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Wheel Arrangement
In rail transport , a WHEEL ARRANGEMENT or WHEEL CONFIGURATION is a system of classifying the way in which wheels are distributed under a locomotive . Several notations exist to describe the wheel assemblies of a locomotive by type, position, and connections, with the adopted notations varying by country. Within a given country, different notations may also be employed for different kinds of locomotives, such as steam , electric , and diesel powered. Especially in steam days, wheel arrangement was an important attribute of a locomotive because there were many different types of layout adopted, each wheel being optimised for a different use (often with only some being actually "driven"). Modern diesel and electric locomotives are much more uniform, usually with all axles driven
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Narrow Gauge Railway
A NARROW-GAUGE RAILWAY (or NARROW-GAUGE RAILROAD in the US) is a railway with a track gauge narrower than the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) of standard gauge railways. Most existing narrow-gauge railways are between 600 mm (1 ft 11 5⁄8 in) and 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in). Since narrow-gauge railways are usually built with smaller radius curves, smaller structure gauges , lighter rails, etc., they can be substantially less costly to build, equip, and operate than standard gauge or broad gauge railways, particularly in mountainous or difficult terrain. The lower costs of narrow-gauge railways mean they are often built to serve industries and communities where the traffic potential would not justify the cost of building a standard or broad gauge line. Narrow-gauge railways also have specialized use in mines and other environments where a very small structure gauge makes a very small loading gauge necessary. Narrow-gauge railways also have more general applications
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Switzerland
SWITZERLAND (/ˈswɪtsərlənd/ ), officially the SWISS CONFEDERATION, is a federal republic in Europe
Europe
. It consists of 26 cantons , and the city of Bern
Bern
is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western -Central Europe
Europe
, and is bordered by Italy
Italy
to the south, France
France
to the west, Germany
Germany
to the north, and Austria
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the east. Switzerland
Switzerland
is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps
Alps
, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura , spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (land area 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi))
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Europe
EUROPE is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia
Eurasia
. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Though the term "continent" implies physical geography defines it, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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North America
NORTH AMERICA is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas
Americas
. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Switcher
A SWITCHER or SHUNTER ( Great Britain
Great Britain
: shunter; Australia: shunter or YARD PILOT; United States: switcher, SWITCH ENGINE, or YARD GOAT, except Pennsylvania Railroad
Pennsylvania Railroad
: SHIFTER) is a small railroad locomotive intended not for moving trains over long distances but rather for assembling trains ready for a road locomotive to take over, disassembling a train that has been brought in, and generally moving railroad cars around – a process usually known as switching (USA) or shunting (UK). They do this in classification yards ( Great Britain
Great Britain
: marshalling yards). Switchers may also make short transfer runs and even be the only motive power on branch lines and switching and terminal railroads . The term can also be used to describe the workers operating these engines or engaged in directing shunting operations
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2-2-4T
In Whyte notation , a 2-2-4T
2-2-4T
is a railroad steam locomotive that has two leading wheels followed by two coupled driving wheels and four trailing wheels . This was an unusual wheel arrangement, only used on a few specialised locomotives. EQUIVALENT CLASSIFICATIONSOther equivalent classifications are: * UIC classification : 1A2 (also known as German classification and Italian classification ) * French classification
French classification
: 112 * Turkish classification : 14 * Swiss classification : 1/4UK EXAMPLESIn the United Kingdom, the North Eastern Railway , had four tank locomotives of this wheel arrangement, all of which had previously been rebuilt from other types. They were: No. 66 Aerolite rebuilt as a 2-2-4T
2-2-4T
in 1902 and later known as in LNER class X1; No
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0-4-0
Under the Whyte notation
Whyte notation
for the classification of steam locomotives , 0-4-0
0-4-0
represents one of the simplest possible types, that with two axles and four coupled wheels, all of which are driven. The wheels on the earliest four-coupled locomotives were connected by a single gear wheel , but from 1825 the wheels were usually connected with coupling rods to form a single driven set. The notation 0-4-0T indicates a tank locomotive of this wheel arrangement on which its water and fuel is carried on board the engine itself, rather than in an attached tender . In Britain, the Whyte notation
Whyte notation
