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Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Democratic ELECTED PRESIDENT

Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Democratic

2012 U.S. PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION

* Timeline * General election debates

* Electors

* Polling

* nationwide * statewide

* Parties

DEMOCRATIC PARTY

* Candidates * Primaries * Nominee * Convention

REPUBLICAN PARTY

* Prelude * Candidates * Debates and forums * Primaries * National polling * Statewide polling * Straw * Results * Nominee * Convention * Endorsements

Minor parties

* Libertarian Party

* Candidates * Primaries * Nominee * Convention

* Green Party

* Primaries * Nominee * Convention * Endorsements

* Constitution Party

* Nominee * Convention

* Justice Party

* Nominee

* Americans Elect * All candidates

RELATED RACES

* House * Senate * Governors

* Vice President

* Democratic * Republican

* 2008 ← * 2012 * → 2016
2016

* v * t * e

The UNITED STATES PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 2012 was the 57th quadrennial American presidential election . It was held on Tuesday, November 6, 2012. The Democratic nominee, incumbent President Barack Obama
Obama
, and his running mate , Vice President Joe Biden
Joe Biden
, were elected to a second term, defeating the Republican nominee, former Governor of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
and his running mate, Representative and future House Speaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
of Wisconsin
Wisconsin
.

As the incumbent president, Obama
Obama
secured the Democratic nomination with no serious opposition. The Republican Party was more fractured; Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
was consistently competitive in the polls, but faced challenges from a number of more conservative contenders whose popularity each fluctuated, often besting Romney's. Romney effectively secured the nomination by early May as the economy improved, albeit at a persistently laggard rate. The campaign was marked by a sharp rise in fundraising, including from new nominally independent Super PACs . The campaigns focused heavily on domestic issues: debate centered largely around sound responses to the Great Recession in terms of economic recovery and job creation. Other issues included long-term federal budget issues, the future of social insurance programs , and the Affordable Care Act . Foreign policy was also discussed including the phase-out of the Iraq War
Iraq War
, the size of and spending on the military, preventing Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons, and appropriate counteractions to terrorism.

Obama
Obama
defeated Romney, winning both the popular vote and the electoral college , with 332 electoral votes to Romney's 206. Obama carried all states and districts (among states that allocate electoral votes by district) that he had won in the 2008 presidential election except North Carolina , Indiana , and Nebraska\'s 2nd congressional district . As such, his margin of victory decreased from 2008. Consequently, Obama
Obama
became the first incumbent since Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944 to win reelection with fewer electoral votes and a lower popular vote percentage. Nonetheless, Obama
Obama
also became the first two-term president since Ronald Reagan to win both his presidential bids with an absolute majority of the nationwide popular vote. Not since 1820 had three consecutive American presidents succeeded in securing two consecutive terms. Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
would also become the first Republican since Gerald Ford\'s narrow loss to Jimmy Carter in 1976 , to lose a presidential election, while earning a minimum of 200 electoral votes.

CONTENTS

* 1 Timeline * 2 Electoral college changes * 3 State changes to voter registration and electoral rules

* 4 Democratic Party

* 4.1 Primaries * 4.2 Candidate

* 5 Republican Party

* 5.1 Primaries * 5.2 Candidate * 5.3 Withdrawn candidates

* 6 Third party and other nominations

* 6.1 Libertarian Party * 6.2 Green Party * 6.3 Constitution Party

* 6.4 Justice Party

* 6.4.1 Candidates gallery

* 7 Campaigns

* 7.1 Ballot access * 7.2 Financing and advertising * 7.3 Party conventions * 7.4 Debates * 7.5 Notable expressions, phrases, and statements

* 8 Results

* 8.1 Results by state

* 8.1.1 Maine and Nebraska district results

* 8.2 Close races * 8.3 Romney\'s concession * 8.4 Reactions

* 9 Voter demographics

* 9.1 Hispanic vote

* 10 Analysis * 11 Maps * 12 Gallery * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Further reading * 16 External links

TIMELINE

Final poll closing times on Election Day. 7 p.m. EST (6) 7:30 p.m. EST (3) 8 p.m. EST (15+DC) 8:30 p.m. EST (1) 9 p.m. EST (15) 10 p.m. EST (4) 11 p.m. EST (5) 1 a.m. EST (1)

* September–October 2012: Early voting begins in some states and continue as late as November 5. * November 6, 2012: Election Day ; at around 11:15 p.m. EST , the networks call Ohio for Obama, projecting him the winner of the election. * November 7, 2012: Romney concedes the election to Obama
Obama
at around 1:00 a.m. EST . * November 10, 2012: The electoral outcomes of all 50 states and the District of Columbia have been definitively projected (the electoral outcome in Florida remained uncertain until November 10). Obama
Obama
won 332 electoral votes while Romney won 206 electoral votes. * December 17, 2012: The Electoral College formally re-elects President Obama
Obama
and Vice President Biden. * January 3, 2013: The 113th Congress is sworn in. * January 4, 2013: Electoral votes are formally counted before a joint session of Congress. The re-election of President Obama
Obama
and Vice President Biden is certified. * January 20, 2013: President Obama
Obama
and Vice President Biden take the oaths of office ; Obama's second presidential term begins at noon. * January 21, 2013: The inauguration ceremonies are held.

ELECTORAL COLLEGE CHANGES

The 2010 Census changed the electoral vote apportionment for the presidential elections from 2012 to 2020 in the states listed below:

Changes in electoral vote apportionment (increases in green, decreases in orange) following the 2010 Census.

