1 Life and activism 2 Armand's individualist anarchism
Life and activism
Armand was born in Paris on March 26, 1872. He was a son of a
participant of the Paris Commune. At first, he embraced Christianity
Part of the Politics series on
Schools of thought
Black Capitalist Christian Collectivist Communist Egoist Existentialist Feminist Green Individualist Insurrectionary Leftist Left-wing market Magonist Mutualist Naturist Pacifist Philosophical Platformist Post-anarchist Post-colonial Post-left Primitivist Queer Social Syndicalist Synthesist Vegan Without adjectives
Anarchy Anarchist Black Cross Anationalism Anti-authoritarianism Anti-militarism Affinity group Black bloc Classless society Class struggle Communes Consensus democracy Conscientious objector Counter-economics Decentralization Deep ecology Direct action Direct democracy Dual power Especifismo Expropriative anarchism Free association Free love Free school Freethought Horizontalidad Illegalism Individualism Individual reclamation Isocracy Law Mutual aid Participatory politics Permanent autonomous zone Prefigurative politics Proletarian internationalism Propaganda of the deed Refusal of work Revolution Rewilding Self-ownership Social center Social ecology Social insertion Somatherapy Spontaneous order Squatting Temporary Autonomous Zone Union of egoists
Émile Armand Mikhail Bakunin Alexander Berkman Alfredo M. Bonanno Murray Bookchin Noam Chomsky Buenaventura Durruti Sébastien Faure David D. Friedman Mahatma Gandhi William Godwin Emma Goldman Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia Peter Kropotkin Gustav Landauer Ricardo Flores Magón Nestor Makhno Errico Malatesta Louise Michel Johann Most Rudolf Rocker Murray Rothbard Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Diego Abad de Santillán Lysander Spooner Max Stirner Henry David Thoreau Leo Tolstoy Benjamin Tucker Volin Colin Ward Josiah Warren John Zerzan
Anarcho-capitalism Crypto-anarchism Animal rights Capitalism Education Criticisms Islam Lifestylism Marxism Nationalism Orthodox Judaism Religion Love and sex Violence
International Conference of Rome
Trial of the Thirty
Anarchist Exclusion Act
Congress of Amsterdam
High Treason Incident
Manifesto of the Sixteen
Spanish Revolution Barcelona May Days Red inverted triangle Labadie Collection May 1968 Provo LIP Kate Sharpley Library Australian Anarchist Centenary Carnival Against Capital 1999 Seattle WTO protests Occupy movement
Films Anarchist Bookfair Anarcho-punk Arts Culture jamming DIY culture Freeganism Hip hop Independent Media Center Infoshop The Internationale Jewish anarchism "Land and liberty" Lifestylism "No gods, no masters" Popular education "Property is theft!" Radical cheerleading Radical environmentalism Red and Anarchist Skinheads Squatting Symbolism Glossary A las Barricadas
Communization Co-operatives Cost the limit of price Economic democracy Economic secession Gift economy Give-away shop Market abolitionism Mass strike Mutual aid Participatory economics Really Really Free Market Socialization Wage slavery Workers' self-management
Africa Argentina Australia Azerbaijan Bolivia Brazil Canada China Cuba Ecuador Egypt France French Guiana Germany Greece India Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Mexico Monaco New Zealand Poland Puerto Rico Romania Russia Singapore South Africa Spain Sweden Transnistria Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States Venezuela Vietnam
Anti-capitalism Anti-corporatism Anti-consumerism Anti-fascism Anti-globalization Anti-statism Anti-war Autarchism Autonomism Communism Labour movement Left communism Libertarianism Libertarian socialism Libertarian marxism Marxism Situationist International Socialism Spontaneous order
v t e
Part of a series on
Topics and concepts
Autonomy Civil liberties Do it yourself Eremitism Free love Freethought Human rights Individual Individual rights Individual reclamation Individuation Laissez-faire Libertinism Liberty Methodological individualism Negative liberty Personal property Positive liberty Private property Self-actualization Self-ownership Self reliance Subjectivity
Antiphon Aristippus Aristotle Émile Armand Albert Camus Diogenes of Sinope Ralph Waldo Emerson Epicurus William Godwin Emma Goldman Friedrich Hayek Karl Hess Miguel Giménez Igualada Thomas Jefferson Laozi Albert Libertad John Locke Hipparchia of Maroneia H. L. Mencken John Stuart Mill Ludwig von Mises Michel de Montaigne Friedrich Nietzsche Renzo Novatore Robert Nozick Michel Onfray Georges Palante Horst Matthai Quelle Ayn Rand Murray Rothbard Han Ryner Marquis de Sade Arthur Schopenhauer Adam Smith Herbert Spencer Lysander Spooner Max Stirner Henry David Thoreau Benjamin Tucker James L. Walker Josiah Warren Oscar Wilde Zeno Yang Zhu
Anarchism Anarcho-capitalism Classical liberalism Egoist anarchism Ethical egoism Existentialism Hedonism Humanism Individualist anarchism Individualist feminism
Equity feminism Liberal feminism
Left-libertarianism Left-wing market anarchism Liberalism Libertarianism Libertarian socialism Minarchism Mutualism Objectivism Right libertarianism Social anarchism Voluntaryism
v t e
For Spanish historian Xavier Diez the political philosophy of Émile
Armand can be understood through the consideration of 4 main themes:
his definition of individualism, the dynamics between the individual
and society, individualist ethics, and the subject of association
Armand liked to emphasize the difference that his individualist
anarchism has with the social anarchist currents. As such, he rejected
the usual call of anarcho-communism for revolution. He argued that
waiting for revolution meant waiting for the masses to gain awareness
and will and delaying the enjoyment of liberty until that event comes.
