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Toxin
A TOXIN (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: τοξικόν toxikon ) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919). Toxins can be small molecules , peptides , or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors . Toxins vary greatly in their toxicity , ranging from usually minor (such as a bee sting ) to almost immediately deadly (such as botulinum toxin )
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica
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Rickettsiae
Rickettsea aeschlimannii Rickettsiae africae Rickettsia akari Rickettsia asiatica Rickettsia australis Rickettsia
Rickettsia
canadensis
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Protozoa
In some systems of biological classification , the PROTOZOA are defined as a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms. Historically, PROTOZOA were defined as single-celled animals or organisms with animal -like behaviors, such as motility and predation . The group was regarded as the zoological counterpart to the "protophyta ", which were considered to be plant-like, as they are capable of photosynthesis . The terms protozoa and protozoans are now mostly used informally to designate single-celled, non-photosynthetic protists , such as the ciliates , amoebae and flagellates . The term Protozoa
Protozoa
was introduced in 1818 by German paleontologist and zoologist Georg August Goldfuß for a taxonomic class , but in later classification schemes the group was elevated to higher ranks, including phylum , subkingdom and kingdom
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Microorganism
A MICROORGANISM or MICROBE is a microscopic organism , which may be single-celled or multicellular . The study of microorganisms is called microbiology , a subject that began with the discovery of microorganisms in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek . Robert Hooke coined the term "cell" after viewing plant cells under his microscope. Later, in the 19th century, Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation . In 1876 Robert Koch
Robert Koch
discovered that microorganisms cause diseases. Microorganisms are very diverse and include all bacteria , archaea and most protozoa . This group also contains some fungi , algae , and some micro-animals such as rotifers . Many macroscopic animals and plants have microscopic juvenile stages . Some microbiologists classify viruses and viroids as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. In one sense (circumscription ), the term refers to GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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International Committee Of The Red Cross
The INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva
Geneva
, Switzerland
Switzerland
and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties (signatories) to the four Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 ( Protocol I , Protocol II ) and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts . Such victims include war wounded, prisoners , refugees , civilians , and other non-combatants . The ICRC is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement along with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and 190 National Societies . It is the oldest and most honoured organization within the Movement and one of the most widely recognized organizations in the world, having won three Nobel Peace Prizes in 1917, 1944, and 1963
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Title 18 Of The United States Code
TITLE 18 of the United States Code
United States Code
is the main criminal code of the federal government of the United States
United States
. It deals with federal crimes and criminal procedure . CONTENTS* 1 Part I—Crimes * 1.1 Chapters 1–10 * 1.1.1 Chapter 1: General Provisions * 1.1.2 Chapter 2: Aircraft and Motor Vehicles * 1.1.3 Chapter 3: Animals, Birds, Fish, and Plants * 1.1.4 Chapter 5: Arson * 1.1.5 Chapter 7: Assault
Assault
* 1.1.6 Chapter 9: Bankruptcy * 1.1.7 Chapter 10: Biological weapons * 1.2 Chapters 11–123 * 2 Part II—Criminal Procedure * 3 Part III—Prisons and Prisoners * 4 Part IV—Correction of Youthful Offenders * 5 Part V—Immunity of Witnesses * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links PART I—CRIMESCHAPTERS 1–10Chapter 1: General Provisions Section 1 is repealed. Section 2 defines principals
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Recombinant DNA
RECOMBINANT DNA
DNA
(RDNA) molecules are DNA
DNA
molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning ) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome . Recombinant DNA
DNA
was first achieved in 1973 Herbert Boyer , of the University of California
University of California
at San Francisco, and Stanley Cohen , at Stanford University
Stanford University
, who used E. coli
E. coli
restriciton enzymes to foreign DNA
DNA
into plasmids. Recombinant DNA
DNA
is the general name for a piece of DNA
DNA
that has been created by the combination of at least two strands
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Red Blood Cells
RED BLOOD CELLS (RBCS), also called ERYTHROCYTES, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate 's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues —via blood flow through the circulatory system . RBCs take up oxygen in the lungs , or gills of fish , and release it into tissues while squeezing through the body's capillaries . The cytoplasm of erythrocytes is rich in hemoglobin , an iron -containing biomolecule that can bind oxygen and is responsible for the red color of the cells. The cell membrane is composed of proteins and lipids , and this structure provides properties essential for physiological cell function such as deformability and stability while traversing the circulatory system and specifically the capillary network. In humans, mature red blood cells are flexible and oval biconcave disks