States won by Democrats in 2000 , 2004 , and 2008

* Illinois
Illinois
−1 * Massachusetts
Massachusetts
−1 * Michigan
Michigan
−1 * New Jersey −1 * New York −2 * Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
−1 * Washington +1

States won by Republicans in 2000, 2004, and 2008

* Arizona +1 * Georgia +1 * Louisiana
Louisiana
−1 * Missouri −1 * South Carolina +1 * Texas
Texas
+4 * Utah
Utah
+1

SWING STATES

* Florida (Democratic in 2008, Republican in 2000 and 2004) +2 * Iowa
Iowa
(Democratic in 2000 and 2008, Republican in 2004) −1 * Nevada (Democratic in 2008, Republican in 2000 and 2004) +1 * Ohio (Democratic in 2008, Republican in 2000 and 2004) −2

The electoral map in 2008 . Changes in electoral vote apportionment following the 2010 census .

Eight states (Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Nevada, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, and Washington) gained votes due to reapportionment based on the 2010 Census. Ten states (Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania) lost votes. This gave the Democratic Party a net loss of six electoral votes in states won by Democratic nominees in the previous three presidential elections, rendering the party a national total of 242 electoral votes. Conversely, the Republican Party achieved a net gain of six electoral votes in states won by Republican nominees in the previous three presidential elections, rendering the Republican Party a national total of 180 electoral votes.

STATE CHANGES TO VOTER REGISTRATION AND ELECTORAL RULES

In 2011, several state legislatures passed new voting laws, especially pertaining to voter identification, with the stated purpose of combating voter fraud ; the laws were attacked, however, by the Democratic Party as attempts to suppress voting among its supporters and to improve the Republican Party's presidential prospects. Florida, Georgia, Ohio, Tennessee, and West Virginia's state legislatures approved measures to shorten early voting periods. Florida and Iowa barred all felons from voting. Kansas, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas
Texas
and Wisconsin
Wisconsin
state legislatures passed laws requiring voters to have government-issued IDs before they could cast their ballots. This meant, typically, that people without driver's licenses or passports had to gain new forms of ID. Obama, the NAACP
NAACP
, and the Democratic Party fought against many of the new state laws. Former President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
denounced them, saying, "There has never been in my lifetime, since we got rid of the poll tax and all the Jim Crow burdens on voting, the determined effort to limit the franchise that we see today". He was referring to Jim Crow laws passed in southern states near the turn of the twentieth century that disenfranchised most blacks from voting and excluded them from the political process for more than six decades. Clinton said the moves would effectively disenfranchise core voter blocs that trend liberal, including college students, Blacks, and Latinos. Rolling Stone magazine criticized the American Legislative Exchange Council
American Legislative Exchange Council
(ALEC) for lobbying in states to bring about these laws, to "solve" a problem that does not exist. The Obama
Obama
campaign fought against the Ohio law, pushing for a petition and statewide referendum to repeal it in time for the 2012 election.

In addition, the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
legislature proposed a plan to change its representation in the electoral college from the traditional winner-take-all model to a district-by-district model. As the governorship and both houses of its legislature were Republican-controlled, the move was viewed by some as an attempt to reduce Democratic chances.

DEMOCRATIC PARTY

Main articles: Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2012 and 2012 Democratic National Convention

PRIMARIES

With an incumbent president running for re-election against token opposition, the race for the Democratic nomination was largely uneventful. The nomination process consisted of primaries and caucuses , held by the 50 states, as well as Guam
Guam
, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
, Washington, D.C. , U.S. Virgin Islands , American Samoa , and Democrats Abroad . Additionally, high-ranking party members known as superdelegates each received one vote in the convention. A few of the primary challengers surpassed the president's vote total in individual counties in several of the seven contested primaries, though none made a significant impact in the delegate count. Running unopposed everywhere else, President Obama
Obama
cemented his status as the Democratic presumptive nominee on April 3, 2012, by securing the minimum number of pledged delegates needed to obtain the nomination.

CANDIDATE

Main article: Democratic Party presidential candidates, 2012

DEMOCRATIC PARTY TICKET, 2012

BARACK OBAMA JOE BIDEN

FOR PRESIDENT FOR VICE PRESIDENT

44th President of the United States
United States
(2009–2017) 47th Vice President of the United States
United States
(2009–2017)

CAMPAIGN

REPUBLICAN PARTY

Main articles: Republican Party presidential primaries, 2012 ; Prelude to the Republican presidential primaries, 2012 ; Republican Party presidential debates, 2012 ; and 2012 Republican National Convention

PRIMARIES

Candidates with considerable name recognition who entered the race for the Republican presidential nomination in the early stages of the primary campaign included Representative and former Libertarian nominee Ron Paul , former Minnesota
Minnesota
Governor Tim Pawlenty
Tim Pawlenty
, who co-chaired John McCain\'s campaign in 2008 , former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
, the runner-up for the nomination in the 2008 cycle, and former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
.

The first debate took place on May 5, 2011, in Greenville, South Carolina , with businessman Herman Cain , former New Mexico
New Mexico
Governor Gary Johnson , Ron Paul , Tim Pawlenty
Tim Pawlenty
, and former Pennsylvania Senator Rick Santorum participating. Another debate took place a month later, with Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
, Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
, former Utah
Utah
Governor Jon Huntsman , and Rep. Michele Bachmann participating, and Gary Johnson excluded. A total of thirteen debates were held before the Iowa caucuses.

The first major event of the campaign was the Ames Straw Poll , which took place in Iowa
Iowa
on August 13, 2011. Michele Bachmann won the straw poll (this ultimately proved to be the acme of her campaign). Pawlenty withdrew from the race after a poor showing in the straw poll, as did Thaddeus McCotter , the only candidate among those who qualified for the ballot who was refused entrance into the debate.

It became clear at around this point in the nomination process that while Romney was considered to be the likely nominee by the Republican establishment, a large segment of the conservative primary electorate found him to be too moderate for their political views. As a result, a number of potential "anti-Romney" candidates were put forward, including Donald Trump
Donald Trump
, Sarah Palin , Chris Christie
Chris Christie
, and Texas Governor Rick Perry , the last of whom decided to run in August 2011. Perry did poorly in the debates, however, and Herman Cain and then Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
came into the fore in October and November.

