
Previously, it was believed that Stauffenberg was mainly responsible
for the Valkyrie plan, but documents recovered by the Soviet Union
after the war and released in 2007 suggest that the plan was developed
by Tresckow by autumn of 1943. All written information was handled by
Tresckow's wife, Erika, and by
Margarethe von Oven , his secretary.
Both women wore gloves to avoid leaving fingerprints. On at least two
other occasions Tresckow had tried to assassinate the Führer. The
first plan was to shoot him during dinner at the army base camp, but
this plan was aborted because it was widely believed that
PREVIOUS FAILED ATTEMPTS
During 1943 and early 1944 von Tresckow and von Stauffenberg organised at least five attempts to get one of the military conspirators near enough to Hitler, for long enough to kill him with hand grenades, bombs, or a revolver:
* on 13 March 1943 by von Tresckow himself * on 21 March 1943 by Rudolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff * in late November 1943 by Axel Freiherr von dem Bussche-Streithorst
* in February 1944 by Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin * on 11 March 1944 by Eberhard Freiherr von Breitenbuch
As the war situation deteriorated,
By the summer of 1944, the Gestapo was closing in on the conspirators. There was a sense that time was running out, both on the battlefield, where the Eastern front was in full retreat and where the Allies had landed in France on 6 June, and in Germany, where the resistance's room for manoeuvre was rapidly contracting.
When Stauffenberg sent Tresckow a message through Lieutenant Heinrich
Graf von Lehndorff-Steinort asking whether there was any reason for
trying to assassinate
Popitz was not alone in seeing in
Tresckow and the inner circle of plotters had no intention of
* Participants in the plot
COUNTDOWN TO STAUFFENBERG\'S ATTEMPT
Rastenburg on 15 July 1944. Stauffenberg at left, Hitler
center, Keitel on right. The person shaking hands with
1–6 JULY 1944
On Saturday, 1 July 1944 Stauffenberg was appointed chief of staff to
General Fromm at the Reserve Army headquarters on Bendlerstraße in
central Berlin. This position enabled Stauffenberg to attend Hitler's
military conferences, either at the
East Prussia or at
ABORTED ATTEMPTS ON 7, 14 AND 15 JULY
The plot was now fully prepared. On 7 July 1944 General Stieff was to
On 14 July Stauffenberg attended Hitler's conferences carrying a bomb
in his briefcase, but because the conspirators had decided that
Heinrich Himmler and
Hermann Göring should be killed simultaneously
if the planned mobilisation of
Operation Valkyrie was to have a chance
to succeed, he held back at the last minute because
By 15 July, when Stauffenberg again flew to the Wolfsschanze, this condition had been dropped. The plan was for Stauffenberg to plant the briefcase with the bomb in Hitler's conference room with a timer running, excuse himself from the meeting, wait for the explosion, then fly back to Berlin and join the other plotters at the Bendlerblock . Operation Valkyrie would be mobilised, the Reserve Army would take control of Germany and the other Nazi leaders would be arrested. Beck would be appointed provisional head of state, Goerdeler would be chancellor, and Witzleben would be commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
Again on 15 July the attempt was called off at the last minute.
20 JULY 1944
BEGINNING OF OPERATION VALKYRIE
The conference room after the bomb exploded Floor plan showing distribution of casualties
On 18 July rumours reached Stauffenberg that the
knowledge of the conspiracy and that he might be arrested at any
time—this was apparently not true, but there was a sense that the
net was closing in and that the next opportunity to kill
The conference took place in the main room of Wolf's Lair instead of the underground bunker due to the hot weather.
At around 12:30 pm as the conference began, Stauffenberg made an excuse to use a washroom in Wilhelm Keitel 's office where he used pliers to crush the end of a pencil detonator inserted into a 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) block of plastic explosive wrapped in brown paper, that was prepared by Wessel von Freytag-Loringhoven . The detonator consisted of a thin copper tube containing copper chloride that would take about ten minutes to silently eat through wire holding back the firing pin from the percussion cap . It was slow going due to war wounds that had cost Stauffenberg an eye, his right hand, and two fingers on his left hand. Interrupted by a guard knocking on the door advising him that the meeting was about to begin, he was not able to prime the second bomb, which he gave to his aide-de-camp, Werner von Haeften .
