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Tacitus
PUBLIUS (or GAIUS) CORNELIUS TACITUS (/ˈtæsᵻtəs/ ; Classical Latin: ; c. AD 56 – c. AD 120) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories —examine the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius
Tiberius
, Claudius
Claudius
, Nero
Nero
, and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors (AD 69). These two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus
Augustus
, in AD 14, to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War , in AD 70. There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals that is four books long
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Belgica
GALLIA BELGICA ( Belgic
Belgic
Gaul
Gaul
) was a province of the Roman empire located in the north-eastern part of Roman Gaul
Gaul
, in which Belgium
Belgium
is situated today. In 50BC after the conquest by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
during his Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
, it became one of the three main provinces of Gaul
Gaul
(known as the Tres Galliae the other two being Gallia Aquitania
Gallia Aquitania
and Gallia Lugdunensis ). An official Roman province
Roman province
was later created by emperor Augustus
Augustus
in 22 BC
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Pliny's Natural History
PLINY\'S NATURAL HISTORY ( Latin
Latin
: Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin
Latin
by Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD. It is one of the largest single works to have survived from the Roman Empire to the modern day and purports to cover all ancient knowledge. The work's subject area is thus not limited to what is today understood by natural history ; Pliny himself defines his scope as "the natural world, or life". It is encyclopedic in scope, but its structure is not like that of a modern encyclopedia . The work is divided into 37 books, organised into ten volumes. These cover topics including astronomy , mathematics , geography , ethnography , anthropology , human physiology , zoology , botany , agriculture , horticulture , pharmacology , mining , mineralogy , sculpture , painting , and precious stones
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Proscription
PROSCRIPTION (Latin : proscriptio) is, in current usage, a "decree of condemnation to death or banishment" (OED ) and can be used in a political context to refer to state-approved murder or banishment. The term originated in Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
, where it included public identification and official condemnation of declared enemies of the state . It has been used broadly since to describe similar governmental and political actions, with varying degrees of nuance, including the en masse suppression of ideologies and elimination of political rivals or personal enemies
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Britannia
BRITANNIA was a Roman-Britain province inhabited by the Britons , Belgae and Picts , encompassing parts of the island south of Caledonia (roughly Scotland
Scotland
) of the geographical region of Great Britain
Great Britain
and is the name given to the female personification of the island. It is a term still used to refer to the island. The name is Latin
Latin
, and derives from the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai, which originally designated a collection of islands with individual names, including Albion
Albion
or Great Britain. By the 1st century BC , Britannia
Britannia
came to be used for Great Britain
Great Britain
specifically
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Gallia Narbonensis
GALLIA NARBONENSIS ( Latin
Latin
for " Gaul
Gaul
of Narbonne
Narbonne
", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province
Roman province
located in what is now Languedoc
Languedoc
and Provence
Provence
, in southern France
France
. It was also known as PROVINCIA NOSTRA ("Our Province"), from its having been the first Roman province
Roman province
north of the Alps
Alps
, and as GALLIA TRANSALPINA ("Transalpine Gaul"), distinguishing it from Cisalpine Gaul
Cisalpine Gaul
in northern Italy. It became a Roman province
Roman province
in the late 2nd century BC
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Lacuna (manuscripts)
A LACUNA (pl. LACUNAE or LACUNAS) is a gap in a manuscript , inscription , text, painting, or a musical work. A manuscript, text, or section suffering from gaps is said to be "lacunose" or "lacunulose". Some books intentionally add lacunas to be filled in by the owner (e.g., "The _____ played with the _____ in the _____."), often as a game or to encourage children to create their own stories. Weathering, decay, and other damage to old manuscripts or inscriptions are often responsible for lacunae—words, sentences, or whole passages that are missing or illegible. Palimpsests
Palimpsests
are particularly vulnerable. To reconstruct the original text, the context must be considered. In papyrology and textual criticism this may lead to competing reconstructions and interpretations. Published texts that contain lacunae often mark the section where text is missing with a bracketed ellipsis
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Dialogue
DIALOGUE (sometimes spelled DIALOG in U.S. English ) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange. As a narrative , philosophical or didactic device, it is chiefly associated in the West with the Socratic dialogue as developed by Plato
Plato
, but antecedents are also found in other traditions including Indian literature . In the 20th century, philosophical treatments of dialogue emerged from thinkers including Mikhail Bakhtin
Mikhail Bakhtin
, Paulo Freire , Martin Buber , and David Bohm . Although diverging in many details, these thinkers have articulated a holistic concept of dialogue as a multi-dimensional, dynamic and context-dependent process of creating meaning
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Freedman
A FREEDMAN or FREEDWOMAN is a former slave who has been released from slavery , usually by legal means. Historically, slaves were freed either by manumission (granted freedom by their owner) or emancipation (granted freedom as part of a larger group). A fugitive slave is one who escaped slavery by fleeing. CONTENTS * 1 Ancient Rome * 2 Arabian and North African slavery * 3 United States
United States
* 3.1 Cherokee Freedmen
Cherokee Freedmen
