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Stone Wall
STONE WALLS are a kind of masonry construction that has been used for thousands of years. The first stone walls were constructed by farmers and primitive people by piling loose field stones into a dry stone wall . Later, mortar and plaster were used, especially in the construction of city walls , castles , and other fortifications before and during the Middle Ages . These stone walls are spread throughout the world in different forms. One of the best example is the Cyclopean Wall in Rajgir, India. CONTENTS * 1 Materials * 2 Dimensions * 3 See also * 4 References MATERIALSStone walls are usually made of local materials varying from limestone and flint to granite and sandstone . However, the quality of building stone varies greatly, both in its endurance to weathering , resistance to water penetration and in its ability to be worked into regular shapes before construction
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Water
WATER is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms . Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds . Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure ; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice ) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor ). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers , ice packs and icebergs , clouds, fog , dew , aquifers , and atmospheric humidity . Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface. It is vital for all known forms of life
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Weathering
WEATHERING is the breaking down of rocks , soil , and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth\'s atmosphere , waters, and biological organisms. Weathering occurs in situ (on site), that is, in the same place, with little or no movement, and thus should not be confused with erosion , which involves the movement of rocks and minerals by agents such as water, ice, snow, wind, waves and gravity and then being transported and deposited in other locations. Two important classifications of weathering processes exist – physical and chemical weathering; each sometimes involves a biological component. Mechanical or physical weathering involves the breakdown of rocks and soils through direct contact with atmospheric conditions, such as heat, water, ice and pressure
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Flint
FLINT is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz , categorized as a variety of chert . It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones . Inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white or brown in colour, and often has a glassy or waxy appearance. A thin layer on the outside of the nodules is usually different in colour, typically white and rough in texture. From a petrological point of view, "flint" refers specifically to the form of chert which occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Similarly, "common chert" (sometimes referred to simply as "chert") occurs in limestone
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Limestone
LIMESTONE is a sedimentary rock , composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral , forams and molluscs . Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite , which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone
Limestone
has numerous uses: as a building material , an essential component of concrete ( Portland cement
Portland cement
), as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints , as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime , as a soil conditioner , or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens
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Portland Stone
PORTLAND STONE is a limestone from the Tithonian
Tithonian
stage of the Jurassic
Jurassic
period quarried on the Isle of Portland
Isle of Portland
, Dorset
Dorset
. The quarries consist of beds of white-grey limestone separated by chert beds. It has been used extensively as a building stone throughout the British Isles
British Isles
, notably in major public buildings in London
London
such as St Paul\'s Cathedral and Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
. It is also exported to many countries— Portland stone
Portland stone
is used in the United Nations headquarters building in New York City, for example
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Rubble
RUBBLE is broken stone , of irregular size, shape and texture; undressed especially as a filling-in. Rubble naturally found in the soil is known also as 'BRASH\' (compare cornbrash ). Where present, it becomes more noticeable when the land is ploughed or worked. CONTENTS* 1 Building * 1.1 Rubble walls in Malta * 2 See also * 3 External links * 4 References BUILDING Rubble-work on Wyggeston\'s Chantry House in Leicester , built c. 1511 " Rubble-work " is a name applied to several types of masonry . One kind, where the stones are loosely thrown together in a wall between boards and grouted with mortar almost like concrete , is called in Italian "muraglia di getto" and in French "bocage". In Pakistan, walls made of rubble and concrete, cast in a formwork, are called 'situ', which probably derives from Sanskrit (similar to the Latin 'in situ' meaning 'made on the spot')
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Rustication (architecture)
In classical architecture RUSTICATION is a range of masonry techniques giving visible surfaces a finish that contrasts in texture with the smoothly finished, squared-block masonry surfaces called ashlar . The visible face of each individual block is cut back around the edges to make its size and placing very clear. In addition the central part of the face of each block may be given a deliberately rough or patterned surface. Rusticated masonry is usually "dressed", or squared off neatly, on all sides of the stones except the face that will be visible when the stone is put in place. This is given wide joints that emphasize the edges of each block, by angling the edges ("channel-jointed"), or dropping them back a little. The main part of the exposed face may worked flat and smooth or left or worked with a more or less rough or patterned surface. Rustication is often used to give visual weight to the ground floor in contrast to smooth ashlar above
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NIST Stone Test Wall
