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Substance Dependence
SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE also known as DRUG DEPENDENCE is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use. A drug addiction , a distinct concept from substance dependence, is defined as compulsive , out-of-control drug use, despite negative consequences. An addictive drug is a drug which is both rewarding and reinforcing . ΔFosB , a gene transcription factor, is now known to be a critical component and common factor in the development of virtually all forms of behavioral addiction and drug addictions, but not dependence. Within the framework of the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), substance dependence is redefined as a drug addiction, and can be diagnosed without the occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome
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Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders
The DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association
American Psychiatric Association
(APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders . It is used, or relied upon, by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies , the legal system, and policy makers together with alternatives such as the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders , produced by the WHO . The DSM is now in its fifth edition, DSM-5 , published on May 18, 2013
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Brain Disorder
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES, also known as CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS, are a group of neurological disorders that affect the structure or function of the brain or spinal cord , which collectively form the central nervous system (CNS)
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Gene Transcription
TRANSCRIPTION is the first step of gene expression , in which a particular segment of DNA
DNA
is copied into RNA
RNA
(especially m RNA
RNA
) by the enzyme RNA
RNA
polymerase . Both DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
are nucleic acids , which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. During transcription, a DNA
DNA
sequence is read by an RNA
RNA
polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA
RNA
strand called a primary transcript
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Cannabis
CANNABIS (/ˈkænəbɪs/ ) is a genus of flowering plant in the family Cannabaceae
Cannabaceae
. The number of species within the genus is disputed. Three species may be recognized, Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa
, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis
Cannabis ruderalis
; C. ruderalis may be included within C. sativa; or all three may be treated as subspecies of a single species, C. sativa. The genus is indigenous to central Asia and the Indian subcontinent . Cannabis
Cannabis
has long been used for hemp fibre, for hemp oils , for medicinal purposes , and as a recreational drug . Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber
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Compulsive Behavior
COMPULSIVE BEHAVIOR is defined as performing an act persistently and repetitively without it necessarily leading to an actual reward or pleasure. Compulsive behaviors could be an attempt to make obsessions go away. The act is usually a small, restricted and repetitive behavior, yet not disturbing in a pathological way. Compulsive behaviors are a need to reduce apprehension caused by internal feelings a person wants to abstain from or control. A major cause of the compulsive behaviors is said to be obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). "The main idea of compulsive behavior is that the likely excessive activity is not connected to the purpose to which it appears directed." Furthermore, there are many different types of compulsive behaviors including, shopping , hoarding , eating , gambling , trichotillomania and picking skin , checking , counting , washing, sex , and more. Also, there are cultural examples of compulsive behavior
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Stimulus (psychology)
In psychology , a STIMULUS is any object or event that elicits a sensory or behavioral response in an organism. * In perceptual psychology , a stimulus is an energy change (e.g., light or sound) which is registered by the senses (e.g., vision, hearing, taste, etc.) and constitutes the basis for perception . * In behavioral psychology (i.e., classical and operant conditioning), a stimulus constitutes the basis for behavior . In this context, a distinction is made between the distal stimulus (the external, perceived object) and the proximal stimulus (the stimulation of sensory organs). * In experimental psychology , a stimulus is the event or object to which a response is measured. Thus, not everything that is presented to participants qualifies as stimulus. For example, a cross mark at the center of a screen is not said to be a stimulus, because it merely serves to center participants' gaze on the screen. Also, it is uncommon to refer to longer events (e.g
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Barbiturates
A BARBITURATE is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant , and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia . They are also effective as anxiolytics , hypnotics , and anticonvulsants . Barbiturates
Barbiturates
have addiction potential, both physical and psychological. They have largely been replaced by benzodiazepines in routine medical practice, particularly in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia, due to the significant lower risk of overdose and the lack of an antidote for barbiturate overdose. Despite this, barbiturates are still in use for various purposes: in general anesthesia , epilepsy , treatment of acute migraines or cluster headaches , euthanasia , capital punishment , and assisted suicide . The name barbiturate originates from the fact that they are all chemical derivatives of barbituric acid
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Anhedonia
