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Vision Impairment
VISUAL IMPAIRMENT, also known as VISION IMPAIRMENT or VISION LOSS, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses . Some also include those who have a decreased ability to see because they do not have access to glasses or contact lenses . Visual impairment
Visual impairment
is often defined as a best corrected visual acuity of worse than either 20/40 or 20/60. The term BLINDNESS is used for complete or nearly complete vision loss. Visual impairment
Visual impairment
may cause people difficulties with normal daily activities such as driving, reading, socializing, and walking. The most common causes of visual impairment globally are uncorrected refractive errors (43%), cataracts (33%), and glaucoma (2%). Refractive errors
Refractive errors
include near sighted , far sighted , presbyopia , and astigmatism
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Visual Field
The VISUAL FIELD is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments". The equivalent concept for optical instruments and sensors is the field of view (FOV). In optometry , ophthalmology , and neurology , a visual field test is used to determine whether the visual field is affected by diseases that cause local scotoma or a more extensive loss of vision or a reduction in sensitivity (increase in threshold). CONTENTS * 1 Normal limits * 2 Measuring the visual field * 3 Visual field
Visual field
loss * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links NORMAL LIMITS The classical image on the shape and size of the visual field by Harry Moss Traquair in his book “Clinical Perimetry” (1938; modified to show the essentials). It shows that the visual field is considerably larger on the temporal side than the often quoted 90° extent
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Snellen Chart
A SNELLEN CHART is an eye chart that can be used to measure visual acuity . Snellen charts are named after the Dutch ophthalmologist Herman Snellen who developed the chart in 1862. Many ophthalmologists and vision scientists now use an improved chart known as the LogMAR chart . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 Snellen fraction * 4 "6/6"(m) or "20/20"(ft) vision * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYSnellen developed charts using symbols based in a 5×5 unit grid. The experimental charts developed in 1861 used abstract symbols. Snellen's charts published in 1862 used alphanumeric capitals in the 5×5 grid. The original chart shows A, C, E, G, L, N, P, R, T, 5, V, Z, B, D, 4, F, H, K, O, S, 3, U, Y, A, C, E, G, L, 2. DESCRIPTIONThe normal Snellen chart
Snellen chart
is printed with eleven lines of block letters
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UK
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to its east, the English Channel
English Channel
to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world
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Field Of Vision
The VISUAL FIELD is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments". The equivalent concept for optical instruments and sensors is the field of view (FOV). In optometry , ophthalmology , and neurology , a visual field test is used to determine whether the visual field is affected by diseases that cause local scotoma or a more extensive loss of vision or a reduction in sensitivity (increase in threshold). CONTENTS * 1 Normal limits * 2 Measuring the visual field * 3 Visual field
Visual field
loss * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links NORMAL LIMITS The classical image on the shape and size of the visual field by Harry Moss Traquair in his book “Clinical Perimetry” (1938; modified to show the essentials). It shows that the visual field is considerably larger on the temporal side than the often quoted 90° extent
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Department Of Health
A HEALTH DEPARTMENT or HEALTH MINISTRY is a part of government which focuses on issues related to the general health of the citizenry . Subnational entities , such as states , counties and cities , often also operate a health department of their own. Health
Health
departments perform food inspections and other health related inspections (the person who performs this job is often called a public health inspector ), vaccination programs, free STD and HIV
HIV
tests, tobacco enforcement and cessation programs, and other medical assistance programs. Health departments also compile statistics about health issues of their area.The role of a health department may vary from one country to the other, but their primary objective is always the same; safeguarding and promoting health. In 1986, several of the world's national health departments met to establish an international guideline by which health departments operate
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Developing World
A DEVELOPING COUNTRY, also called a LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRY or an UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRY, is a nation or a sovereign state with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. There are no universally agreed-upon criteria for what makes a country developing versus developed and which countries fit these two categories, although there are general reference points such as a nation's GDP per capita compared with other nations. Also the general term less-developed country should not be confused with the specific least developed country . The term "developing" describes a currently observed situation and not a dynamic or expected direction of progress. Since the late 1990s developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than the developed ones. There is criticism for using the term developing country
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Trachoma
TRACHOMA is an infectious disease caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis . The infection causes a roughening of the inner surface of the eyelids . This roughening can lead to pain in the eyes, breakdown of the outer surface or cornea of the eyes, and eventual blindness . Untreated, repeated trachoma infections can result in a form of permanent blindness when the eyelids turn inward. The bacteria that cause the disease can be spread by both direct and indirect contact with an affected person's eyes or nose. Indirect contact includes through clothing or flies that have come into contact with an affected person's eyes or nose. Children spread the disease more often than adults. Poor sanitation, crowded living conditions, and not enough clean water and toilets also increase spread. Efforts to prevent the disease include improving access to clean water and treatment with antibiotics to decrease the number of people infected with the bacterium
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Cortical Visual Impairment
