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Theanine
THEANINE /ˈθiːəniːn/ , also known as L-γ-GLUTAMYLETHYLAMIDE and N5-ETHYL-L-GLUTAMINE, is an amino acid analogue of the proteinogenic amino acids L-glutamate and L-glutamine and is found primarily in particular plant and fungal species . It was discovered as a constituent of green tea in 1949 and in 1950 was isolated from gyokuro leaves. The name "THEANINE" without a prefix generally implies the enantiomer L-THEANINE, which is the form found in fresh teas and in some dietary supplements . The opposite enantiomer, D-THEANINE, is only found in some supplements. Theanine
Theanine
has been studied because of the possibility that it might provide positive mental or physical effects. The European Food Safety Authority reported that there is insufficient information to determine whether theanine by itself has an noticeable effect on humans. Therefore, health claims for L-theanine are prohibited in the European Union
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Fungi
Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota ) Ascomycota
Ascomycota
Pezizomycotina Saccharomycotina Taphrinomycotina Basidiomycota Agaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Subphyla incertae sedis Entomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina Zoopagomycotina A FUNGUS (/ˈfʌŋɡəs/ ; plural : FUNGI or FUNGUSES ) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds , as well as the more familiar mushrooms . These organisms are classified as a kingdom , FUNGI, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals
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Enantiomer
In chemistry , an ENANTIOMER (/ɪˈnæntiəmər, ɛ-, -tioʊ-/ ə-NAN-tee-ə-mər ; from Greek ἐνάντιος (enántios), meaning 'opposite', and μέρος (méros), meaning 'part'), also known as an OPTICAL ISOMER, is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation). A single chiral atom or similar structural feature in a compound causes that compound to have two possible structures which are non-superposable, each a mirror image of the other. Each member of the pair is termed an enantiomorph (enantio = opposite ; morph = form); the structural property is termed enantiomerism. The presence of multiple chiral features in a given compound increases the number of geometric forms possible, though there may be some perfect-mirror-image pairs
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Dietary Supplement
A dietary supplement is either intended to provide nutrients in order to increase the quantity of their consumption, or to provide non-nutrient chemicals which are claimed to have a biologically beneficial effect. Supplements as generally understood include vitamins , minerals , fiber , fatty acids , or amino acids , among other substances. U.S. authorities define dietary supplements as foods, while elsewhere they may be classified as drugs or other products. There are more than 50,000 dietary supplements available. More than half of the U.S. adult population (53% – 55%) consume dietary supplements with most common ones being multivitamins. These products are not intended to prevent or treat any disease and in some circumstances are dangerous, according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health
Health

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European Food Safety Authority
The EUROPEAN FOOD SAFETY AUTHORITY (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union
European Union
(EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain . EFSA was established in February 2002, is based in Parma
Parma
, Italy, and has a budget for 2016 of €79.5 million. The work of EFSA covers all matters with a direct or indirect impact on food and feed safety, including animal health and welfare , plant protection and plant health and nutrition . EFSA supports the European Commission , the European Parliament
European Parliament
and EU member states in taking effective and timely risk management decisions that ensure the protection of the health of European consumers and the safety of the food and feed chain. EFSA also communicates to the public in an open and transparent way on all matters within its remit
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Phytochemical
PHYTOCHEMICALS are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens. The name comes from the Greek word phyton, meaning plant. Some phytochemicals have been used as poisons and others as traditional medicine . As a term, phytochemicals is generally used to describe plant compounds that are under research with unestablished effects on health and are not scientifically defined as essential nutrients . Regulatory agencies governing food labeling in Europe and the United States have provided guidance for industry limiting or preventing health claims about phytochemicals on food product or nutrition labels . CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 History of uses * 3 Functions * 4 Consumer and industry guidance * 5 Effects of food processing * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links DEFINITIONPlants are composed entirely of chemicals of various kinds
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Proteinogenic Amino Acid
PROTEINOGENIC AMINO ACIDS are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation . The word "proteinogenic" means "protein creating". Throughout known life , there are 22 genetically encoded (proteinogenic) amino acids, 20 in the standard genetic code and an additional 2 that can be incorporated by special translation mechanisms. In contrast, non-proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are either not incorporated into proteins (like GABA , L-DOPA
L-DOPA
, or triiodothyronine ), misincorporated in place of a genetically encoded amino acid, or not produced directly and in isolation by standard cellular machinery (like hydroxyproline ). The latter often results from post-translational modification of proteins. Some non-proteinogenic amino acids are incorporated into nonribosomal peptides which are synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases
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Boiling Point
