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Tibet
Coordinates : 31°12′N 88°48′E / 31.2°N 88.8°E / 31.2; 88.8 "Greater Tibet" as claimed by Tibetan exile groups Tibetan autonomous areas , as designated by China Tibet Autonomous Region , within China Chinese-controlled, claimed by India as part of Aksai Chin Indian -controlled, parts claimed by China as
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Territory (geographic Region)
A TERRITORY is an administrative division , usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a state . In most countries , a territory is an organized division of an area that is controlled by a country but is not formally developed into, or incorporated into, a political unit of the country that is of equal status to other political units that may often be referred to by words such as "provinces" or "states". In international politics , a territory is usually a non-sovereign geographic area which has come under the authority of another government; which has not been granted the powers of self-government normally devolved to secondary territorial divisions; or both
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Foochow Romanized
FOOCHOW ROMANIZED, also known as BàNG-Uâ-Cê (BUC for short; Chinese : 平話字) or HóK-CIŭ-Uâ Lò̤-Mā-Cê (Chinese : 福州話羅馬字), is a Latin alphabet for the Fuzhou dialect
Fuzhou dialect
of Eastern Min adopted in the middle of the 19th century by Western missionaries. It had varied at different times, and became standardized in the 1890s. Foochow Romanized
Foochow Romanized
was mainly used inside of Church circles, and was taught in some Mission Schools in Fuzhou
Fuzhou
. But unlike its counterpart Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
for Hokkien
Hokkien
, even in its prime days Foochow Romanized
Foochow Romanized
was by no means universally understood by Christians
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern Min
Southern Min
Amoy Taiwanese CREATOR Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest Talmage TIME PERIOD 1830s–present CHILD SYSTEMS TLPA Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters.PE̍H-ōE-Jī (pronounced ( listen ), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as CHURCH ROMANIZATION) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien
Hokkien

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Wade–Giles
WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese . It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Jyutping
JYUTPING (Chinese : 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: ) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is THE LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF HONG KONG CANTONESE ROMANISATION SCHEME. The LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name Jyutping
Jyutping
(itself the Jyutping
Jyutping
romanisation of its Chinese name, 粵拼) is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms Jyut6jyu5 (粵語, meaning " Cantonese
Cantonese
speech") and ping3jam1 (拼音 "phonetic alphabet")
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Mojibake
MOJIBAKE (文字化け) (IPA: ; lit. "character transformation", from the Japanese 文字 (moji) "character" + 化け (bake, pronounced "bah-keh") "transform") is the garbled text that is the result of text being decoded using an unintended character encoding . The result is a systematic replacement of symbols with completely unrelated ones, often from a different writing system . This display may include the generic replacement character � in places where the binary representation is considered invalid. A replacement can also involve multiple consecutive symbols, as viewed in one encoding, when the same binary code constitutes one symbol in the other encoding. This is either because of differing constant length encoding (as in Asian 16-bit encodings vs European 8-bit encodings), or the use of variable length encodings (notably UTF-8 and UTF-16 )
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Ethnic Group
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Fuzhou Dialect
The term DIALECT (from Latin
Latin
dialectus, dialectos, from the Ancient Greek word διάλεκτος, diálektos, "discourse", from διά, diá, "through" and λέγω, légō, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena: * One usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. Under this definition, the dialects or varieties of a particular language are closely related and, despite their differences, are most often mutually intelligible , especially if close to one another on the dialect continuum . The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors, such as social class or ethnicity
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Teochew Dialect
TEOCHEW (Chinese : 潮州話 or 潮汕話; pinyin : Cháozhōuhuà or Cháoshànhuà, Chaozhou
Chaozhou
dialect: Diê⁵ziu¹ uê⁷; Shantou dialect : Dio⁵ziu¹ uê⁷) is a variety of Southern Min
Southern Min
spoken mainly by the Teochew people in the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
and by their diaspora around the world. It is sometimes referred to as Chiuchow, its Cantonese
Cantonese
name, due to the strong influence of that language over the traditionally Teochew-speaking areas. Teochew preserves many Old Chinese
Old Chinese
pronunciations and vocabulary that have been lost in some of the other modern varieties of Chinese . As such, many linguists consider Teochew one of the most conservative Chinese dialects
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Asia
Metropolitan areas of Asia
Asia
List of cities in Asia List * Bangkok
Bangkok

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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia
South Asia
. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west; China
China
, Nepal
Nepal
, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
Maldives

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Hokkien
HOKKIEN-TAIWANESE (/ˈhɒkiɛn, hɒˈkiɛn/ ; from Chinese : 福建話; pinyin : Fújiànhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
: Hok-kiàn-oē) or MINNAN PROPER (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min
Southern Min
dialect group spoken in the Fujian
Fujian
Province in Southeastern China
China
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, Indonesia
Indonesia
and other parts of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, and by other overseas Chinese . Hokkien
Hokkien
originated in southern Fujian , the Min-speaking province. It is the mainstream form of Southern Min
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Pinyin
HANYU PINYIN ROMANIZATION (simplified Chinese : 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese : 漢語拼音; literally: "Han Chinese spelling of sounds"), often abbreviated to PINYIN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan
Taiwan
. It is often used to teach Standard (Mandarin) Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters
Chinese characters
. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Hanyu Pinyin
HANYU PINYIN ROMANIZATION (simplified Chinese : 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese : 漢語拼音; literally: "Han Chinese spelling of sounds"), often abbreviated to PINYIN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan
Taiwan
. It is often used to teach Standard (Mandarin) Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters . The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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