ANHEDONIA is the inability to experience pleasure from activities usually found enjoyable, e.g. exercise, hobbies, singing, sexual activities or social interactions. While earlier definitions of anhedonia emphasized pleasurable experience, more recent models have highlighted the need to consider different aspects of enjoyable behavior, such as motivation or desire to engage in activities (MOTIVATIONAL ANHEDONIA), as compared to the level of enjoyment of the activity itself ("consummatory anhedonia"). According to William James
William James
, the term was coined by Théodule-Armand Ribot . One can distinguish many kinds of pathological depression. Sometimes it is mere passive joylessness and dreariness, discouragement, dejection, lack of taste and zest and spring. Professor Ribot proposed the name anhedonia to designate this condition
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Dysphoria
DYSPHORIA (from Greek : δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction. In a psychiatric context, dysphoria may accompany depression , anxiety , or agitation. It can also refer to a state of not being comfortable in one's current body, particularly in cases of gender dysphoria . Common reactions to dysphoria include emotional distress, in some cases, even physical distress is seen. The opposite state of mind is known as euphoria . CONTENTS* 1 In psychiatry * 1.1 Gender dysphoria
Gender dysphoria
* 1.2 Related conditions * 2 Drug-induced (dysphoriants) * 3 In popular culture * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References IN PSYCHIATRYIntense states of distress and unease increase the risk of suicide , as well as being unpleasant in themselves. Relieving dysphoria is therefore a priority of psychiatric treatment
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Pharmacokinetics
PHARMACOKINETICS (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics ), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism. The substances of interest include any chemical xenobiotic such as: pharmaceutical drugs , pesticides , food additives , cosmetics , etc. It attempts to analyze chemical metabolism and to discover the fate of a chemical from the moment that it is administered up to the point at which it is completely eliminated from the body . Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics
is the study of how an organism affects a drug, whereas pharmacodynamics (PD) is the study of how the drug affects the organism. Both together influence dosing , benefit, and adverse effects , as seen in PK/PD models
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The Lancet
THE LANCET is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal . It is one of the world's oldest and best known general medical journals. The Lancet
The Lancet
was founded in 1823 by Thomas Wakley , an English surgeon who named it after the surgical instrument called a lancet , as well as after the architectural term "lancet arch ", a window with a sharp pointed arch, to indicate the "light of wisdom" or "to let in light". The Lancet
The Lancet
publishes original research articles, review articles ("seminars" and "reviews"), editorials, book reviews, correspondence, as well as news features and case reports. The Lancet
The Lancet
has been owned by Elsevier
Elsevier
since 1991. As of 2015 , the editor-in-chief is Richard Horton . The journal has editorial offices in London, New York, and Beijing
Beijing

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Neuropeptide
NEUROPEPTIDES are small protein-like molecules (peptides ) used by neurons to communicate with each other. They are neuronal signaling molecules that influence the activity of the brain and the body in specific ways. Different neuropeptides are involved in a wide range of brain functions, including analgesia, reward, food intake, metabolism, reproduction, social behaviors, learning and memory. Neuropeptides are related to peptide hormones, and in some cases peptides that function in the periphery as hormones also have neuronal functions as neuropeptides. The distinction between neuropeptide and peptide hormone has to do with the cell types that release and respond to the molecule; neuropeptides are secreted from neuronal cells (primarily neurons but also glia for some peptides) and signal to neighboring cells (primarily neurons). In contrast, peptide hormones are secreted from neuroendocrine cells and travel through the blood to distant tissues where they evoke a response
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Alcohol
In chemistry , an ALCOHOL is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–O H ) is bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the predominant alcohol in alcoholic beverages . The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC
IUPAC
chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) name. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol ) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. But many substances, particularly sugars (examples glucose and sucrose ) contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix
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Gene Transcription Factor
In molecular biology , a TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (TF) (or SEQUENCE-SPECIFIC DNA-BINDING FACTOR) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA , by binding to a specific DNA sequence . The function of TFs is to regulate - turn on and off - genes in order to make sure that they are expressed in the right cell at the right time and in the right amount throughout the life of the cell and the organism. Groups of TFs function in a coordinated fashion to direct cell division , cell growth , and cell death throughout life; cell migration and organization (body plan ) during embryonic development; and intermittently in response to signals from outside the cell, such as a hormone . There are up to 2600 TFs in the human genome
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International Statistical Classification Of Diseases And Related Health Problems
The INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology , health management and clinical purposes". Its full official name is INTERNATIONAL STATISTICAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES AND RELATED HEALTH PROBLEMS. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System . The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases , including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long. Thus, major categories are designed to include a set of similar diseases
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