Stauffenberg placed the single primed bomb inside his briefcase and,
with the unwitting assistance of Major
Ernst John von Freyend ,
entered the conference room containing
At 12:42 the bomb detonated, demolishing the conference room and
killing a stenographer. More than 20 people were injured with three
officers dying later.
ESCAPE FROM THE WOLF\'S LAIR AND FLIGHT TO BERLIN
Stauffenberg was seen leaving the conference building by Kurt
Salterberg, a soldier on guard duty who did not consider this out of
the ordinary as attendees sometimes left to collect documents. He then
saw a "massive" cloud of smoke, wood splinters and paper and men being
hurled through a window and door. Stauffenberg, upon hearing the
explosion and seeing the smoke, believed that
By the time Stauffenberg's aircraft reached Berlin about 16:00,
Erich Fellgiebel , an officer at the
Wolfsschanze who was in
on the plot, had phoned the
Bendlerblock and told the plotters that
Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel , military governor of
occupied France , managed to disarm the SD and SS , and captured most
of their leadership. He travelled to
Günther von Kluge 's
headquarters and asked him to contact the Allies, only to be informed
FAILURE OF THE COUP
At around 18:00 the commander of Military District (Wehrkreis) III (Berlin), General Joachim von Kortzfleisch , was summoned to the Bendlerblock ; he angrily refused Olbricht's orders, kept shouting "the Führer is alive", was arrested and was held under guard. General Karl Freiherr von Thüngen was appointed in his place, but proved to be of little help. General Fritz Lindemann , who was supposed to make a proclamation to the German people over the radio, failed to appear and as he held the only copy, Beck had to work on a new one. Soldiers and Waffen SS at the Bendlerblock
As Remer regained control of the city and word spread that
In 2005, the
Military Channel 's show
Unsolved History aired an
episode titled Killing
* both bombs detonated; * the meeting was held inside Hitler's bunker; * the briefcase was not moved.
PARTICIPANTS AT THE MEETING
Main article: List of people killed or wounded in the 20 July plot
The courtyard at the
Bendlerblock , where Stauffenberg, Olbricht
and others were executed.
Over the following weeks, Himmler's Gestapo, driven by a furious Hitler, rounded up nearly everyone who had the remotest connection with the plot. The discovery of letters and diaries in the homes and offices of those arrested revealed the plots of 1938, 1939, and 1943, and this led to further rounds of arrests, including that of Franz Halder , who finished the war in a concentration camp. Under Himmler's new Sippenhaft (blood guilt) laws, all the relatives of the principal plotters were also arrested.
More than 7,000 people were arrested and 4,980 were executed. Not
all of them were connected with the plot, since the
Gestapo used the
occasion to settle scores with many other people suspected of
Alfons Heck , former
When I heard that German officers had tried to kill Adolf Hitler ... I was enraged. I fully concurred with the sentences imposed on them, strangling I felt was too good for them; this was the time, precisely, when we were at a very ... precarious military situation. And the only man who could possibly stave off disaster ... was Adolf Hitler. That opinion was shared by many Germans, Germans who did not adore Hitler, who did not belong to the Party.
The British radio also named possible suspects who had not yet been implicated but then were arrested.
Very few of the plotters tried to escape or to deny their guilt when arrested. Those who survived interrogation were given perfunctory trials before the People\'s Court (Volksgerichtshof), a kangaroo court that always decided in favour of the prosecution. The court's president, Roland Freisler , was a fanatical Nazi seen shouting furiously and insulting the accused in the trial, which was filmed for propaganda purposes. The plotters were stripped of their uniforms and given old, shabby clothing to humiliate them for the cameras. The officers involved in the plot were "tried" before the Court of Military Honour, a drumhead court-martial that merely considered the evidence furnished to it by the Gestapo before expelling the accused from the Army in disgrace and handing them over to the People's Court.
The first trials were held on 7 and 8 August 1944.
Tresckow killed himself the day after the failed plot by use of a hand grenade in no man's land between Russian and German lines. According to post-war recollections of Fabian von Schlabrendorff , Tresckow said the following before his death:
The whole world will vilify us now, but I am still totally convinced
that we did the right thing.
