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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Human Evolution
HUMAN EVOLUTION, also known as hominization , is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans , beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo
Homo
– and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family , the great apes. This process involved the gradual development of traits such as human bipedalism and language . The study of human evolution involves many scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology , primatology , archaeology , paleontology , neurobiology , ethology , linguistics , evolutionary psychology , embryology and genetics . Genetic studies show that primates diverged from other mammals about 85 million years ago , in the Late Cretaceous period, and the earliest fossils appear in the Paleocene , around 55 million years ago
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Extinction Event
An EXTINCTION EVENT (also known as a MASS EXTINCTION or BIOTIC CRISIS) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth
Earth
. Such an event is identified by a sharp change in the diversity and abundance of multicellular organisms . It occurs when the rate of extinction increases with respect to the rate of speciation . Because most diversity and biomass on Earth
Earth
is microbial , and thus difficult to measure, recorded extinction events affect the easily observed, biologically complex component of the biosphere rather than the total diversity and abundance of life. Extinction
Extinction
occurs at an uneven rate. Based on the fossil record , the background rate of extinctions on Earth
Earth
is about two to five taxonomic families of marine animals every million years
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Timeline Of Evolutionary History Of Life
This TIMELINE OF THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF LIFE represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth
Earth
. In biology , evolution is any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organization , from kingdoms to species , and individual organisms and molecules , such as DNA
DNA
and proteins . The similarities between all present day organisms indicate the presence of a common ancestor from which all known species, living and extinct , have diverged through the process of evolution. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived on Earth
Earth
are estimated to be extinct
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Parallel Evolution
PARALLEL EVOLUTION is the development of a similar trait in related, but distinct, species descending from the same ancestor, but from different clades . CONTENTS* 1 Parallel vs. convergent evolution * 1.1 Examples * 1.1.1 Parallel evolution between marsupials and placentals * 2 See also * 3 References PARALLEL VS. CONVERGENT EVOLUTION Evolution at an amino acid position. In each case, the left-hand species changes from incorporating alanine (A) at a specific position within a protein in a hypothetical common ancestor deduced from comparison of sequences of several species, and now incorporates serine (S) in its present-day form. The right-hand species may undergo divergent , parallel, or convergent evolution at this amino acid position relative to that of the first species
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Divergent Evolution
DIVERGENT EVOLUTION is the accumulation of differences between groups, leading to the formation of new species. The term can also be applied in molecular biology characteristics, such as to proteins that derive from two or more homologous genes . Both orthologous genes (resulting from a speciation event) and paralogous genes (resulting from gene duplication ) can be said to display divergent evolution. Because of the latter, it is possible for divergent evolution to occur between two genes within a species. Similarities between species that have diverged is due to their common origin, so such similarities are homologies . In contrast, convergent evolution arises when an adaptation has arisen independently, creating analogous structures such as the wings of birds and of insects. USAGE J. T
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Gene Flow
In population genetics , GENE FLOW (also known as GENE MIGRATION) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another. If the rate of gene flow is high enough, then two populations are considered to have equivalent genetic diversity and therefore effectively a single population. It has been shown that it takes only "One migrant per generation" to prevent population diverging due to drift . Gene
Gene
flow is an important mechanism for transferring genetic diversity among populations. Migrants into or out of a population may result in a change in allele frequencies (the proportion of members carrying a particular variant of a gene), changing the distribution of genetic diversity within the populations. Immigration may also result in the addition of new genetic variants to the established gene pool of a particular species or population. High rates of gene flow can reduce the genetic differentiation between the two groups, increasing homogeneity
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Charles Darwin
CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN, FRS FRGS FLS FZS (/ˈdɑːrwɪn/ ; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist , geologist and biologist , best known for his contributions to the science of evolution . He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors and, in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace , introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection , in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding . Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species , overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species . By the 1870s, the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact
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Evolutionary Developmental Biology
EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY (informally, EVO-DEVO) is a field of biological research that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to infer the ancestral relationships between them and how developmental processes evolved . The field grew from 19th century beginnings, where embryology faced a mystery: zoologists did not know how embryonic development was controlled at the molecular level . Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
