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Traditional Chinese Characters
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan
Taiwan
, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Kangxi Dictionary Form
A DICTIONARY, sometimes known as a WORDBOOK, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages , often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions , usage, etymologies , phonetics , pronunciations , translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon . It is a lexicographical product which shows inter-relationships among the data. A broad distinction is made between general and specialized dictionaries . Specialized dictionaries include words in specialist fields, rather than a complete range of words in the language. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are usually called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard is maintained in conjunction with ISO/IEC 10646 , and both are code-for-code identical. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts)
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List Of Commonly Used Characters In Modern Chinese
CHARACTER(S) may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Art and entertainment * 2 Morality * 3 Psychology * 4 Science * 5 Symbols * 6 Other uses * 7 See also ART AND ENTERTAINMENT * Character (arts) , an agent within a work of art, including literature, drama, cinema, opera, etc. * Character sketch or character, a literary description of a character type * Characters (Theophrastus) , a classical Greek set of character sketches attributed to Theophrastus*
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Mojibake
MOJIBAKE (文字化け) (IPA: ; lit. "character transformation", from the Japanese 文字 (moji) "character" + 化け (bake, pronounced "bah-keh") "transform") is the garbled text that is the result of text being decoded using an unintended character encoding . The result is a systematic replacement of symbols with completely unrelated ones, often from a different writing system . This display may include the generic replacement character � in places where the binary representation is considered invalid. A replacement can also involve multiple consecutive symbols, as viewed in one encoding, when the same binary code constitutes one symbol in the other encoding. This is either because of differing constant length encoding (as in Asian 16-bit encodings vs European 8-bit encodings), or the use of variable length encodings (notably UTF-8 and UTF-16 )
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Chinese Character Classification
All Chinese characters
Chinese characters
are logograms , but several different types can be identified, based on the manner in which they are formed or derived. There are a handful which derive from pictographs (象形 pinyin : xiàngxíng) and a number which are ideographic (指事 zhǐshì) in origin, including compound ideographs (會意 huìyì), but the vast majority originated as phono -semantic compounds (形聲 xíngshēng). The other categories in the traditional system of classification are rebus or phonetic loan characters (假借 jiǎjiè) and "derivative cognates" (轉注 zhuǎn zhù). Modern scholars have proposed various revised systems, rejecting some of the traditional categories
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Imitation Song
IMITATION SONG is a style of Chinese typefaces modeled after a type style in Lin\'an in the Southern Song Dynasty . They are technically a type of regular script typeface. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Characteristics * 3 History * 4 Imitation Song
Imitation Song
in computing * 5 References NAMEThe name of this kind of typeface varies across regions that use Chinese characters
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Bird-worm Seal Script
BIRD-WORM SEAL SCRIPT ( Simplified Chinese : 鸟虫篆; Traditional Chinese : 鳥蟲篆; Pinyin
Pinyin
: Niǎo Chóng Zhuàn) is a type of ancient seal script originating in China
China
. CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Introduction and history * 3 Usage * 4 See also * 5 References NAMESThe Chinese character
Chinese character
"鸟" (or "鳥" in traditional Chinese, and "Niǎo" in Pinyin) means "BIRD". The Chinese character
Chinese character
"虫" (or "蟲" in traditional Chinese, and "Chóng" in Pinyin) means any creature that looks like a "worm", including invertebrate worms and reptiles such as snakes and lizards (and even the Chinese dragon). The character "篆" means "SEAL (SCRIPT)". Other names for this kind of seal script: * NIAO-CHONG SCRIPT (Simplified Chinese: 鸟虫书; Traditional Chinese: 鳥蟲書; Pinyin: Niǎo Chóng Shū)
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Flat Brush Script
The FLAT BRUSH SCRIPT (simplified Chinese: 漆书; traditional Chinese: 漆書 pinyin: qī shū) is a writing style in Chinese calligraphy that was created by Jin Nong
Jin Nong
(simplified Chinese: 金农; traditional Chinese: 金農) during the Qing dynasty. The writing style is a mix of the clerical script of the Han dynasty and the regular script of the Wei dynasty; these two writing styles make the Flat Brush script a unique writing style in Chinese calligraphy. The technique used to write in the FLAT BRUSH SCRIPT is very different from the other writing styles. It has to be written using a flat brush and not the regular East Asian
East Asian
writing brush. ABOUT THE CREATOR Jin Nong
Jin Nong
was highly knowledgeable on Chinese calligraphy
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Neolithic Signs In China
Since the second half of the 20th century, inscriptions have been found on pottery in a variety of locations in China, such as Banpo near Xi\'an , as well as on bone and bone marrows at Hualouzi, Chang'an County near Xi'an. These simple, often geometric, marks have been frequently compared to some of the earliest known Chinese characters appearing on the oracle bones , and some have taken them to mean that the history of Chinese writing extends back over six millennia. However, only isolated instances of these symbols have been found, and they show no indication of representing speech or of the non-pictorial processes that a writing system requires
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet . It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language . The IPA is used by lexicographers , foreign language students and teachers, linguists , speech-language pathologists , singers , actors , constructed language creators and translators . The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones , phonemes , intonation and the separation of words and syllables . To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping , and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate , an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
, may be used
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Radical (Chinese Characters)
A Chinese RADICAL (Chinese : 部首; pinyin : bùshǒu; literally: "section header") is a graphical component of a Chinese character under which the character is traditionally listed in a Chinese dictionary. This component is often a semantic indicator (that is, an indicator of the meaning of the character), though in some cases the original semantic connection has become obscure, owing to changes in character meaning over time. In other cases, the radical may be a phonetic component or even an artificially extracted portion of the character. The English term "radical" is based on an analogy between the structure of characters and inflection of words in European languages. Radicals are also sometimes called "classifiers", but this name is more commonly applied to grammatical classifiers (measure words)
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ISO 15924
ISO 15924, CODES FOR THE REPRESENTATION OF NAMES OF SCRIPTS, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts). Each script is given both a four-letter code and a numeric one. Script is defined as "set of graphic characters used for the written form of one or more languages". Where possible the codes are derived from ISO 639-2 where the name of a script and the name of a language using the script are identical (example: Gujarātī ISO 639 guj, ISO 15924 Gujr). Preference is given to the 639-2 Bibliographical codes, which is different from the otherwise often preferred use of the Terminological codes. 4-letter ISO 15924 codes are incorporated into the Language Subtag Registry for IETF language tags and so can be used in file formats that make use of such language tags
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Grapheme
In linguistics , a GRAPHEME is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language. An individual grapheme may or may not carry meaning by itself, and may or may not correspond to a single phoneme of the spoken language. Graphemes include alphabetic letters , typographic ligatures , Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, numerical digits , punctuation marks, and other individual symbols. The word grapheme, coined in analogy with phoneme, is derived from Greek γράφω (gráphō), meaning 'write', and the suffix -eme, by analogy with phoneme and other names of emic units . The study of graphemes is called graphemics . The concept of graphemes is an abstract one and similar to the notion in computing of a character . By comparison, a specific shape that represents any particular grapheme in a specific typeface is called a glyph
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Jōyō Kanji
The JōYō KANJI (常用漢字, literally "regular-use Chinese characters") is the guide to kanji characters and their readings, announced officially by the Japanese Ministry of Education . Current jōyō kanji are those on a list of 2,136 characters issued in 2010. It is a slightly modified version of the tōyō kanji , which was the initial list of secondary school -level kanji standardized after World War II . The list is not a comprehensive list of all characters and readings in regular use; rather, it is intended as a literacy baseline for those who have completed compulsory education, as well as a list of permitted characters and readings for use in official government documents
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