The BOILING POINT of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. The boiling point of a liquid varies depending upon the surrounding environmental pressure. A liquid in a partial vacuum has a lower boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure . A liquid at high pressure has a higher boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. For a given pressure, different liquids boil at different temperatures. For example, water boils at 100 °C (212 °F) at sea level, but at 93.4 °C (200.1 °F) at 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) altitude. The NORMAL BOILING POINT (also called the ATMOSPHERIC BOILING POINT or the ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE BOILING POINT) of a liquid is the special case in which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the defined atmospheric pressure at sea level, 1 atmosphere
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Simplified Molecular-input Line-entry System
The SIMPLIFIED MOLECULAR-INPUT LINE-ENTRY SYSTEM (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII
ASCII
strings . SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed in the open-source chemistry community. Other 'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation (WLN), ROSDAL and SLN
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Threonine
THREONINE (abbreviated as THR or T) encoded by the codons ACU, ACC, ACA, and ACG is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins . It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated −NH+ 3 form under biological conditions), an α-carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated −COO− form under biological conditions), and an alcohol containing side chain, classifying it as a polar, uncharged (at physiological pH) amino acid. It is essential in humans, meaning the body cannot synthesize it, and must be ingested in our diet. Threonine
Threonine
is synthesized from aspartate in bacteria such as E. coli . Threonine
Threonine
sidechains are often hydrogen bonded; the most common small motifs formed are ST turns , ST motifs (often at the beginning of alpha helices) and ST staples (usually at the middle of alpha helices)
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Structural Analog
In chemistry , a STRUCTURAL ANALOG, also known as a CHEMICAL ANALOG or simply an ANALOG, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another one, but differing from it in respect of a certain component. It can differ in one or more atoms , functional groups , or substructures, which are replaced with other atoms, groups, or substructures. A structural analog can be imagined to be formed, at least theoretically, from the other compound. Despite a high chemical similarity, structural analogs are not necessarily functional analogs and can have very different physical, chemical, biochemical, or pharmacological properties. In drug discovery either a large series of structural analogs of an initial lead compound are created and tested as part of a structure-activity relationship study or a database is screened for structural analogs of a lead compound . Chemical analogues of illegal drugs are developed and sold in order to circumvent laws
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Food And Drug Administration
The FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services , one of the United States federal executive departments . The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety , tobacco products, dietary supplements , prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines , biopharmaceuticals , blood transfusions , medical devices , electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods the FDA also enforces other laws, notably Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act and associated regulations, many of which are not directly related to food or drugs. These include regulating lasers, cellular phones, condoms and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction
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Generally Recognized As Safe
GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
(FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements. The concept of food additives being "generally recognized as safe" was first described in the Food Additives Amendment of 1958 , and all additives introduced after this time had to be evaluated by new standards
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Biosynthesis
BIOSYNTHESIS (also called ANABOLISM) is a multi-step, enzyme -catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together to form macromolecules . This process often consists of metabolic pathways . Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular organelle , while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple cellular organelles. Examples of these biosynthetic pathways include the production of lipid membrane components and nucleotides . The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, chemical energy (e.g. ATP ), and catalytic enzymes which may require coenzymes (e.g. NADH , NADPH ). These elements create monomers , the building blocks for macromolecules
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Racemization
In chemistry , RACEMIZATION is the conversion of an enantiomerically pure mixture (one where only one enantiomer is present) into a mixture where more than one of the enantiomers are present. If the racemization results in a mixture where the D and L enantiomers are present in equal quantities, the resulting sample is described as a racemic mixture , a racemate, or racemic. Racemization
Racemization
can proceed through a number of different mechanisms, and it has particular significance in pharmacology as different enantiomer may have different pharmaceutical effects
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Blood–brain Barrier
The BLOOD–BRAIN BARRIER (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS). The blood–brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells and it allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion , as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. Furthermore, it prevents the entry of lipophilic potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein . Astrocytes have been claimed to be necessary to create the blood–brain barrier. A few regions in the brain, including the circumventricular organs , do not have a blood–brain barrier. The blood–brain barrier occurs along all capillaries and consists of tight junctions around the capillaries that do not exist in normal circulation
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