Due to a number of scandals, Cain withdrew just before the end of the year, after having gotten on the ballot in several states. Around the same time, Johnson, who had been able to get into only one other debate, withdrew to seek the Libertarian Party nomination.

For the first time in modern Republican Party history, three different candidates won the first three state contests in January (the Iowa
Iowa
caucuses, the New Hampshire primary, and the South Carolina primary). Although Romney had been expected to win in at least Iowa and New Hampshire, Rick Santorum won the non-binding poll at caucus sites in Iowa
Iowa
by 34 votes, as near as can be determined from the incomplete tally, earning him a declaration as winner by state party leaders, although vote totals were missing from eight precincts. The election of county delegates at the caucuses would eventually lead to Ron Paul earning 22 of the 28 Iowa
Iowa
delegates to the Republican National Convention. Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
won South Carolina by a surprisingly large margin, and Romney won only in New Hampshire.

A number of candidates dropped out at this point in the nomination process. Bachmann withdrew after finishing sixth in the Iowa
Iowa
caucuses, Huntsman withdrew after coming in third in New Hampshire, and Perry withdrew when polls showed him drawing low numbers in South Carolina. Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
on the campaign trail

Santorum, who had previously run an essentially one-state campaign in Iowa, was able to organize a national campaign after his surprising victory there. He unexpectedly carried three states in a row on February 7 and overtook Romney in nationwide opinion polls, becoming the only candidate in the race to effectively challenge the notion that Romney was the inevitable nominee. However, Romney won all of the other contests between South Carolina and the Super Tuesday primaries , and regained his first-place status in nationwide opinion polls by the end of February.

The Super Tuesday primaries took place on March 6. Romney carried six states, Santorum carried three, and Gingrich won only in his home state of Georgia. Throughout the rest of March, 266 delegates were allocated in 12 events, including the territorial contests and the first local conventions that allocated delegates (Wyoming's county conventions). Santorum won Kansas and three Southern primaries, but he was unable to make any substantial gain on Romney, who became a formidable frontrunner after securing more than half of the delegates allocated in March.

On April 10, Santorum suspended his campaign due to a variety of reasons, such as a low delegate count, unfavorable polls in his home state of Pennsylvania, and his daughter's health, leaving Mitt Romney as the undisputed front-runner for the presidential nomination and allowing Gingrich to claim that he was "the last conservative standing" in the campaign for the nomination. After disappointing results in the April 24 primaries (finishing second in one state, third in three, and fourth in one), Gingrich dropped out on May 2 in a move that was seen as an effective end to the nomination contest. After Gingrich's spokesman announced his upcoming withdrawal, the Republican National Committee declared Romney the party's presumptive nominee . Ron Paul officially remained in the race, but he stopped campaigning on May 14 to focus on state conventions.

On May 29, after winning the Texas
Texas
primary, Romney had received a sufficient number of delegates to clinch the party's nomination with the inclusion of unpledged delegates. After winning the June 5 primaries in California
California
and several other states, Romney had received more than enough pledged delegates to clinch the nomination without counting unpledged delegates, making the June 26 Utah
Utah
Primary, the last contest of the cycle, purely symbolic. CNN's final delegate estimate, released on July 27, 2012, put Romney at 1,462 pledged delegates and 62 unpledged delegates, for a total estimate of 1,524 delegates. No other candidate had unpledged delegates. The delegate estimates for the other candidates were Santorum at 261 delegates, Paul at 154, Gingrich at 142, Bachmann at 1, Huntsman at 1, and all others at 0.

On August 28, 2012, delegates at the Republican National Convention officially named Romney the party's presidential nominee. Romney formally accepted the delegates' nomination on August 30, 2012.

CANDIDATE

REPUBLICAN PARTY TICKET, 2012

MITT ROMNEY PAUL RYAN

FOR PRESIDENT FOR VICE PRESIDENT

70th Governor of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(2003–2007) U.S. Representative from Wisconsin
Wisconsin
(1999–present)

CAMPAIGN

WITHDRAWN CANDIDATES

Main article: Republican Party presidential candidates, 2012

* Ron Paul , U.S. Representative from Texas
Texas
(ended active campaigning on May 14, 2012; endorsed Gary Johnson continued to seek delegates from earlier primaries). * Fred Karger , Political consultant and gay rights activist from California
California
(withdrew June 29, 2012). * Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
, former U.S. Speaker of the House of Representatives , from Georgia (withdrew on May 2, 2012, and endorsed Mitt Romney) * Rick Santorum , former senator from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(withdrew on April 10, 2012, and endorsed Mitt Romney) * Buddy Roemer , former governor of Louisiana
Louisiana
(withdrew on February 22, 2012, to run for the nominations of Americans Elect and the Reform
Reform
Party, then endorsed Gary Johnson) * Rick Perry , Governor of Texas
Texas
(withdrew on January 19, 2012, and endorsed Newt Gingrich, then Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
after Gingrich withdrew) * Jon Huntsman, Jr. , former U.S. ambassador to China and former governor of Utah
Utah
(withdrew on January 16, 2012, and endorsed Mitt Romney) * Michele Bachmann , U.S. Representative from Minnesota
Minnesota
(withdrew on January 4, 2012, and endorsed Mitt Romney) * Gary Johnson , former governor of New Mexico
New Mexico
(withdrew on December 28, 2011, to run for the nomination of the Libertarian Party, endorsed Ron Paul) * Herman Cain , businessman from Georgia (withdrew on December 3, 2011, and endorsed Newt Gingrich, then Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
after Gingrich withdrew) * Thaddeus McCotter , U.S. Representative from Michigan
Michigan
(withdrew on September 22, 2011, and endorsed Mitt Romney) * Tim Pawlenty
Tim Pawlenty
, former governor of Minnesota
Minnesota
(withdrew on August 14, 2011, and endorsed Mitt Romney)