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Predation
In an ecosystem, PREDATION is a biological interaction where a PREDATOR (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its PREY (the organism that is attacked). Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on it, but the act of predation often results in the death of the prey and the eventual absorption of the prey's tissue through digestion. It could also constitute a chase, stalking, or attack of prey. Thus predation is often, though not always, carnivory . Other categories of consumption are herbivory (eating parts of plants), fungivory (eating parts of fungi), and detritivory (the consumption of dead organic material). All of these are consumer-resource systems . It can often be difficult to separate various types of feeding behaviors . For example, some parasites prey on their host and then lay their eggs on it, for their offspring to feed on it while it continues to live, or on its decaying corpse after it has died
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Snake
SNAKES are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder SERPENTES. Like all squamates , snakes are ectothermic , amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales . Many species of snakes have skulls with several more joints than their lizard ancestors, enabling them to swallow prey much larger than their heads with their highly mobile jaws . To accommodate their narrow bodies, snakes' paired organs (such as kidneys) appear one in front of the other instead of side by side, and most have only one functional lung . Some species retain a pelvic girdle with a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca . Lizards have evolved elongate bodies without limbs or with greatly reduced limbs about twenty five times indepenently via convergent evolution , leading to many lineages of legless lizards
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Jellyfish
See text . A flower hat jelly (Olindias formosa) photographed at the Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan A purple-striped jelly at the Monterey Bay Aquarium A moon jelly shown in false color at the Pairi Daiza A white-spotted jellyfish off the north coast of Haiti Play media Umbrella
Umbrella
Jelly, Shedd Aquarium , Chicago JELLYFISH or JELLIES are softbodied, free-swimming aquatic animals with a gelatinous umbrella -shaped bell and trailing tentacles. The bell can pulsate to acquire propulsion and locomotion . The tentacles may be utilized to capture prey or defend against predators by emitting toxins in a painful sting. Jellyfish
Jellyfish
species are classified in the subphylum Medusozoa which makes up a major part of the phylum Cnidaria , although not all Medusozoa species are considered to be jellyfish
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Cone Snail
CONE SNAILS, CONE SHELLS or CONES are common names for a large group of small to large-sized extremely venomous predatory sea snails , marine gastropod molluscs . Until fairly recently, over 600 species of cone snails were all classified under one genus, Conus
Conus
, in one family, the Conidae . However, in recent years, it was suggested that cone snails should occupy only a subfamily that should be split into a very large number of genera. A 2014 paper attempted to stabilize a newer classification of the group, significantly reducing the number of new genera, but keeping a fairly large number of subgenera. Although the taxonomy has changed significantly several times during recent years, in the current (2015) version of the taxonomy of these snails and their close relatives, cone snails once again comprise the entire family Conidae
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Immune Response
IMMUNE RESPONSE is the immunological response originating from immune system activation by antigens , including immunity to pathogenic microorganisms and its products, as well as autoimmunity to self-antigens allergies , and graft ejections. In this process main cells involved are the T cells , B cells of lymphocytes, and macrophagea . These cells produce lymphokines that influence the other host cells activities. B cells mature to produce immunoglobulins or antibodies , that react with antigens . At the same time, macrophages are processing the antigens into immunogenic units which stimulate B lymphocites to differentiation into antibody secreting plasma cells, stimulating the T cells to realise lymphokines . Complement is a group of normal serum proteins to aim immunity by becoming activated form as result of antigen-antibody interaction . The first contact with any antigen sensitize individual affected and promote the primary immune response
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Hemolysis
HEMOLYSIS or HAEMOLYSIS, also known by several other names , is the rupturing (lysis ) of red blood cells (erythrocytes ) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm ) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma ). Hemolysis
Hemolysis
may occur in vivo or in vitro (inside or outside the body). Hemolysins damage the host cytoplasmic membrane, causing cell lysis and death. The activity of these toxins is most easily observed with assays involving the lysis of red blood cells (erythrocytes). Some hemolysins attack the phospholipid of the host cytoplasmic membrane. Because the phospholipid lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) is often used as a substrate, these enzymes are called lecithinases or phospholipases. Some hemolysins affects the sterols of the host cytoplasmic membrane
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