CORTICAL VISUAL IMPAIRMENT (CVI) is a form of visual impairment that is caused by a brain problem rather than an eye problem. (The latter is sometimes termed "ocular visual impairment" when discussed in contrast to cortical visual impairment.) Some people have both CVI and a form of ocular visual impairment. CVI is also sometimes known as cortical blindness, although most people with CVI are not totally blind. The term neurological visual impairment (NVI) covers both CVI and total cortical blindness. Delayed visual maturation, another form of NVI, is similar to CVI, except the child's visual difficulties resolve in a few months. Though the vision of a person with CVI may change, it rarely if ever becomes totally normal
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Eye Exam
An EYE EXAMINATION is a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist (medical doctor), optometrist , or orthoptist assessing vision and ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes . Health care professionals often recommend that all people should have periodic and thorough eye examinations as part of routine primary care, especially since many eye diseases are asymptomatic . Eye examinations may detect potentially treatable blinding eye diseases, ocular manifestations of systemic disease , or signs of tumours or other anomalies of the brain . Ideally, the eye examination consists of an external examination, followed by specific tests for visual acuity , pupil function, extraocular muscle motility, visual fields , intraocular pressure and ophthalmoscopy through a dilated pupil
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World Health Organization
World Health Organization Organisation mondiale de la santé (in French) Flag of the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
ABBREVIATION WHO OMS FORMATION 7 April 1948; 69 years ago (1948-04-07) TYPE Specialized agency of the United Nations LEGAL STATUS Active HEADQUARTERS Geneva
Geneva
, Switzerland HEAD Tedros Adhanom , Director-General PARENT ORGANIZATION United Nations Economic and Social Council
United Nations Economic and Social Council
(ECOSOC) WEBSITE www.who.intThe WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations
United Nations
that is concerned with international public health . It was established on 7 April 1948, headquartered in Geneva
Geneva
, Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations
United Nations
Development Group
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Onchocerciasis
ONCHOCERCIASIS, also known as RIVER BLINDNESS, is a disease caused by infection with the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus . Symptoms include severe itching, bumps under the skin, and blindness . It is the second most common cause of blindness due to infection, after trachoma . The parasite worm is spread by the bites of a black fly of the Simulium type. Usually, many bites are required before infection occurs. These flies live near rivers, hence the name of the disease. Once inside a person, the worms create larvae that make their way out to the skin. Here, they can infect the next black fly that bites the person. There are a number of ways to make the diagnosis including: placing a biopsy of the skin in normal saline and watching for the larva to come out, looking in the eye for larvae, and looking within the bumps under the skin for adult worms. A vaccine against the disease does not exist. Prevention is by avoiding being bitten by flies
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Braille
This audio file was created from a revision of the "Braille" article dated 2006-09-06, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help ) MORE SPOKEN ARTICLES BRAILLE (/ˈbreɪl/ ; French: ) is a tactile writing system used by people who are blind or visually impaired . It is traditionally written with embossed paper. Braille
Braille
users can read computer screens and other electronic supports thanks to refreshable braille displays . They can write braille with the original slate and stylus or type it on a braille writer , such as a portable braille notetaker or computer that prints with a braille embosser . Braille
Braille
is named after its creator, Louis Braille , a Frenchman who lost his sight as a result of a childhood accident. In 1824, at age 15, he developed a code for the French alphabet
French alphabet
as an improvement on night writing
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Myopia
NEAR-SIGHTEDNESS, also known as SHORT-SIGHTEDNESS and MYOPIA, is a condition of the eye where light focuses in front of, instead of on, the retina . This causes distant objects to be blurry while close objects appear normal. Other symptoms may include headaches and eye strain . Severe near-sightedness increases the risk of retinal detachment , cataracts , and glaucoma . The underlying cause is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors include doing work that involves focusing on close objects, greater time spent indoors, and a family history of the condition. It is also associated with a high socioeconomic class . The underlying mechanism involves the length of the eyeball being too long or less commonly the lens being too strong. It is a type of refractive error . Diagnosis is by eye examination . There is tentative evidence that near-sightedness can be prevented by having young children spend more time outside
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Autism Spectrum Disorders
AUTISM SPECTRUM describes a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders in the DSM-5 , published in 2013. Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) must present two types of symptoms: * Deficits in social communication and social interaction * Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activitiesThe DSM-5 redefined the autism spectrum disorders to encompass the previous ( DSM-IV-TR ) diagnoses of autism , Asperger syndrome , pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and childhood disintegrative disorder . Features of these disorders include: social deficits, communication difficulties, stereotyped or repetitive behaviors and interests, sensory issues, and in some cases, cognitive delays
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Intellectual Disability
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY (ID), also known as GENERAL LEARNING DISABILITY, and MENTAL RETARDATION (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning . It is defined by an IQ score under 70 in addition to deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors that affect everyday, general living. Once focused almost entirely on cognition , the definition now includes both a component relating to mental functioning and one relating to individuals' functional skills in their environments. As a result of this focus on the person's abilities in practice, a person with an unusually low IQ may not be considered to have intellectually disability
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