* Representative RON PAUL from Texas
Texas
(campaign ) * Political consultant and gay rights activist FRED KARGER from California
California
* Former Speaker NEWT GINGRICH , from Georgia (campaign ) * Former Senator RICK SANTORUM from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(campaign ) * Former Governor BUDDY ROEMER of Louisiana
Louisiana
(campaign ) * Governor RICK PERRY of Texas
Texas
(campaign ) * Former Ambassador JON HUNTSMAN , from Utah
Utah
(campaign ) * Representative MICHELE BACHMANN from Minnesota
Minnesota
(campaign ) * Former Governor GARY JOHNSON of New Mexico
New Mexico
(campaign ) * Businessman HERMAN CAIN , from Georgia (campaign ) * Representative THADDEUS MCCOTTER from Michigan
Michigan
(campaign ) * Former Governor TIM PAWLENTY of Minnesota
Minnesota
(campaign )

THIRD PARTY AND OTHER NOMINATIONS

Main article: United States
United States
third party and independent presidential candidates, 2012

Four other parties nominated candidates that had ballot access or write-in access to at least 270 electoral votes, the minimum number of votes needed in the 2012 election to win the presidency through a majority of the electoral college.

LIBERTARIAN PARTY

Main articles: Libertarian Party (United States) ; 2012 Libertarian National Convention ; and Gary Johnson presidential campaign, 2012

* GARY JOHNSON , former governor of New Mexico. Vice-presidential nominee: JIM GRAY , retired state court judge, from California
California

GREEN PARTY

Main articles: Green Party of the United States
United States
; 2012 Green National Convention ; and Jill Stein presidential campaign, 2012

* JILL STEIN , medical doctor from Massachusetts. Vice-presidential nominee: CHERI HONKALA , social organizer, from Pennsylvania.

CONSTITUTION PARTY

Main articles: Constitution Party (United States) ; 2012 Constitution Party National Convention ; and Virgil Goode presidential campaign, 2012

* VIRGIL GOODE , former Representative from Virginia. Vice-presidential nominee: JIM CLYMER from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania

JUSTICE PARTY

Main articles: Justice Party (United States) and Rocky Anderson

* ROCKY ANDERSON , former mayor of Salt Lake City and founding member of the Justice Party, from Utah. Vice-presidential nominee: LUIS J. RODRIGUEZ from California.

Candidates Gallery

*

Gary Johnson (campaign ) *

Jill Stein
Jill Stein
(campaign ) *

Virgil Goode (campaign ) *

Rocky Anderson

CAMPAIGNS

See also: Barack Obama
Barack Obama
presidential campaign, 2012 ; Mitt Romney presidential campaign, 2012 ; Gary Johnson presidential campaign, 2012 ; Jill Stein presidential campaign, 2012 ; and Virgil Goode presidential campaign, 2012

BALLOT ACCESS

PRESIDENTIAL TICKET PARTY BALLOT ACCESS VOTES PERCENTAGE

STATES ELECTORS % OF VOTERS

OBAMA / BIDEN DEMOCRATIC 50 + DC 538 100% 65,915,795 51.19%

ROMNEY / RYAN REPUBLICAN 50 + DC 538 100% 60,933,504 47.32%

JOHNSON / GRAY LIBERTARIAN 48 + DC 515 95.1% 1,275,971 0.99%

STEIN / HONKALA GREEN 36 + DC 436 83.1% 469,627 0.36%

Goode / Clymer Constitution 26 257 49.9% 122,388 0.09%

Anderson / Rodriguez Justice 15 145 28.1% 43,018 0.03%

Lindsay / Osorio Socialism width:400px;border:1px solid lightgray"> Charlotte Tampa Nashville Las Vegas Baltimore
Baltimore
Sites of the 2012 national party conventions.

* April 18–21, 2012: 2012 Constitution Party National Convention held in Nashville, Tennessee
Nashville, Tennessee
; Virgil Goode won the nomination. * May 3–6, 2012: 2012 Libertarian National Convention held in Las Vegas, Nevada ; Gary Johnson won the nomination. * July 13–15, 2012: 2012 Green National Convention held in Baltimore, Maryland ; Jill Stein
Jill Stein
won the nomination. * August 27–30, 2012: 2012 Republican National Convention held in Tampa, Florida ; Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
won the nomination. * September 3–6, 2012: 2012 Democratic National Convention held in Charlotte, North Carolina
Charlotte, North Carolina
; Barack Obama
Barack Obama
won the nomination.

DEBATES

Main article: United States
United States
presidential election debates, 2012

The Commission on Presidential Debates held four debates during the last weeks of the campaign: three presidential and one vice-presidential. The major issues debated were the economy and jobs, the federal budget deficit, taxation and spending, the future of Social Security , Medicare , and Medicaid
Medicaid
, healthcare reform , education, social issues, immigration, and foreign policy.

Debate schedule:

* Wednesday, October 3: The first presidential debate took place at the University of Denver in Denver
Denver
, Colorado
Colorado
, moderated by Jim Lehrer . * Thursday, October 11: The vice-presidential debate took place at Centre College
Centre College
in Danville , Kentucky
Kentucky
, moderated by Martha Raddatz .

* Tuesday, October 16: The second presidential debate took place at Hofstra University in Hempstead , New York, moderated by Candy Crowley . It had a town hall format. * Monday, October 22: The third presidential debate took place at Lynn University in Boca Raton , Florida, moderated by Bob Schieffer
Bob Schieffer
.

President Obama
Obama
talks with Ron Klain during presidential debate preparations. Senator John Kerry
John Kerry
, at podium, played the role of Mitt Romney during the preparatory sessions.

An independent presidential debate featuring minor party candidates took place on Tuesday, October 23 at the Hilton Hotel in Chicago
Chicago
, Illinois. The debate was moderated by Larry King
Larry King
and organized by the Free "> President Obama
Obama
casts his ballot at the Martin Luther King Jr. Community Center in Chicago
Chicago
.