Fromm's attempt to win favour by executing Stauffenberg and others on
the night of 20 July had merely exposed his own previous lack of
action and apparent failure to report the plot. Having been arrested
on 21 July, Fromm was later convicted and sentenced to death by the
People's Court. Despite his knowledge of the conspiracy, his formal
sentence charged him with poor performance in his duties. He was
Brandenburg an der Havel .
The Kaltenbrunner Report to Adolf Hitler dated 29 November 1944 on the background of the plot, states that the Pope was somehow a conspirator, specifically naming Eugenio Pacelli, Pope Pius XII , as being a party in the attempt. Evidence indicates that 20 July plotters Colonel Wessel von Freytag-Loringhoven , Colonel Erwin von Lahousen , and Admiral Wilhelm Canaris were involved in the foiling of Hitler\'s alleged plot to kidnap or murder Pope Pius XII in 1943, when Canaris reported the plot to Italian counterintelligence officer General Cesare Amè , who passed on the information.
A member of the SA convicted of participating in the plot was Wolf-Heinrich Graf von Helldorf , who was the Orpo Police Chief of Berlin and had been in contact with members of the resistance since before the war. Collaborating closely with Nebe, he was supposed to direct all police forces in Berlin to stand down and not interfere in the military actions to seize the government. However, his actions on 20 July had little influence on the events. For his involvement in the conspiracy, he was later arrested, convicted of treason and executed.
After 3 February 1945, when Freisler was killed in an American air raid, there were no more formal trials, but as late as April, with the war weeks away from its end, Canaris' diary was found, and many more people were implicated. Executions continued to the last days of the war.
For his role in stopping the coup, Major Remer was promoted to colonel and ended the war as a major general. After the war, he co-founded the Socialist Reich Party and remained a prominent Neo-Nazi and advocate of Holocaust Denial until his death in 1997.
Philipp von Boeselager , the German officer who provided the plastic explosives used in the bomb, escaped detection and survived the war. He was the second-to-last survivor of those involved in the plot and died on 1 May 2008, aged 90. The last survivor of the 20 July Plot was Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin , the thwarted plotter of just a few months before. He died on 8 March 2013, aged 90.
As a result of the failed coup, every member of the
required to reswear his loyalty oath, by name, to
The conspirators were earlier designated positions in secret to form a government that would take office after the assassination of Hitler were it to prove successful. Because of the plot's failure, such a government never rose to power and most of its members were executed. The following were slated for these roles as of July 1944:
* Generaloberst Ludwig Beck (Army) – President * Carl Friedrich Goerdeler (DNVP ) – Chancellor * Wilhelm Leuschner (SPD ) – Vice-Chancellor * Paul Löbe (SPD) – President of the Reichstag * Julius Leber (SPD) or Eugen Bolz (Centre Party ) – Minister of the Interior * Friedrich Werner von der Schulenburg or Ulrich von Hassell (DNVP) – Foreign Minister * Ewald Loeser (DNVP) – Minister of Finance * Friedrich Olbricht (Army) – Minister of War (With von Stauffenberg as a possible State Secretary) * Generalfeldmarschall Erwin von Witzleben (Army) – Minister of Defence and Commander-in-Chief of the Wehrmacht * Hans Oster (Army) – President of the Reichskriegsgericht (military supreme court) * Hans Koch ( Confessing Church ) – President of the Reichsgericht (supreme court) * Bernhard Letterhaus (Catholic trade unionist) – Reconstruction Minister (Minister without portfolio if not appointed) * Karl Blessing – Minister of Economics or President of the Reichsbank * Paul Lejeune-Jung (DNVP) – Minister of Economics * Andreas Hermes (Centre Party) – Minister of Agriculture * Josef Wirmer (Centre Party) – Minister of Justice * Henning von Tresckow (Army) – Chief of Police
Note: Party allegiances as shown here indicate party membership before the dissolution of all political parties apart from the NSDAP.
