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Tasikmalaya
TASIKMALAYA (Chinese : 打橫; pinyin : Dǎhéng) is a city in West Java
Java
province , Indonesia
Indonesia
. The city is sometimes dubbed "the City of a Thousand Pesantrens " for its abundance of Islamic boarding schools. Located around 120 kilometres (75 mi) southeast from the provincial capital of Bandung
Bandung
, Tasikmalaya
Tasikmalaya
is passed by Indonesian National Route 3 . The city is located in the mountainous Preanger region of Java
Java
at an elevation of 351 metres (1,151 feet). The population of the city (excluding the Tasikmalaya
Tasikmalaya
Regency, which surrounds the city to the west, south and east) was 635,464 according to the 2010 Census, the latest official (as at 2015) is 808,506
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Police Brutality
POLICE BRUTALITY is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members. Widespread police brutality exists in many countries and territories, even those that prosecute it. Although illegal, it can be performed under the color of law
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Pesantren
PESANTREN or PONDOK PESANTREN are Islamic boarding schools in Indonesia
Indonesia
. According to one popular tradition, the pesantren education system originated from traditional Javanese pondokan; dormitories; ashram for Hindu
Hindu
or viharas for Buddhists to learn religious philosophies, martial arts and meditation . Institutions much like them are found across the Islamic world and are called pondok in Malaysia
Malaysia
and Southern Thailand
Southern Thailand
and madrasa Islamia (Islamic madrasa) in India and Pakistan and much of the Arabic speaking world. Pesantren
Pesantren
aim to deepen knowledge of the Koran
Koran
, particularly through the study of Arabic , traditions of exegesis , the Sayings of the Prophet , law and logic
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Pinyin
HANYU PINYIN ROMANIZATION (simplified Chinese : 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese : 漢語拼音; literally: "Han Chinese spelling of sounds"), often abbreviated to PINYIN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan
Taiwan
. It is often used to teach Standard (Mandarin) Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters
Chinese characters
. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Religion
RELIGION is any cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views , texts , sanctified places , ethics , or organizations , that relate humanity to the supernatural or transcendental . Religions relate humanity to what anthropologist Clifford Geertz has referred to as a cosmic "order of existence". However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine , sacred things , faith , a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals , sermons , commemoration or veneration (of deities ), sacrifices , festivals , feasts , trances , initiations , funerary services , matrimonial services , meditation , prayer , music , art , dance , public service , or other aspects of human culture
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Social Class
A SOCIAL CLASS (or, simply, CLASS), as in CLASS SOCIETY, is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper , middle , and lower classes . Class is a subject of analysis for sociologists , political scientists , anthropologists , and social historians . However, there is not a consensus on a definition of "class", and the term has a wide range of sometimes conflicting meanings. In common parlance, the term "social class" is usually synonymous with "socio-economic class", defined as "people having the same social, economic, cultural, political or educational status", e.g., "the working class "; "an emerging professional class"
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ATR 72
The ATR 72
ATR 72
is a twin-engine turboprop , short-haul regional airliner developed and produced in France and Italy by aircraft manufacturer ATR (Aerei da Trasporto Regionale or Avions de transport régional), a joint venture formed by French aerospace company Aérospatiale
Aérospatiale
(now Airbus
Airbus
) and Italian aviation conglomerate Aeritalia (now Leonardo S.p.A. ). The number "72" in its name is derived from the aircraft's standard seating configuration in a passenger-carrying configuration, which could seat 72-78 passengers in a single-class arrangement. During the 1980s, French aerospace company Aérospatiale
Aérospatiale
and Italian aviation conglomerate Aeritalia merged their separate work upon a new generation of regional aircraft together
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EADS CASA C-295
The EADS CASA
EADS CASA
C-295 is a twin-turboprop tactical military transport aircraft , and is currently manufactured by Airbus
Airbus
Defence and Space in Spain
Spain
. CONTENTS * 1 Design and development * 2 Operational history * 3 Variants * 4 Operators * 5 Incidents * 6 Specifications (C-295M) * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENTThe C-295 is manufactured and assembled in the Airbus
Airbus
Military facilities in the San Pablo Airport, in Seville
Seville
, Spain. It is a development of the Spanish – Indonesian transport aircraft CASA/IPTN CN-235 , but with a stretched fuselage, 50% more payload capability and new PW127G turboprop engines. The C-295 made its maiden flight in 1998. The first order came from the Spanish Air Force
Spanish Air Force

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Lahar
A LAHAR ( /ˈlɑːhɑːr/ ) is a type of mudflow or debris flow composed of a slurry of pyroclastic material, rocky debris, and water . The material flows down from a volcano , typically along a river valley . Lahars are extremely destructive: they can flow tens of metres per second (22 mph or more), be 140 metres (460 ft) deep, and destroy any structures in their path. Notable lahars include those at Mount Pinatubo and Nevado del Ruiz , the latter of which killed thousands of people. The word lahar is the Javanese term for "flowing lava". CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Causes * 3 Places at risk * 4 Examples * 4.1 Nevado del Ruiz * 4.2 Mount Pinatubo
Mount Pinatubo
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DESCRIPTIONA lahar is a volcanic mudflow or debris flow. Lahars have the consistency, viscosity and approximate density of wet concrete : fluid when moving, solid at rest. Lahars can be huge
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Volcano
A VOLCANO is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object , such as Earth
Earth
, that allows hot lava , volcanic ash , and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging , and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge , such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge , has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust's plates, e.g., in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America
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Vehicle Registration Plate
A VEHICLE REGISTRATION PLATE, also known as a NUMBER PLATE (British English ) or a LICENSE PLATE ( American English
American English
), is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars, trucks, and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction. The registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register . In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person also varies by issuing agency. There are also electronic license plates
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Volcanic Ash
VOLCANIC ASH consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass , created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter. The term volcanic ash is also often loosely used to refer to all explosive eruption products (correctly referred to as tephra ), including particles larger than 2mm. Volcanic ash
Volcanic ash
is formed during explosive volcanic eruptions when dissolved gases in magma expand and escape violently into the atmosphere. The force of the escaping gas shatters the magma and propels it into the atmosphere where it solidifies into fragments of volcanic rock and glass. Ash
Ash
is also produced when magma comes into contact with water during phreatomagmatic eruptions , causing the water to explosively flash to steam leading to shattering of magma. Once in the air, ash is transported by wind up to thousands of kilometers away
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Java
JAVA (Indonesian : JAWA; Javanese : ꦗꦮ; Sundanese : ᮏᮝ) is an island of Indonesia
Indonesia
. With a population of over 141 million (the island itself) or 145 million (the administrative region), Java
Java
is home to 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the most populous island on Earth
Earth
. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta
Jakarta
, is located on western Java
Java
. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies . Java
Java
was also the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. Java
Java
dominates Indonesia
Indonesia
politically, economically and culturally
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Simplified Chinese Character
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; jiǎnhuàzì) are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, it is one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s in an attempt to increase literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore
Singapore

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