POPULAR VOTE

OBAMA   51.06%

Romney   47.20%

Johnson   0.99%

Stein   0.36%

Others   0.38%

ELECTORAL VOTE

OBAMA   61.71%

Romney   38.29%

RESULTS BY STATE

The table below displays the official vote tallies by each state's Electoral College voting method. The source for the results of all states, except those that amended their official results, is the official Federal Election Commission report. The column labeled "Margin" shows Obama's margin of victory over Romney (the margin is negative for every state that Romney won).

States/districts won by Obama
Obama
/Biden

States/districts won by Romney /Ryan

Barack Obama Democratic Mitt Romney Republican Gary Johnson Libertarian Jill Stein Green OTHERS MARGIN TOTAL

State or district Electoral method # % Electoral votes # % Electoral votes # % Electoral votes # % Electoral votes # % Electoral votes # % #

Alabama WTA 795,696 38.36% – 1,255,925 60.55% 9 12,328 0.59% – 3,397 0.16% – 6,992 0.34% – −460,229 −22.19% 2,074,338 AL

Alaska WTA 122,640 40.81% – 164,676 54.80% 3 7,392 2.46% – 2,917 0.97% – 2,870 0.96% – −42,036 −13.99% 300,495 AK

Arizona WTA 1,025,232 44.59% – 1,233,654 53.65% 11 32,100 1.40% – 7,816 0.34% – 452 0.02% – −208,422 −9.06% 2,299,254 AZ

Arkansas
Arkansas
WTA 394,409 36.88% – 647,744 60.57% 6 16,276 1.52% – 9,305 0.87% – 1,734 0.16% – −253,335 −23.69% 1,069,468 AR

California
California
WTA 7,854,285 60.24% 55 4,839,958 37.12% – 143,221 1.10% – 85,638 0.66% – 115,445 0.89% – 3,014,327 23.12% 13,038,547 CA

Colorado
Colorado
WTA 1,323,101 51.49% 9 1,185,243 46.13% – 35,545 1.38% – 7,508 0.29% – 18,121 0.71% – 137,858 5.37% 2,569,518 CO

Connecticut WTA 905,083 58.06% 7 634,892 40.73% – 12,580 0.81% – 863 0.06% – 5,542 0.36% – 270,191 17.33% 1,558,960 CT

Delaware
Delaware
WTA 242,584 58.61% 3 165,484 39.98% – 3,882 0.94% – 1,940 0.47% – 31 0.01% – 77,100 18.63% 413,921 DE

District of ColumbiaDistrict of Columbia WTA 267,070 90.91% 3 21,381 7.28% – 2,083 0.71% – 2,458 0.84% – 772 0.26% – 245,689 83.63% 293,764 DC

Florida WTA 4,237,756 50.01% 29 4,163,447 49.13% – 44,726 0.53% – 8,947 0.11% – 19,303 0.23% – 74,309 0.88% 8,474,179 FL

Georgia WTA 1,773,827 45.48% – 2,078,688 53.30% 16 45,324 1.16% – 1,516 0.04% – 695 0.02% – −304,861 −7.82% 3,900,050 GA

Hawaii
Hawaii
WTA 306,658 70.55% 4 121,015 27.84% – 3,840 0.88% – 3,184 0.73% – 0 0.00% – 185,643 42.71% 434,697 HI

Idaho WTA 212,787 32.62% – 420,911 64.53% 4 9,453 1.45% – 4,402 0.67% – 4,721 0.72% – −208,124 −31.91% 652,274 ID

Illinois
Illinois
WTA 3,019,512 57.60% 20 2,135,216 40.73% – 56,229 1.07% – 30,222 0.58% – 835 0.02% – 884,296 16.87% 5,242,014 IL

Indiana WTA 1,152,887 43.93% – 1,420,543 54.13% 11 50,111 1.91% – 625 0.02% – 368 0.01% – −267,656 −10.20% 2,624,534 IN

Iowa
Iowa
WTA 822,544 51.99% 6 730,617 46.18% – 12,926 0.82% – 3,769 0.24% – 12,324 0.78% – 91,927 5.81% 1,582,180 IA

Kansas WTA 440,726 37.99% – 692,634 59.71% 6 20,456 1.76% – 714 0.06% – 5,441 0.47% – −251,908 −21.72% 1,159,971 KS

Kentucky
Kentucky
WTA 679,370 37.80% – 1,087,190 60.49% 8 17,063 0.95% – 6,337 0.35% – 7,252 0.40% – −407,820 −22.69% 1,797,212 KY

Louisiana
Louisiana
WTA 809,141 40.58% – 1,152,262 57.78% 8 18,157 0.91% – 6,978 0.35% – 7,527 0.38% – −343,121 −17.21% 1,994,065 LA

Maine WTA 401,306 56.27% 2 292,276 40.98% – 9,352 1.31% – 8,119 1.14% – 2,127 0.30% – 109,030 15.29% 713,180 ME–a/l

Maryland WTA 1,677,844 61.97% 10 971,869 35.90% – 30,195 1.12% – 17,110 0.63% – 10,309 0.38% – 705,975 26.08% 2,707,327 MD

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
WTA 1,921,290 60.65% 11 1,188,314 37.51% – 30,920 0.98% – 20,691 0.65% – 6,552 0.21% – 732,976 23.14% 3,167,767 MA

Michigan
Michigan
WTA 2,564,569 54.21% 16 2,115,256 44.71% – 7,774 0.16% – 21,897 0.46% – 21,465 0.45% – 449,313 9.50% 4,730,961 MI

Minnesota
Minnesota
WTA 1,546,167 52.65% 10 1,320,225 44.96% – 35,098 1.20% – 13,023 0.44% – 22,048 0.75% – 225,942 7.69% 2,936,561 MN

Mississippi WTA 562,949 43.79% – 710,746 55.29% 6 6,676 0.52% – 1,588 0.12% – 3,625 0.28% – −147,797 −11.50% 1,285,584 MS