Albert Speer was listed in several notes of the conspirators as a
possible Minister of Armaments; however, most of these notes stated
Speer should not be approached until after
ROMMEL AND THE 20 JULY PLOT
The extent of Field Marshal
According to a post-war account by Karl Strölin , the Oberbürgermeister of Stuttgart at that time, he and two other conspirators, Alexander von Falkenhausen and Carl Heinrich von Stülpnagel began efforts to bring Rommel into the anti-Hitler conspiracy in early 1944. On 15 April 1944 Rommel's new chief of staff, Hans Speidel , arrived in Normandy and reintroduced Rommel to Stülpnagel. Speidel had previously been connected to Carl Goerdeler , the civilian leader of the resistance, but not to the plotters led by Stauffenberg, and only came to the attention of Stauffenberg due to his appointment to Rommel's headquarters. The conspirators felt they needed the support of a field marshal on active duty. Witzelben was a field marshal, but had not been on active duty since 1942. The conspirators gave instructions to Speidel to bring Rommel into their circle.
Speidel met with former foreign minister Konstantin von Neurath and Strölin on 27 May in Germany, ostensibly at Rommel's request, although the latter was not present. Neurath and Strölin suggested opening immediate surrender negotiations in the West, and, according to Speidel, Rommel agreed to further discussions and preparations. Around the same timeframe, however, the plotters in Berlin were not aware that Rommel had reportedly decided to take part in the conspiracy. On 16 May, they informed Allen Dulles , through whom they hoped to negotiate with the Western Allies, that Rommel could not be counted on for support. Three days before the assassination attempt, on 17 July, Rommel's staff car was strafed by an Allied aircraft in France; he was hospitalised with major injuries and incapacitated on 20 July.
Rommel opposed assassinating Hitler. After the war, his widow
maintained that he believed an assassination attempt would spark a
civil war. According to journalist and author
William L. Shirer ,
Rommel knew about the conspiracy and advocated that
What is not debated are the results of the failed bomb plot of 20 July. Many conspirators were arrested and the dragnet expanded to thousands. Consequently, it did not take long for Rommel to come under suspicion. He was primarily implicated through his connection to Kluge. Rommel's name also came up in forced confessions by Stülpnagel and Hofacker, and was included in Goerdeler's papers on a list of potential supporters.
CRITICISM OF MEMBERS OF THE PLOT
INVOLVEMENT IN WAR CRIMES AND ATROCITIES
Involvement of the plotters in war crimes and atrocities has been studied by historians such as Christian Gerlach . Gerlach proved that plotters like Tresckow or Gersdorff were aware of mass murder happening in the East from at least 1941. He writes: "Especially with reference to the murder of the Jews, 'the SS' had deceived the officers by killing in secret, filing incomplete reports or none at all; if general staff offices protested, the SS threatened them." Gerlach concludes: "This is, of course, nonsense."
Tresckow also "signed orders for the deportation of thousands of orphaned children for forced labor in the Reich" (the so-called Heu-Aktion ). Such actions lead historians to question the motives of the plotters, which seemed more concerned with the military situation than with Nazi atrocities and German war crimes. However some others assert that, in such actions, Tresckow had to act out of principle to continue with his coup plans.
Gerlach pointed out that the plotters had "selective moral criteria" and while they were concerned about Jews being exterminated in the Holocaust, they were far less disturbed about mass murder of civilians in the East. To Gerlach, the primary motivation of the plotters was to ensure German victory in the war or at least not to lose it. Gerlach's arguments were later supported by historian Hans Mommsen , who stated that the plotters were interested above all in military victory. But Gerlach's arguments were also criticized by some scholars, among them Peter Hoffmann from McGill University and Klaus Jochen Arnold (de) from the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung .
ATTITUDE TOWARDS POLAND
The overall goals towards
To Poland, which was fighting as an ally with both its army and
government in exile, the vast territorial demands and traditional
nationalistic visions of resistance made the plotters lose all
credibility, and Poles saw little difference between them and racist
policies of Hitler. Stauffenberg, as one of the leaders of the plot,
stated five years before the coup in 1939 during the
COMMEMORATION AND COLLECTIVE MEMORY
A 1951 survey by the Allensbach Institute revealed that "Only a third of respondents had a positive opinion about the men and women who had tried unsuccessfully to overthrow the Nazi regime."
The "first official memorial service for the resistance fighters of July 20" was held on the tenth anniversary in 1954. In his speech at the event, Theodor Heuss , the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany , said that "harsh words" were necessary, and that "There have been cases of refusal to carry out orders that have achieved historic greatness." After this speech, public opinion in Germany began to shift.