* 4 See also * 5 References ANCIENT ROME Main article: Slavery
Slavery
in ancient Rome Cinerary urn for the freedman Tiberius Claudius
Claudius
Chryseros and two women, probably his wife and daughter Rome differed from Greek city-states in allowing freed slaves to become plebeian citizens
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Public Speaking
PUBLIC SPEAKING (also called ORATORY or ORATION) is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience . This type of speech is deliberately structured with three general purposes: to inform, to persuade and to entertain. Public speaking is commonly understood as formal, face-to-face speaking of a single person to a group of listeners. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Tools * 4 National and organizations * 4.1 Intercollegiate * 4.2 High school * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEWThere are five basic elements of public speaking that are described in Lasswell\'s model of communication : the communicator, message, medium, audience and effect. In short, the speaker should be answering the question "who says what in which channel to whom with what effect?" Public speaking can serve the purpose of transmitting information, telling a story, motivating people to act or some combination of those
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Biography
A BIOGRAPHY, or simply BIO, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, and death; it portrays a person's experience of these life events. Unlike a profile or curriculum vitae (résumé ), a biography presents a subject's life story, highlighting various aspects of his or her life, including intimate details of experience, and may include an analysis of the subject's personality. Biographical works are usually non-fiction , but fiction can also be used to portray a person's life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing. Works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An AUTHORIZED BIOGRAPHY is written with the permission, cooperation, and at times, participation of a subject or a subject's heirs. An AUTOBIOGRAPHY is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter
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Sidonius Apollinaris
GAIUS SOLLIUS MODESTUS APOLLINARIS SIDONIUS, better known as SAINT SIDONIUS APOLLINARIS (5 November of an unknown year, c. 430 – August 489 AD), was a poet , diplomat , and bishop . Sidonius is "the single most important surviving author from fifth-century Gaul" according to Eric Goldberg. He was one of four Gallo-Roman aristocrats of the fifth- to sixth-century whose letters survive in quantity; the others are Ruricius bishop of Limoges
Limoges
(died 507), Alcimus Ecdicius Avitus , bishop of Vienne (died 518) and Magnus Felix Ennodius of Arles, bishop of Ticinum (died 534). All of them were linked in the tightly bound aristocratic Gallo-Roman
Gallo-Roman
network that provided the bishops of Catholic Gaul. His feast day is 21 August
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Praenomen
The PRAENOMEN (Classical Latin: ; plural: PRAENOMINA) was a personal name chosen by the parents of a Roman child. It was first bestowed on the dies lustricus (day of lustration ), the eighth day after the birth of a girl, or the ninth day after the birth of a boy. The praenomen would then be formally conferred a second time when girls married, or when boys assumed the toga virilis upon reaching manhood. Although it was the oldest of the tria nomina commonly used in Roman naming conventions , by the late republic, most praenomina were so common that most people were called by their praenomina only by family or close friends. For this reason, although they continued to be used, praenomina gradually disappeared from public records during imperial times. Although both men and women received praenomina, women's praenomina were frequently ignored, and they were gradually abandoned by many Roman families, though they continued to be used in some families and in the countryside
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Austrian Parliament Building
The AUSTRIAN PARLIAMENT BUILDING (German : Parlamentsgebäude, colloquially das Parlament) in Vienna
Vienna
is where the two houses of the Austrian Parliament
Austrian Parliament
conduct their sessions. The building is located on the Ringstraße
Ringstraße
boulevard in the first district Innere Stadt
Innere Stadt
, near Hofburg Palace
Hofburg Palace
and the Palace of Justice . It was built to house the two chambers of the Imperial Council (Reichsrat), the bicameral legislature of the Cisleithanian (Austrian) part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire . Since its construction, the Parliament Building has been the seat of these two houses, and their successors—the National Council (Nationalrat) and the Federal Council (Bundesrat)—of the Austrian legislature. The foundation stone was laid in 1874; the building was completed in 1883
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Aristocracy (class)
The ARISTOCRACY was a social class that a particular society considered its highest order. In many states, the aristocracy included the upper class of people (aristocrats) with hereditary rank and titles. In some—such as ancient Greece, Rome and India—aristocratic status came from belonging to a military caste , although it has also been common, notably in African societies, for aristocrats to belong to priestly dynasties. Aristocratic status can involve feudal or legal privileges. They are usually below only the monarch of a country or nation in its social hierarchy . In modern European societies, the aristocracy has often coincided with the nobility , a specific class that arose in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, but the term "aristocracy" is sometimes also applied to other elites , and is used as a more generic term when describing earlier and non-European societies
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Historian
A HISTORIAN is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history , the individual is an historian of prehistory . Although "historian" can be used to describe amateur and professional historians alike, it is reserved more recently for those who have acquired graduate degrees in the discipline. Some historians, though, are recognized by publications or training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere
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