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Threonine
THREONINE (abbreviated as THR or T) encoded by the codons ACU, ACC, ACA, and ACG is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins . It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated −NH+ 3 form under biological conditions), an α-carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated −COO− form under biological conditions), and an alcohol containing side chain, classifying it as a polar, uncharged (at physiological pH) amino acid. It is essential in humans, meaning the body cannot synthesize it, and must be ingested in our diet. Threonine
Threonine
is synthesized from aspartate in bacteria such as E. coli . Threonine
Threonine
sidechains are often hydrogen bonded; the most common small motifs formed are ST turns , ST motifs (often at the beginning of alpha helices) and ST staples (usually at the middle of alpha helices)
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Chemical Nomenclature
A CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds . The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book
Book
and the Red Book
Book
, respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book
Book
, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP ), while a fourth, the Gold Book
Book
, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry
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Amine
In organic chemistry , AMINES (US : /əˈmiːn, ˈæmin/ , UK : /əˈmiːn, ˈæmin, ˈeɪmin/ ) are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair . Amines are formally derivatives of ammonia , wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group (these may respectively be called alkylamines and arylamines; amines in which both types of substituent are attached to one nitrogen atom may be called alkylarylamines). Important amines include amino acids , biogenic amines , trimethylamine , and aniline ; see Category:Amines for a list of amines. Inorganic
Inorganic
derivatives of ammonia are also called amines, such as chloramine (NClH2); see Category: Inorganic
Inorganic
amines
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Carboxylic Acid
A CARBOXYLIC ACID /ˌkɑːrbɒkˈsɪlɪk/ is an organic compound that contains a CARBOXYL GROUP (C(=O)OH). The general formula of a carboxylic acid is R–COOH, with R referring to the rest of the (possibly quite large) molecule . Carboxylic acids occur widely and include the amino acids (which make up proteins ) and acetic acid (which is part of vinegar and occurs in metabolism ). Salts and esters of carboxylic acids are called carboxylates . When a carboxyl group is deprotonated , its conjugate base forms a carboxylate anion . Carboxylate
Carboxylate
ions are resonance-stabilized , and this increased stability makes carboxylic acids more acidic than alcohols . Carboxylic acids can be seen as reduced or alkylated forms of the Lewis acid carbon dioxide ; under some circumstances they can be decarboxylated to yield carbon dioxide
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Standard State
In chemistry , the STANDARD STATE of a material (pure substance , mixture or solution ) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions. In principle, the choice of standard state is arbitrary, although the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) recommends a conventional set of standard states for general use. IUPAC
IUPAC
recommends using a standard pressure po = 105 Pa . Strictly speaking, temperature is not part of the definition of a standard state. For example, as discussed below, the standard state of a gas is conventionally chosen to be unit pressure (usually in bar) ideal gas , regardless of the temperature. However, most tables of thermodynamic quantities are compiled at specific temperatures, most commonly 298.15 K (25.00 °C; 77.00 °F) or, somewhat less commonly, 273.15 K (0.00 °C; 32.00 °F)
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NMR Spectroscopy
NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY, most commonly known as NMR SPECTROSCOPY, is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei . This type of spectroscopy determines the physical and chemical properties of atoms or the molecules in which they are contained. It relies on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and can provide detailed information about the structure, dynamics, reaction state, and chemical environment of molecules. The intramolecular magnetic field around an atom in a molecule changes the resonance frequency, thus giving access to details of the electronic structure of a molecule and its individual functional groups. Most frequently, NMR spectroscopy is used by chemists and biochemists to investigate the properties of organic molecules , although it is applicable to any kind of sample that contains nuclei possessing spin
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Dielectric Constant
The RELATIVE PERMITTIVITY of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum . Permittivity is a material property that affects the Coulomb force between two point charges in the material. Relative permittivity is the factor by which the electric field between the charges is decreased relative to vacuum. Likewise, relative permittivity is the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor using that material as a dielectric , compared with a similar capacitor that has vacuum as its dielectric. Relative permittivity is also commonly known as DIELECTRIC CONSTANT, a term deprecated in physics and engineering as well as in chemistry
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UV/VIS Spectroscopy
ULTRAVIOLET–VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY or ULTRAVIOLET-VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY (UV-VIS or UV/VIS) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet -visible spectral region. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent ranges. The absorption or reflectance in the visible range directly affects the perceived color of the chemicals involved. In this region of the electromagnetic spectrum , atoms and molecules undergo electronic transitions . Absorption spectroscopy is complementary to fluorescence spectroscopy , in that fluorescence deals with transitions from the excited state to the ground state , while absorption measures transitions from the ground state to the excited state
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Infrared Spectroscopy