Nonetheless, a 1956 proposal to name a school after Claus Schenk Graf
von Stauffenberg was opposed by a majority of citizens, and, according
East Germany's communist leadership had ignored the assassination attempt for decades, mainly because the conservative and aristocratic conspirators around Stauffenberg did not match the socialist ideal.
The first all-German commemoration of the event did not take place until 1990.
In 2013, the last surviving member of the plot, Ewald-Heinrich von
Kleist-Schmenzin, died in
As of 2014, the resistance fighters are generally considered heroes in Germany, according to Deutsche Welle.
Memorial at the Bendlerblock : "Here died for Germany on 20 July 1944" (followed by the names of the principal conspirators) *
Memorial at the cemetery ( Alter St.-Matthäus-Kirchhof , Berlin) where the corpses were buried but afterwards removed to an unknown place *
IN POPULAR CULTURE
FILMS AND TELEVISION
Es geschah am 20. Juli , a docudrama , with Bernhard Wicki
* 1955: The Plot to Assassinate
* Assassination attempts on
List of members of the 20 July plot
List of people killed or wounded in the 20 July plot
Operation Foxley – British plot to assassinate
* ^ Hans Helmut Kirst "20th of July"
* ^ Winston Churchill,war annual books, "1944"
William L. Shirer The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, part
IV, chapter "20th July"
* ^ German Resistance against Hitler: The Search for Allies Abroad
1938–1945 by Klemens von Klemperer
* ^ History of the German Resistance, 1933–1945 by Peter
Hoffmann, page 608–609
* ^ According to records of the
Führer Conferences on Naval
Affairs. Shirer 1960, p. 1393.
* ^ Kurtz, Harold. July Plot in Taylor 1974, p. 224.
* ^ A B C Kurtz, Harold, July Plot in Taylor 1974, p. 226.
* ^ Fest, Plotting Hitler's Death, p. 188.
* ^ von Schlabrendorff, Fabian, They Almost Killed Hitler, p. 39.
* ^ Encyclopedia of Contemporary German Culture, "The heroes of
West German accounts at this time were the men involved in the largely
conservative, nationalist resistance of the July Plot of 1944. It was
not until much later that a new generation of left-liberal historians
pointed out just how little many of those involved in the July Plot
actually sympathized with or understood democratic ideas. John
* ^ "Faith and Democracy: Political Transformations at the German
Protestant Kirchentag", 1949—1969 Benjamin Carl Pearson 2007 In a
similar way, one could argue that the conservative, nationalist
resistance circles that grew up during the war years, whose activity
culminated in the July 1944 Officers Plot
* ^ Rereading German History: From Unification to Reunification
1800–1996 Richard Evans page 198
* ^ Kaminski, Joseph. "The Plots to Kill Hitler".
* ^ Fest, Joachim. Plotting Hitler's Death: The German Resistance
to Hitler, 1933–1945, 1996, p. 219.
* ^ Hoffmann, Peter. "Oberst i. G.
Henning von Tresckow und die
Staatsstreichpläne im Jahr 1943".
* ^ Fest, Plotting Hitler's Death: The German Resistance to Hitler,
1933–1945, 1996, p. 220.
* ^ Moorhouse, Roger. Killing Hitler. New York: Bantam Books, 2006.
* ^ Fest, Plotting Hitler's Death, p. 236.
* ^ Fest, Plotting Hitler's Death, p. 228.
* ^ Himmler's contacts with the opposition and his possible motives
are discussed by Padfield, Himmler, pp. 419–424.
* ^ Hoffman, Peter (1996). The History of the German Resistance,
1933–1945. McGill-Queen's Press. ISBN 0-7735-1531-3 .
* ^ Thomsett, Michael C. (1997). The German Opposition to Hitler:
The Resistance, the Underground, and Assassination Plots, 1938–1945.
McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0372-1 .
* ^ A B C Spiegel.de (in German)
* ^ Germany remembers the plot to kill hitler at dw. Retrieved 22
* ^ Gitta Sereny (9 August 1996).