The NIST STONE TEST WALL is an experiment by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology to determine how different types of construction stone weather. It includes 2352 samples of stone from 47 different states within the US and 16 different countries. The wall measures approximately 12 m long, 4 m high, 0.6 m thick at the bottom, and 0.3 m at the top. It includes varieties of andesite , argillite (slate ), basalt , bluestone , breccia , conglomerate , coquina , coral , dacite , diabase , diorite , dolomite , gabbro , gneiss , granite , granodiorite , greenstone , labradorite , limestone , marble , melaphyre , pitchstone , pumice , pyrophyllite , quartz , quartzite , sandstone , schist , serpentinite , shellstone , soapstone , syenite , travertine , and tuff . The wall was built by one stonemason , Vincent Di Benedeto, in 1948. He used two types of stone-setting mortar on the front
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Hammersmith Farm
HAMMERSMITH FARM is a Victorian mansion and estate located at 225 Harrison Avenue in Newport, Rhode Island , United States
United States
. It was the childhood home of First Lady Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy , and the site of the reception for her 1953 wedding to U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy . During his presidency, it was referred to as the "Summer White House ". CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Summer White House * 1.2 Post-presidency * 1.3 Restoration * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 External links HISTORY President John F. Kennedy, First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy and their children sitting on the stairs at Hammersmith, September 29, 1961. Hammersmith Farm's 28-room main house was built in 1887 for John W. Auchincloss, the great-grandfather of Hugh D. Auchincloss (1897–1976), Jacqueline Kennedy's stepfather
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES (or MEDIEVAL PERIOD) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages
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Newport, Rhode Island
NEWPORT is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island , United States. The City of Newport is located approximately 37 miles (60 km) southeast of Providence , 21 miles (34 km) south of Fall River , and 74 miles (119 km) south of Boston . It is known as a New England summer resort and is famous for its mansions . It is also the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport , which houses the United States Naval War College , the Naval Undersea Warfare Center , and a major United States Navy training center. It was a major 18th-century port city and also contains a high number of surviving buildings from the colonial era of the United States. The city is the county seat of Newport County , which has no governmental functions other than court administrative and sheriff corrections boundaries
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Ukraine
42,418,235 (32nd ) • 2001 CENSUS 48,457,102 • DENSITY 73.8/km2 (191.1/sq mi) (115th ) GDP (PPP ) 2017 estimate • TOTAL $366 billion (50th ) • PER CAPITA $9,125 (114th ) GDP (NOMINAL) 2017 estimate • TOTAL $103 billion (62nd ) • PER CAPITA $2,599 (132nd ) GINI (2015) 25.5 low · 18th HDI (2015) 0.743 high · 84th CURRENCY Ukrainian hryvnia (UAH ) TIME ZONE EET (UTC +2 ) • SUMMER (DST ) EEST (UTC +3) DRIVES ON THE right CALLING CODE +380 ISO 3166 CODE UA INTERNET TLD * .ua * .укр * An independence referendum was held on 1 December, after which Ukrainian independence was finalized on 26 December. THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS CYRILLIC TEXT
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Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi
BILHOROD-DNISTROVSKYI (Ukrainian : Білгород-Дністровський, Romanian : Cetatea Albă), formerly known as AKKERMAN (see naming section below), is a city and port situated on the right bank of the Dniester Liman
Dniester Liman
(on the Dniester
Dniester
estuary leading to the Black Sea
Black Sea
) in Odessa Oblast
Odessa Oblast
of southwestern Ukraine
Ukraine
, in the historical region of Bessarabia
Bessarabia
. Administratively, Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi
is incorporated as a town of oblast significance . It also serves as the administrative center of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Raion , one of twenty-six districts of Odessa Oblast, though it is not a part of the district. It is a location of a big freight seaport
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Worms, Germany
WORMS (German: ) is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate , Germany
Germany
, situated on the Upper Rhine
Rhine
about 60 kilometres (40 miles) south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main . It had approximately 85,000 inhabitants as of 2016 . A pre-Roman foundation, Worms was the capital of the Kingdom of the Burgundians in the early 5th century and hence the scene of the medieval legends referring to this period, notably the first part of the Nibelungenlied . Worms has been a Roman Catholic bishopric since at least 614, and was an important palatinate of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
. Worms Cathedral is one of the Imperial Cathedrals and among the finest examples of Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture
in Germany. Worms prospered in the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
as an Imperial Free City
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Kumamoto Castle
KUMAMOTO CASTLE (熊本城, Kumamoto-jō) is a hilltop Japanese castle located in Chūō-ku, Kumamoto in Kumamoto Prefecture
Kumamoto Prefecture
. It was a large and well fortified castle. The castle keep (天守閣, tenshukaku) is a concrete reconstruction built in 1960, but several ancillary wooden buildings remain of the original castle. Kumamoto Castle is considered one of the three premier castles in Japan, along with Himeji Castle
Himeji Castle
and Matsumoto Castle . Thirteen structures in the castle complex are designated Important Cultural Property. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYKumamoto Castle's history dates to 1467, when fortifications were established by Ideta Hidenobu. In 1496, these fortifications were expanded by Kanokogi Chikakazu
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