Instead he advocated living under one's own conditions in the present
time, revolting against social conditioning in daily life and living
with those with an affinity to oneself in accord to the values and
desire they share. He says the individualist is "a presentist" and
"he could not, without bad reasoning and illogic, think of sacrificing
his being, or his having, to the coming of a state of things he will
not immediately enjoy".
From the influence of
The ruling classes, through the intermediary of the State, ensure that only their own views on culture, morality and economic conditions, are allowed to penetrate to the masses. They set up their own views in the form of civil dogmas, which no man may violate under pain of punishment, just as in former times, during the reign of the Church, there were severe penalties for daring to challenge religious dogmas. The State – the laic form of the Church – has replaced the Church which was the religious form of the State – but the aim of both has always been to form, not free beings, but true believers or perfect citizens. In other words slaves to dogma or law. The anarchist replies that when solidarity is imposed from without it is worthless; that when a contract is enforced there is no longer any question of rights or duties; that coercion releases him from the bonds which attach him to a so-called society whose executives he knows only in the guise of administrators, law-givers, judges and policemen; that he supports only the solidarity of his everyday relationships. Fictitious and imposed solidarity is worthless solidarity.
From an individualist perspective Armand sees that one better look for those with an affinity to oneself and freely associate with one another with the possibility of breaking or interrupting the association or encounter at any time one of the parts wants it. In this way he applies this rule to friendship, love, sexual encounters and economic transactions. He adheres to an ethics of reciprocity and sees the chances of one's self realization as enhanced by the association with others seeing this as the main reason for propaganda of one's own values. Armand’s
"ideas about freedom in sexual matters come from Fourier’s “theory of the four movements”, which was as disdained by some “puritan” anarchists as Proudhon was. Fourier explains that humans have to follow the patterns of a markedly sexual universe which always moves in harmony, proposing a new organization of the amorous world in which everyone would be able to express their individuality in the plurality of encounters, which would permit all forms of love, encouraging every imaginable kind of associations."
A hedonistic individualism is advocated when he manifests that
"(Charles) Fourier saw it clearly when he launched his truly majestic expression of “the utilization of the passions”. A reasonable being utilizes; only the senseless suppress and mutilate. “Utilize one’s own passions” yes, but for whose benefit? For one’s own benefit, to make one’s self someone “more alive”, that is, more open to the multiple sensations that life offers. The happiness of living! Life is beautiful for whoever goes beyond the borders of conventional existence, whoever evades the hell of industrialism and commercialism, whoever rejects the stink of the alleys and taverns. Life is beautiful for whoever constructs it without care for the restrictions of respectability, of the fear of “what they’ll say” or of the gossips...Our individualism is not an individualism of the graveyard, an individualism of sadness and of shadow, an individualism of pain and suffering. Our individualism is a creator of happiness, in us and outside of us. We want to find happiness wherever it is possible, thanks to our potential as seekers, discoverers, realizers.".
For this a hedonistic logic is put forward and so Armand does not
"classify pleasures as superior or inferior, good or bad, useful or harmful, favorable or inconvenient. The ones that make me love life more are useful. The ones that make me hate it or depreciate it are harmful. Favorable are the enjoyments that make me feel like I’m living more fully, unfavorable those that contribute to the shrinking of my feeling of being alive. I feel myself to be a slave as long as I consent to others judging my passions. Not because I’m not really passionate, but because I want to flesh out my passions and impassion my flesh.".
Economics In economics he says that the individualist anarchist "inwardly he remains refractory – fatally refractory – morally, intellectually, economically (The capitalist economy and the directed economy, the speculators and the fabricators of single are equally repugnant to him.)" He adheres to the following pluralistic logic as a form of individualist anarchist economics:
Here and there everything happening – here everyone receiving what they need, there each one getting whatever is needed according to their own capacity. Here, gift and barter – one product for another; there, exchange – product for representative value. Here, the producer is the owner of the product, there, the product is put to the possession of the collectivity.
L’idéal libertaire et sa réalisation., 1904.
De la liberté sexuelle, 1907.
Mon athéisme, 1908.
Qu'est-ce qu'un anarchiste ? Thèses et opinions, Paris,
Éditions de l'anarchie, 1908, 179 p.
Le Malthusianisme, le néo-malthusianisme et le point de vue
La Procréation volontaire au point de vue individualiste, 1910.
Est-ce cela que vous appelez « vivre ? », 1910.
Les Ouvriers, les syndicats et les anarchistes, 1910.
Mon point de vue de « l’anarchisme individualiste »,
La Vie comme expérience, 1916.
Les besoins factices, les stimulants et les individualistes, 1917.
Le plus grand danger de l’après-guerre, 1917.
Lettre ouverte aux travailleurs des champs, 1919.
L’illégalisme anarchiste. Le mécanisme judiciaire et le point de
vue individualiste, 1923.
L’illégaliste anarchiste est-il notre camarade ?, 1923. in
L’Initiation individualiste anarchiste, 1923.
Entretien sur la liberté de l’amour, 1924.
L’ABC de « nos » revendications individualistes
Liberté sexuelle, 1925.
Amour libre et liberté sexuelle, 1925.
Realism and Idealism mixed – Reflections of an Anarchist
Ways of Life in Common without State nor Authority: Sexual and
Economic Experiences through History. 1931
Libertinage and Prostitution: great prostitutes and famous libertines:
influence of the sexual act in the political and social life of
La révolution sexuelle et la camaraderie amoureuse [The Sexual
WorldCat Identities VIAF: 2610468 LCCN: n88277104 ISNI: 0000 0000 8082 2725 GND: 124398863 SUDOC: 035182911 BNF: cb13172574m (da