Missouri WTA 1,223,796 44.38% – 1,482,440 53.76% 10 43,151 1.56% – 0 0.00% – 7,936 0.29% – −258,644 −9.38% 2,757,323 MO

Montana WTA 201,839 41.70% – 267,928 55.35% 3 14,165 2.93% – 0 0.00% – 116 0.02% – −66,089 −13.65% 484,048 MT

Nebraska WTA 302,081 38.03% – 475,064 59.80% 2 11,109 1.40% – 0 0.00% – 6,125 0.77% – −172,983 −21.78% 794,379 NE–a/l

Nevada WTA 531,373 52.36% 6 463,567 45.68% – 10,968 1.08% – 0 0.00% – 9,010 0.89% – 67,806 6.68% 1,014,918 NV

New Hampshire WTA 369,561 51.98% 4 329,918 46.40% – 8,212 1.16% – 324 0.05% – 2,957 0.42% – 39,643 5.58% 710,972 NH

New Jersey WTA 2,125,101 58.38% 14 1,477,568 40.59% – 21,045 0.58% – 9,888 0.27% – 6,690 0.18% – 647,533 17.81% 3,640,292 NJ

New Mexico
New Mexico
WTA 415,335 52.99% 5 335,788 42.84% – 27,788 3.55% – 2,691 0.34% – 2,156 0.28% – 79,547 10.15% 783,758 NM

New York WTA 4,485,741 63.35% 29 2,490,431 35.17% – 47,256 0.67% – 39,982 0.56% – 17,749 0.25% – 1,995,310 28.18% 7,081,159 NY

North Carolina WTA 2,178,391 48.35% – 2,270,395 50.39% 15 44,515 0.99% – 0 0.00% – 12,071 0.27% – −92,004 −2.04% 4,505,372 NC

North Dakota WTA 124,827 38.69% – 188,163 58.32% 3 5,231 1.62% – 1,361 0.42% – 3,045 0.94% – −63,336 −19.63% 322,627 ND

Ohio WTA 2,827,709 50.67% 18 2,661,437 47.69% – 49,493 0.89% – 18,573 0.33% – 23,635 0.42% – 166,272 2.98% 5,580,847 OH

Oklahoma WTA 443,547 33.23% – 891,325 66.77% 7 0 0.00% – 0 0.00% – 0 0.00% – −447,778 −33.54% 1,334,872 OK

Oregon WTA 970,488 54.24% 7 754,175 42.15% – 24,089 1.35% – 19,427 1.09% – 21,091 1.18% – 216,313 12.09% 1,789,270 OR

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
WTA 2,990,274 51.97% 20 2,680,434 46.59% – 49,991 0.87% – 21,341 0.37% – 11,630 0.20% – 309,840 5.39% 5,753,670 PA

Rhode Island WTA 279,677 62.70% 4 157,204 35.24% – 4,388 0.98% – 2,421 0.54% – 2,359 0.53% – 122,473 27.46% 446,049 RI

South Carolina WTA 865,941 44.09% – 1,071,645 54.56% 9 16,321 0.83% – 5,446 0.28% – 4,765 0.24% – −205,704 −10.47% 1,964,118 SC

South Dakota WTA 145,039 39.87% – 210,610 57.89% 3 5,795 1.59% – 0 0.00% – 2,371 0.65% – −65,571 −18.02% 363,815 SD

Tennessee
Tennessee
WTA 960,709 39.08% – 1,462,330 59.48% 11 18,623 0.76% – 6,515 0.26% – 10,400 0.42% – −501,621 −20.40% 2,458,577 TN

Texas
Texas
WTA 3,308,124 41.38% – 4,569,843 57.17% 38 88,580 1.11% – 24,657 0.31% – 2,647 0.03% – −1,261,719 −15.78% 7,993,851 TX

Utah
Utah
WTA 251,813 24.75% – 740,600 72.79% 6 12,572 1.24% – 3,817 0.38% – 8,638 0.85% – −488,787 −48.04% 1,017,440 UT

Vermont WTA 199,239 66.57% 3 92,698 30.97% – 3,487 1.17% – 594 0.20% – 3,272 1.09% – 106,541 35.60% 299,290 VT

Virginia
Virginia
WTA 1,971,820 51.16% 13 1,822,522 47.28% – 31,216 0.81% – 8,627 0.22% – 20,304 0.53% – 149,298 3.87% 3,854,489 VA

Washington WTA 1,755,396 56.16% 12 1,290,670 41.29% – 42,202 1.35% – 20,928 0.67% – 16,320 0.52% – 464,726 14.87% 3,125,516 WA

West Virginia
Virginia
WTA 238,269 35.54% – 417,655 62.30% 5 6,302 0.94% – 4,406 0.66% – 3,806 0.57% – −179,386 −26.76% 670,438 WV

Wisconsin
Wisconsin
WTA 1,620,985 52.83% 10 1,407,966 45.89% – 20,439 0.67% – 7,665 0.25% – 11,379 0.37% – 213,019 6.94% 3,068,434 WI

Wyoming WTA 69,286 27.82% – 170,962 68.64% 3 5,326 2.14% – 0 0.00% – 3,487 1.40% – −101,676 −40.82% 249,061 WY

U.S. TOTAL – 65,915,795 51.06% 332 60,933,504 47.20% 206 1,275,971 0.99% – 469,627 0.36% – 490,510 0.38% – 4,982,291 3.86% 129,085,410 US

Maine And Nebraska District Results

★Maine and Nebraska each allow for their electoral votes to be split between candidates. In the 2012 election, all four of Maine's electoral votes were won by Obama
Obama
and all five of Nebraska's electoral votes were won by Romney. The following table records the official presidential vote tallies for Maine and Nebraska's congressional districts.