noted that having similar embryos implied common ancestry, but little progress was made until the 1970s. Then, recombinant DNA technology at last brought embryology together with molecular genetics . A key early discovery was of homeotic genes that regulate development in a wide range of eukaryotes . The field is characterised by some key concepts, which took biologists by surprise
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Genetic Divergence
GENETIC DIVERGENCE is the process in which two or more populations of an ancestral species accumulate independent genetic changes (mutations ) through time, often after the populations have become reproductively isolated for some period of time. In some cases, subpopulations living in ecologically distinct peripheral environments can exhibit genetic divergence from the remainder of a population, especially where the range of a population is very large (see parapatric speciation ). The genetic differences among divergent populations can involve silent mutations (that have no effect on the phenotype ) or give rise to significant morphological and/or physiological changes. Genetic divergence will always accompany reproductive isolation, either due to novel adaptations via selection and/or due to genetic drift, and is the principal mechanism underlying speciation
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Scientific Classification (other)
SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION may refer to: * Chemical classification * Mathematical classification , construction of subsets into a set * The mathematical problem of assigning a label to an object based on a set of its attributes or features. * Taxonomy , the practice and science of categorizationCONTENTS * 1 Biology * 2 Astronomy * 3 See also BIOLOGY * Alpha taxonomy
Alpha taxonomy
, the science of finding, describi
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Biosocial Criminology
BIOSOCIAL CRIMINOLOGY is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by exploring both biological factors and environmental factors. While contemporary criminology has been dominated by sociological theories, biosocial criminology also recognizes the potential contributions of fields such as genetics , neuropsychology , and evolutionary psychology . CONTENTS* 1 Approaches * 1.1 Environment * 1.2 Genetics
Genetics
* 1.3 Neurophysiology * 1.4 Evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary psychology
* 1.4.1 Specific forms * 1.4.2 Criminal justice * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading APPROACHESENVIRONMENTEnvironment has a significant effect on genetic expression. Disadvantaged environments enhance antisocial gene expression, suppress prosocial gene action and prevent the realization of genetic potential
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History Of Paleontology
The HISTORY OF PALEONTOLOGY traces the history of the effort to understand the history of life on Earth by studying the fossil record left behind by living organisms. Since it is concerned with understanding living organisms of the past, paleontology can be considered to be a field of biology, but its historical development has been closely tied to geology and the effort to understand the history of Earth itself. In ancient times, Xenophanes (570–480 BC), Herodotus
Herodotus
(484–425 BC), Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
(276–194 BC), and Strabo
Strabo
(64 BC-24 AD) wrote about fossils of marine organisms, indicating that land was once under water
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Timeline Of Paleontology
TIMELINE OF PALEONTOLOGY * 6th century B.C. — The pre-Socratic Greek philosopher Xenophanes of Colophon argues that fossils of marine organisms show that dry land was once under water. * 1027 — The Persian naturalist , Avicenna
Avicenna
, explains the stoniness of fossils in The Book of Healing by proposing the theory of petrifying fluids (succus lapidificatus). * 1031-1095 — The Chinese naturalist , Shen Kuo
Shen Kuo
, uses evidence of marine fossils found in the Taihang Mountains
Taihang Mountains
to infer geological processes caused shifting of seashores over time, and uses petrified bamboos found underground in Yan\'an , to argue for gradual climate change . * 1320-1390 — Avicenna's theory of petrifying fluids (succus lapidificatus) was elaborated on by Albert of Saxony
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Biodiversity
BIODIVERSITY, a portmanteau of "biological diversity," generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth
Earth
. According to the United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Environment Programme
, biodiversity typically measures variation at the genetic , the species , and the ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator , which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity . Biodiversity
Biodiversity
is not distributed evenly on Earth
Earth
, and is richest in the tropics. These tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 per cent of earth's surface, and contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific , where sea surface temperature is highest and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans
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Transitional Fossil
A TRANSITIONAL FOSSIL is any fossilized remains of a life form that exhibits traits common to both an ancestral group and its derived descendant group. This is especially important where the descendant group is sharply differentiated by gross anatomy and mode of living from the ancestral group. These fossils serve as a reminder that taxonomic divisions are human constructs that have been imposed in hindsight on a continuum of variation. Because of the incompleteness of the fossil record, there is usually no way to know exactly how close a transitional fossil is to the point of divergence. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that transitional fossils are direct ancestors of more recent groups, though they are frequently used as models for such ancestors. In 1859, when Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
's On the Origin of Species was first published, the fossil record was poorly known
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