of wheel arrangement was also often used for the classification of electric and diesel-electric locomotives with side-rod-coupled driving wheels
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2-4-4T
In Whyte notation
Whyte notation
, a 2-4-4 is a steam locomotive with two unpowered leading wheels followed by four powered driving wheels and four unpowered trailing wheels . EQUIVALENT CLASSIFICATIONSOther equivalent classifications are: * UIC classification : 1B2 (also known as German classification and Italian classification ) * French classification
French classification
: 122 * Turkish classification : 25 * Swiss classification
Swiss classification
: 2/5The equivalent UIC classification is 1\'B2\' (or (1\'B)\'2\' for a Mason Bogie). EXAMPLESThis unusual wheel arrangement does not appear to have been used on the mainline railways in the UK. It was however one of the configurations used on the Mason Bogie
Mason Bogie
articulated locomotives , in the USA during the 1870s and 1880s
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2-4-6
In Whyte notation
Whyte notation
, a 2-4-6 is a steam locomotive with two unpowered leading wheels followed by four powered driving wheels and six unpowered trailing wheels . EQUIVALENT CLASSIFICATIONSOther equivalent classifications are: * UIC classification : 1\'B3\' (also known as German classification and Italian classification ) * French classification
French classification
: 123 * Turkish classification : 26 * Swiss classification
Swiss classification
: 2/6The equivalent UIC classification is 1\'B3\' (or (1\'B)\'3\' for a Mason Bogie). EXAMPLESThis unusual wheel arrangement does not appear to have been used on the mainline railways in the UK. It was, however, one of the configurations used on the Mason Bogie articulated locomotives , in the US during the 1880s
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Rail Transport
RAIL TRANSPORT is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks . It is also commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport , where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles (rolling stock ) are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks usually consist of steel rails, installed on ties (sleepers) and ballast , on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are also possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock
Rolling stock
in a rail transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars (carriages and wagons) can be coupled into longer trains
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Ireland
IRELAND (/ˈaɪərlənd/ ( listen ); Irish : Éire ( listen ); Ulster-Scots : Airlann ) is an island in the North Atlantic
North Atlantic
. It is separated from Great Britain
Great Britain
to its east by the North Channel , the Irish Sea , and St George\'s Channel . Ireland
Ireland
is the second-largest island of the British Isles
British Isles
, the third-largest in Europe
Europe
, and the twentieth-largest on Earth
Earth
. Politically, Ireland
Ireland
is divided between the Republic of Ireland (officially named Ireland
Ireland
), which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
, which is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, in the northeast of the island
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France
FRANCE (French: ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (French: République française, pronounced ), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe
Europe
, as well as several overseas regions and territories . The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea
North Sea
, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America
South America
and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Steam Locomotive
A STEAM LOCOMOTIVE is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine . These locomotives are fueled by burning combustible material – usually coal, wood, or oil – to produce steam in a boiler . The steam moves reciprocating pistons which are mechanically connected to the locomotive's main wheels (drivers). Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive, either on the locomotive itself or in wagons (tenders) pulled behind. The first steam locomotive, made by Richard Trevithick , first operated on 21 February 1804, three years after the road locomotive he made in 1801. The first practical steam locomotive was created in 1812–13 by John Blenkinsop . Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert 's company Robert Stephenson
Robert Stephenson
and Company , the Locomotion No
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2-6-4
Under the Whyte notation
Whyte notation
for the classification of steam locomotives , a 2-6-4
2-6-4
locomotive has two leading wheels , six coupled driving wheels and four trailing wheels . This arrangement is commonly called ADRIATIC. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Tender locomotives * 1.2 Tank Locomotives * 2 Usage * 2.1 Austria
Austria
* 2.2 Finland
Finland
* 2.3 Germany * 2.4 New Zealand * 2.5 South Africa * 2.6 United Kingdom * 3 Model Railroading * 4 References OVERVIEWWith three known exceptions, the Adriatic wheel arrangement was usually used on tank locomotives , for which various suffixes to indicate the type of tank would be added to the wheel arrangement, for example 2-6-4T for an engine with side-tanks
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to its east, the English Channel
English Channel
to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world
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