DISTRICT OBAMA % ROMNEY % JOHNSON % STEIN % TERRY % MARGIN % TOTAL

Maine\'s 1st congressional district 223,035 59.57% 142,937 38.18% 4,501 1.20% 3,946 1.05% 0 0.00% 80,098 21.39% 374,419

Maine\'s 2nd congressional district 177,998 52.94% 149,215 44.38% 4,843 1.44% 4,170 1.24% 0 0.00% 28,783 8.56% 336,226

Nebraska\'s 1st congressional district 108,082 40.83% 152,021 57.43% 3,847 1.45% 0 0.00% 762 0.29% −43,939 −16.60% 264,712

Nebraska\'s 2nd congressional district 121,889 45.70% 140,976 52.85% 3,393 1.27% 0 0.00% 469 0.18% −19,087 −7.16% 266,727

Nebraska\'s 3rd congressional district 72,110 27.82% 182,067 70.24% 3,869 1.49% 0 0.00% 1,177 0.45% −109,957 −42.42% 259,223

CLOSE RACES

Swing from 2008 to 2012 in each state. Only six states swung more Democratic in 2012: Alaska, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey, and New York. The arrows to the right represent how many places up or down on the list the state moved since 2008. States are listed by (increasing) percentage of Democratic votes.

Red denotes states (or congressional districts that contribute an electoral vote) won by Republican Mitt Romney; blue denotes those won by Democrat Barack Obama.

State where the margin of victory was under 1% (29 electoral votes):

* FLORIDA, 0.88%

States where the margin of victory was under 5% (46 electoral votes):

* NORTH CAROLINA, 2.04% * OHIO, 2.98% * VIRGINIA, 3.87%

States/districts where the margin of victory was between 5% and 10% (120 electoral votes):

* COLORADO, 5.37% (tipping point state) * PENNSYLVANIA, 5.39% * NEW HAMPSHIRE, 5.58% * IOWA, 5.81% * NEVADA, 6.68% * WISCONSIN, 6.94% * NEBRASKA\'S 2ND CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT, 7.16% * MINNESOTA, 7.69% * GEORGIA, 7.82% * MAINE\'S 2ND CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT, 8.56% * ARIZONA, 9.06% * MISSOURI, 9.38% * MICHIGAN, 9.50%

ROMNEY\'S CONCESSION

Obama
Obama
takes a phone call from Romney conceding the election early Wednesday morning in Chicago.

After the networks called Ohio (the state that was arguably the most critical for Romney, as no Republican has ever won the Presidency without carrying it) for Obama
Obama
at around 11:15 PM EST on Election Day, Romney was ready to concede the race, but hesitated when Karl Rove strenuously objected on Fox News to the network's decision to make that call. However, after Colorado
Colorado
and Nevada were called for the President (giving Obama
Obama
enough electoral votes to win even if Ohio were to leave his column), in tandem with Obama's apparent lead in Florida and Virginia
Virginia
(both were eventually called for Obama), Romney acknowledged that he had lost and conceded at around 1:00 AM EST on November 7.

Despite public polling showing Romney behind Obama
Obama
in the swing states of Nevada, Colorado, Iowa, Wisconsin, Ohio, and New Hampshire, tied with Obama
Obama
in Virginia, and just barely ahead of Obama
Obama
in Florida, the Romney campaign said they were genuinely surprised by the loss, having believed that public polling was oversampling Democrats. The Romney campaign had already set up a transition website, and had scheduled and purchased a fireworks display to celebrate in case he won the election.

On November 30, 2012, it was revealed that shortly before the election, internal polling done by the Romney campaign had shown Romney ahead in Colorado
Colorado
and New Hampshire, tied in Iowa, and within a few points of Obama
Obama
in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, and Ohio. In addition, the Romney campaign had assumed that they would win Florida and Virginia. The polls had made Romney and his campaign team so confident of their victory that Romney did not write a concession speech until Obama's victory was announced.

REACTIONS

Further information: International reactions to the United States presidential election, 2012

Foreign leaders reacted with both positive and mixed messages. Most world leaders congratulated and praised Barack Obama
Barack Obama
on his re-election victory. However, Venezuela and some other states had tempered reactions. Pakistan commented that Romney's defeat had made Pakistan- United States
United States
relations safer. Stock markets fell noticeably after Obama's re-election, with the Dow Jones Industrial Average
Dow Jones Industrial Average
, NASDAQ
NASDAQ
, and the S&P 500 each declining over two percent the day after the election. By his inauguration, however, the markets had gained back all the losses and a bull run began that culminated in 2015 when the Dow closed at an all-time high of 18,312, the NASDAQ
NASDAQ
reached the milestone of 5,210, and the S of them, 71% voted for Barack Obama (increasing his percentage of the vote by 5%); therefore, the Hispanic vote was an important factor in Obama's re-election, since the vote difference between the two main parties was only 3.9%

SOURCE: Exit polls conducted by Edison Research of Somerville, New Jersey , for the National Election Pool, a consortium of ABC News, Associated Press, CBS News, CNN, Fox News, and NBC News. Total vote and results by region are based on the "Votes by state" section of this article.

ANALYSIS

Combined with the re-elections of Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
and George W. Bush , Obama's victory in the 2012 election marked only the second time in American history that three consecutive presidents were each elected to two or more full terms (the first time being the consecutive two-term presidencies of Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
, James Madison
James Madison
, and James Monroe ). This was also the first election since 1944 in which neither of the major candidates had any military experience.

The 2012 election marked the first time since Franklin D. Roosevelt 's last two re-elections in 1940 and 1944 that a Democratic presidential candidate won a majority of the popular vote in two consecutive elections. Obama
Obama
was also the first president of either party to secure at least 51% of the popular vote in two elections since Dwight Eisenhower in 1952 and 1956. Obama
Obama
is the third Democratic president to secure at least 51% of the vote twice, after Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Romney won the popular vote in 226 congressional districts making this the first time since 1960 that the winner of the election did not win the popular vote in a majority of the congressional districts.