Albert Speer His Battle With The
Truth. Picador. ISBN 0330346970 .
* ^ Martin A. Allen (2005). Himmler's Secret War: The Covert Peace
Negotiations of Heinrich Himmler. Robson Books. ISBN 1861058896 .
* ^ Galante, Pierre. Operation Valkyrie. Harper and Row, 1981, ISBN
0-06-038002-0 . Photo insert section.
* ^ German radio broadcast 10 July 2010 on
Deutschlandfunk (MP3; in
* ^ German radio broadcast 10 July 2010 Archived 5 June 2011 at the
Wayback Machine . on Bayern1 (written version; in German)
* ^ A B Kutrz, Harold, July Plot in Taylor 1974, p. 227.
* ^ Galante, pp. 11–12
* ^ A B Galante, p. 209
* ^ Hoffman, Peter. The History of the German Resistance,
1933–1945, p. 426.
* ^ Fest, Plotting Hitler's Death, pp. 270, 272.
* ^ Taylor 1974, p. 227.
* ^ Showalter, D. E., Deutsch, H. C., & Forstchen, W. R. (2010). If
the Allies Had Fallen: Sixty Alternate Scenarios of World War II,
* ^ The
Gestapo claimed 7,000 arrests. This can be found in William
L. Shirer 's
Rise and Fall of the Third Reich , ch. 29.
* ^ Kershaw, Ian.
* ^ Peter Hoffmann,
Carl Goerdeler and the Jewish question,
1933-1942, Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2011,
Klaus Jochen Arnold, Verbrecher aus eigener Initiative? Der 20. Juli
1944 und die Thesen Christian Gerlachs * ^ German Foreign Policy. By
Klaus Hilderbrand page 185-188
* ^ Alternatives to Hitler: German Resistance Under the Third Reich
Hans Mommsen p. 161
* ^ German Foreign Policy Klaus Hilderbrand, page 188
* ^ Peter Hoffman Stauffenberg: A Family History, 1905–1944; page
116; 2003 McGill-Queen's Press
* ^ War of extermination page 137.
* ^ A B C D Dittrich, Monika (2014-07-20). "How traitors became
* Beckett, Ian (2014). Beckett, I. F. W., ed. Rommel Reconsidered. Introduction. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0811714624 . * Boeselager, Philipp von . Valkyrie: the Plot to Kill Hitler. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson . 2008. A personal memoir by one of the conspirators. * Büchner, Alex. German Infantry Handbook, 1939–1945: Organization, Uniforms, Weapons, Equipment and Operations. Schipper Publishing. 1991. ISBN 978-0-88740-284-5 * Evans, Richard J. (2009). The Third Reich at War . New York City: Penguin Press . ISBN 978-0141015484 . * Fest, Joachim. Plotting Hitler's Death: The Story of German Resistance. Holt Paperbacks. 1997. ISBN 978-0-8050-5648-8 * Galante, Pierre. Operation Valkyrie. Harper and Row, 1981, ISBN 0-06-038002-0 . * Hart, Russel A. (2014). "Rommel and the 20th July Bomb Plot". In F.W. Beckett. Rommel Reconsidered. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 9780811714624 . * Hoffmann, Peter. The History of the German Resistance, 1933–1945. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-1531-3 * Jones, Nigel. Countdown to Valkyrie: The July Plot to Assassinate Hitler. Frontline, 2008. ISBN 9781848325081 * Reuth, Ralf Georg (2005). Rommel: The End of a Legend. London: Haus Books. ISBN 978-1-904950-20-2 . * Moorhouse, Roger . Killing Hitler, Jonathan Cape, 2006. ISBN 0-224-07121-1 * Schradar, Helena. Operation Valkyrie General Friedrich Olbricht and the plot against Hitler. Haynes, 2009. ISBN 978-1-84425-533-7 * Reitlinger, Gerald . The SS: Alibi of a Nation 1922–1945 Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 1956. * Shirer, W. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-72868-7 . * Taylor, A. J. P. and S. L. Mayer, eds. A History of World War Two. London: Octopus Books, 1974. ISBN 0-7064-0399-1 .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to 20 JULY PLOT .
* Grafik – Lagebesprechung Wolfsschanze, 20. Juli 1944 * German Opposition to