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (IR SPECTROSCOPY or VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter. It covers a range of techniques, mostly based on absorption spectroscopy . As with all spectroscopic techniques, it can be used to identify and study chemicals . Sample may be solid, liquid, or gas. The method or technique of infrared spectroscopy is conducted with an instrument called an INFRARED SPECTROMETER (or spectrophotometer) to produce an INFRARED SPECTRUM. An IR spectrum is essentially a graph of infrared light absorbance (or transmittance ) on the vertical axis vs. frequency or wavelength on the horizontal axis. Typical units of frequency used in IR spectra are reciprocal centimeters (sometimes called wave numbers ), with the symbol cm−1. Units of IR wavelength are commonly given in micrometers (formerly called "microns"), symbol μm, which are related to wave numbers in a reciprocal way
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Alcohol
In chemistry , an ALCOHOL is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–O H ) is bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the predominant alcohol in alcoholic beverages . The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC
IUPAC
chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) name. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol ) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. But many substances, particularly sugars (examples glucose and sucrose ) contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix
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Escherichia Coli
Bacillus coli communis Escherich 1885 ESCHERICHIA COLI (/ˌɛʃᵻˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/ ; also known as E. COLI) is a gram-negative , facultatively anaerobic , rod-shaped , coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination . The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut , and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2 , and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria , having a symbiotic relationship. E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions for 3 days, but its numbers decline slowly afterwards. E
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Precursor (biochemistry)
In chemistry , a PRECURSOR is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound. In biochemistry , the term "precursor" often refers more specifically to a chemical compound preceding another in a metabolic pathway , such as a protein precursor . CONTENTS * 1 Illicit drug precursors * 2 Illicit explosives precursors * 3 Detection * 4 See also * 5 References ILLICIT DRUG PRECURSORSIn 1988, the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances introduced detailed provisions and requirements relating the control of precursors used to produce drugs of abuse. In Europe the Regulation (EC) No. 273/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council on drug precursors was adopted on 11 February 2004. ( European law on drug precursors ) ILLICIT EXPLOSIVES PRECURSORSOn 15 January 2013 the Regulation (EU) No
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Prodrug
A PRODRUG is a medication or compound that, after administration , is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug. INACTIVE PRODRUGS are pharmacologically inactive medications that are metabolized into an active form within the body. Instead of administering a drug directly, a corresponding prodrug might be used instead to improve how a medicine is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted ( ADME ). Prodrugs are often designed to improve bioavailability when a drug itself is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract . A prodrug may be used to improve how selectively the drug interacts with cells or processes that are not its intended target. This reduces adverse or unintended effects of a drug, especially important in treatments like chemotherapy , which can have severe unintended and undesirable side effects. IUPAC definition Compound that undergoes biotransformation before exhibiting pharmacological effects
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Threose
THREOSE is a four-carbon monosaccharide or carbohydrate with molecular formula C4H8O4. It has a terminal aldehyde group rather than a ketone in its linear chain, and so is considered part of the aldose family of monosaccharides . The threose name can be used to refer to both the D- and L-stereoisomers , and more generally to the racemic mixture (D/L-, equal parts D- and L-) as well as to the more generic threose structure (absolute stereochemistry unspecified). The prefix "threo" which derives from threose (and "erythro" from a corresponding diastereomer erythrose ) offer a useful way to describe general organic structures with adjacent chiral centers, where "the prefixes... designate the relative configuration of the centers". As is depicted in a Fischer projection
Fischer projection
of D-threose, the adjacent substituents will have a syn orientation in the isomer referred to as "threo", and are anti in the isomer referred to as "erythro"
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Carbohydrate
A CARBOHYDRATE is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n). This formula holds true for monosaccharides . Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose , a sugar component of DNA
DNA
, has the empirical formula C5H10O4. The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to view them as aldoses and ketones . The term is most common in biochemistry , where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars , starch , and cellulose . The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides , oligosaccharides , and polysaccharides . Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest (lower molecular weight ) carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars
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Kinase
In biochemistry , a KINASE is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy , phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates . This process is known as phosphorylation , where the substrate gains a phosphate group and the high-energy ATP molecule donates a phosphate group. This transesterification produces a phosphorylated substrate and ADP. Conversely, it is referred to as dephosphorylation when the phosphorylated substrate donates a phosphate group and ADP gains a phosphate group (producing a dephosphorylated substrate and the high energy molecule of ATP). These two processes, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, occur four times during glycolysis . Kinases are part of the larger family of phosphotransferases . Kinases should not be confused with phosphorylases , which catalyze the addition of inorganic phosphate groups to an acceptor, nor with phosphatases , which remove phosphate groups
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