Romney lost his home state of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, becoming the first major party presidential candidate to lose his home state since Democrat Al Gore lost his home state of Tennessee
Tennessee
to Republican George W. Bush in the 2000 election . Romney lost his home state by more than 23%, the worst losing margin for a major party candidate since John Frémont in 1856 . Even worse than Frémont, Romney failed to win a single county in his home state. In addition, since Obama carried Ryan's home state of Wisconsin
Wisconsin
, the Romney–Ryan ticket was the first major party ticket since the 1972 election to have both of its nominees lose their home states. Romney won the popular vote in every county of three states: Utah, Oklahoma, and West Virginia; Obama did so in four states: Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Hawaii.

Romney's loss prompted the Republican National Committee to try to appeal to the American Latino population by concentrating on different approaches to immigration. These were short-lived due to activity and anger from the Republican base and may have contributed to the selection of Donald Trump
Donald Trump
as their presidential candidate four years later.

Gary Johnson 's popular vote total set a Libertarian Party record, and his popular vote percentage was the second-best showing for a Libertarian in a presidential election, trailing only Ed Clark 's in 1980 . Johnson would go on to beat this record in the 2016 presidential election, winning the most votes for the Libertarian ticket in history. At the time, Green Party candidate Jill Stein
Jill Stein
's popular vote total made her the most successful female presidential candidate in a general election in United States
United States
history. This was later surpassed by Hillary Clinton in the 2016
2016
election.

Obama's vote total was the second most votes received in the history of presidential elections and the most ever for a reelected president. Obama
Obama
owns the all-time record for votes in a single election as well in 2008. However, Obama
Obama
also became the first president in American history to be reelected to a second term by smaller margins in every way possible: Compared to his victory in 2008, he won fewer states (28 to 26), fewer electoral votes (365 to 332), fewer popular votes (69.5 million to 65.9 million), and a smaller percentage of the popular vote (52.9% to 51.1%).

As Obama's performance is Washington D.C. in 2012 was slightly weaker than his own performance in the district in 2008, a streak of 5 consecutive elections of repeated unprecedentedly larger and larger Democratic Margins of victory which had lasted from 1992 to 2008 within the district was broken. In 2016, Hillary Clinton's margin of victory in the district exceeded Obama's 2008 margin, bringing the district back into the routine of providing unprecedentedly large Democrat victories, making 2012 a clear outlier to these trends.

MAPS

*

Results by state, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote *

Results by county. Blue denotes counties that went to Obama; red denotes counties that went to Romney. Hawaii, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Vermont had all counties go to Obama. Oklahoma, Utah, and West Virginia
Virginia
had all counties go to Romney. *

Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote. *

Popular vote by county shaded on a scale from red/Republican to blue/Democratic *

Cartogram of popular vote by county shaded on a scale from red/Republican to blue/Democratic where each county has been rescaled in proportion to its population *

Cartogram of the electoral vote results, with each square representing one electoral vote. *

2012 Presidential Election, Results by Congressional District. *

Change in popular vote margins at the county level from the 2008 election to the 2012 election. Blue denotes counties that voted more Democratic. Red denotes counties that voted more Republican. Romney's strongest improvements over McCain were in Utah
Utah
and Appalachia, while Obama's strongest gains were in Alaska, the New York area, and the Gulf states. *

Treemap of the popular vote by county, state, and locally predominant recipient

GALLERY

*

The Empire State Building
Empire State Building
in New York City
New York City
was lit blue when CNN called Ohio for Obama, projecting him the winner of the election. Likewise, red would have been used if Romney won. *

The Obamas and the Bidens embrace following the television announcement of their victory. *

The Obamas and the Bidens walk on stage at the election night victory celebration at McCormick Place
McCormick Place
in Chicago. *

Former Governor Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
meets with President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
at the White House after the 2012 presidential election.

SEE ALSO

* United States
United States
portal * Politics portal * 2010s portal

* Planned presidential transition of Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
* United States
United States
Senate elections, 2012 * United States
United States
House of Representatives elections, 2012 * United States
United States
gubernatorial elections, 2012 * Nationwide opinion polling for the United States
United States
presidential election, 2012 * Statewide opinion polling for the United States
United States
presidential election, 2012 * United States
United States
presidential election, 2012 timeline * Second inauguration of Barack Obama
Barack Obama

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FURTHER READING

* Gardner, Liz, et al. "Press Coverage of the 2012 US Presidential Election: A Multinational, Cross-Language Comparison". in Die US-Präsidentschaftswahl 2012 (Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 2016). pp 241–267. * Hansen, Wendy L., Michael S. Rocca, and Brittany Leigh Ortiz. "The effects of Citizens United on corporate spending in the 2012 presidential election". Journal of Politics 77.2 (2015): 535-545. in JSTOR * Heilemann, John ; Halperin, Mark (2013). Double Down: Game Change 2012 . New York: Penguin Press . ISBN 1594204403 . * Masket, Seth, John Sides, and Lynn Vavreck. "The Ground Game in the 2012 Presidential Election". Political Communication (2015) 33#2 pp: 1-19. * Mayer, William G.; Bernstein, Jonathan, eds. (2012). The Making of the Presidential Candidates, 2012. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-1170-4 . Scholars explore nominations in the post-public-funding era, digital media and campaigns, television coverage, and the Tea Party. * Miller, William J., ed. The 2012 Nomination and the Future of the Republican Party: The Internal Battle (Lexington Books; 2013) 265 pages; essays by experts on Romney and each of his main rivals * Nelson, Michael, ed. The Elections of 2012 (2013) excerpt and text search; topical essays by experts * Sides, John, and Lynn Vavreck. The Gamble: Choice and Chance in the 2012 Presidential Election (Princeton U.P. 2013) excerpt and text search * Stempel III, Guido H. and Thomas K. Hargrove, eds. The 21st-Century Voter: Who Votes, How They Vote, and Why They Vote (2 vol. 2015).

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