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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Biological Classification
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Species (biology)
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA
DNA
, morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature )
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Type (biology)
In biology, a TYPE is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon . In older usage (pre-1900 in botany), a type was a taxon rather than a specimen. A taxon is a scientifically named grouping of organisms with other like organisms, a set that includes some organisms and excludes others, based on a detailed published description (for example a species description ) and on the provision of type material, which is usually available to scientists for examination in a major museum research collection, or similar institution
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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature , a TYPE SPECIES (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s). A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus . In botanical nomenclature , these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature , but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, and some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types. In bacteriology , a type species is assigned for each genus
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA /ˈdʒɛnərə/ ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis
Felis
silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Kingdom (biology)
In biology , KINGDOM ( Latin
Latin
: REGNUM, plural REGNA) is the second highest taxonomic rank , just below domain . Kingdoms are divided into smaller groups called phyla . Traditionally, textbooks from the United States used a system of six kingdoms ( Animalia
Animalia
, Plantae
Plantae
, Fungi
Fungi
, Protista
Protista
, Archaea / Archaeabacteria , and Bacteria
Bacteria
/ Eubacteria ) while textbooks in Great Britain, India, Australia, Latin
Latin
America and other countries used five kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista
Protista
and Monera )
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Phylum
In biology, a PHYLUM (/ˈfaɪləm/ ; plural : PHYLA) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class . Traditionally, in botany the term division has been used instead of phylum, although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants accepts the terms as equivalent. Depending on definitions, the animal kingdom Animalia or Metazoa contains approximately 33 phyla, the plant kingdom Plantae
Plantae
contains about 14, and the fungus kingdom Fungi
Fungi
contains about 8 phyla. Current research in phylogenetics is uncovering the relationships between phyla, which are contained in larger clades , like Ecdysozoa and Embryophyta
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Synonym
A SYNONYM is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be SYNONYMOUS, and the state of being a synonym is called SYNONYMY. For example, the words begin, start, commence, and initiate are all synonyms of one another. Words are typically synonymous in one particular sense : for example, long and extended in the context long time or extended time are synonymous, but long cannot be used in the phrase extended family. Synonyms with the exact same meaning share a seme or denotational sememe , whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field . The former are sometimes called cognitive synonyms and the latter, near-synonyms
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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John Edward Gray
JOHN EDWARD GRAY, FRS (12 February 1800 – 7 March 1875) was a British zoologist . He was the elder brother of zoologist George Robert Gray and son of the pharmacologist and botanist Samuel Frederick Gray (1766–1828). Gray was Keeper of Zoology
Zoology
at the British Museum
British Museum
in London from 1840 until Christmas 1874, before the Natural History
Natural History
holdings were split off to the Natural History
Natural History
Museum . He published several catalogues of the museum collections that included comprehensive discussions of animal groups as well as descriptions of new species . He improved the zoological collections to make them amongst the best in the world
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Pronghorn
A. a. americana A. a. mexicana A. a. oregona A. a. peninsularis A. a. sonoriensis Range of the PronghornThe PRONGHORN ( /ˈprɒŋˌhɔːrn/ ) (Antilocapra americana) is a species of artiodactyl mammal indigenous to interior western and central North America
North America
. Though not an antelope , it is often known colloquially in North America
North America
as the AMERICAN ANTELOPE, PRONG BUCK, PRONGHORN ANTELOPE, or simply ANTELOPE because it closely resembles the true antelopes of the Old World
Old World
and fills a similar ecological niche due to parallel evolution . It is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae . During the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
period, about 12 antilocaprid species existed in North America
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Botanical Nomenclature
BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy . Plant
Plant
taxonomy is concerned with grouping and classifying plants; botanical nomenclature then provides names for the results of this process. The starting point for modern botanical nomenclature is Linnaeus ' Species Plantarum of 1753. Botanical nomenclature
Botanical nomenclature
is governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), which replaces the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). Fossil plants are also covered by the code of nomenclature. Within the limits set by that code there is another set of rules, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) which applies to plant cultivars that have been deliberately altered or selected by humans (see cultigen )
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Lumpers And Splitters
LUMPERS and SPLITTERS are opposing factions in any discipline that has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories . The lumper-splitter problem occurs when there is the need to create classifications and assign examples to them, for example schools of literature , biological taxa and so on. A "lumper" is an individual who takes a gestalt view of a definition, and assigns examples broadly, assuming that differences are not as important as signature similarities. A "splitter" is an individual who takes precise definitions, and creates new categories to classify samples that differ in key ways
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Paleontology
PALEONTOLOGY or PALAEONTOLOGY ( /ˌpeɪliɒnˈtɒlədʒi/ , /ˌpeɪliənˈtɒlədʒi/ or /ˌpæliɒnˈtɒlədʒi/ , /ˌpæliənˈtɒlədʒi/ ) is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present ). It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology ). Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
's work on comparative anatomy , and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, i.e. "old, ancient", ὄν, on (gen. ontos), i.e. "being, creature" and λόγος, logos, i.e. "speech, thought, study"
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