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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Radiation Oncology
Radiation
Radiation
therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator. Radiation
Radiation
therapy may be curative in a number of types of cancer if they are localized to one area of the body. It may also be used as part of adjuvant therapy, to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery to remove a primary malignant tumor (for example, early stages of breast cancer). Radiation
Radiation
therapy is synergistic with chemotherapy, and has been used before, during, and after chemotherapy in susceptible cancers. The subspecialty of oncology concerned with radiotherapy is called radiation oncology. Radiation
Radiation
therapy is commonly applied to the cancerous tumor because of its ability to control cell growth
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Public Health
Public health
Public health
is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals."[1] Analyzing the health of a population and the threats is the basis for public health.[2] The "public" in question can be as small as a handful of people, an entire village or it can be as large as several continents, in the case of a pandemic. "Health" takes into account physical, mental and social well-being. It is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, according to the World Health
Health
Organization.[3] Public health
Public health
is interdisciplinary. For example, epidemiology, biostatistics and health services are all relevant
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General Practice
General practice
General practice
is the name given in the United Kingdom to the service provided by General practitioners. In other countries similar services may be described as family medicine or primary care. The term Primary Care in the UK may also include services provided by community pharmacy, optometrist, dental surgery and community hearing care providers. The balance of care between primary care and secondary care - which usually refers to hospital based services - varies from place to place, and with time
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Hospice And Palliative Medicine
Hospice
Hospice
and palliative medicine is a formal subspecialty of medicine in the United States that focuses on symptom management, relief of suffering and end-of-life care. In 2006, hospice and palliative medicine was officially recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties, and is co-sponsored by[1]the American Boards of Internal Medicine Anesthesiology Family Medicine Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Psychiatry
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Aviation Medicine
Aviation
Aviation
medicine, also called flight medicine or aerospace medicine, is a preventive or occupational medicine in which the patients/subjects are pilots, aircrews, or astronauts.[1] The specialty strives to treat or prevent conditions to which aircrews are particularly susceptible, applies medical knowledge to the human factors in aviation and is thus a critical component of aviation safety.[1] A military practitioner of aviation medicine may be called a flight surgeon and a civilian practitioner is an aviation medical examiner.[1] One of the biggest differences between the military and civilian flight doctors is the
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Otorhinolaryngology
Otorhinolaryngology
Otorhinolaryngology
/oʊtoʊˌraɪnoʊˌlærənˈɡɒlədʒi/ (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons
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Orthodontics
Orthodontia, also called orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics, is a specialty field of dentistry that deals primarily with malpositioned teeth and the jaws: their diagnosis, prevention and correction. An orthodontist is a specialist who has undergone special training in a dental school or college after they have graduated in dentistry
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Surgeon
In medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations. There are also surgeons in podiatry, dentistry and the veterinary fields.Contents1 History 2 Titles in the Commonwealth 3 Military titles 4 Specialties 5 Pioneer surgeons 6 Organizations and fellowships 7 ReferencesHistory[edit]Al-Zahrawi, the Islamic Golden Age
Islamic Golden Age
physician widely considered one of the '"Fathers of Modern Surgery"The first person to document a surgery was the 6th Century BC Indian physician-surgeon, Sushruta. He specialised in cosmetic plastic surgery and had documented even an operation of open rhinoplasty[1]. His magnum opus Suśruta-saṃhitā is one of the most important surviving ancient treatises on medicine and is considered a foundational text of Ayurveda and surgery. The treatise addresses all aspects of general medicine, but the translator G. D
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Galen
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Greek: Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – c. 200/c. 216), often Anglicized as Galen
Galen
and better known as Galen
Galen
of Pergamon (/ˈɡeɪlən/),[1] was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.[2][3][4] Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen
Galen
influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy,[5] physiology, pathology,[6] pharmacology,[7] and neurology, as well as philosophy[8] and logic. The son of Aelius Nicon, a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen
Galen
received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher
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Residency (medicine)
Residency is a stage of graduate medical training. A resident or house officer is a physician (one who holds the degree of M.D., D.O., or MBBS, MBChB, or BMed)[1][2][3] who practices medicine, usually in a hospital or clinic under the direct or indirect supervision of an attending physician. Successful completion of a residency program is a requirement to obtaining an unrestricted license to practice medicine in many jurisdictions. Residency training may be followed by fellowship or "sub-specialty" training. Whereas medical school teaches physicians a broad range of medical knowledge, basic clinical skills, and supervised experience practicing medicine in a variety of fields, medical residency gives in-depth training within a specific branch of medicine
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Occupational Medicine
Occupational medicine, until 1960[1] called industrial medicine,[2][3] is the branch of medicine which is concerned with the maintenance of health in the workplace, including prevention and treatment of diseases and injuries, with secondary objectives of maintaining and increasing productivity and social adjustment in the workplace.[2][4] It is, thus, the branch of clinical medicine active in the field of occupational health and safety. OM specialists work to ensure that the highest standards of occupational health and safety are achieved and maintained in the workplace. While OM may involve a wide number of disciplines, it centers on preventive medicine and the management of illness, injury, and disability related to the workplace.[5] Occupational physicians must have a wide knowledge of clinical medicine and be competent in a number of important areas. They often advise international bodies, governmental and state agencies, organizations and trade unions
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Nuclear Medicine
Nuclear medicine
Nuclear medicine
is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Nuclear medicine, in a sense, is "radiology done inside out" or "endoradiology" because it records radiation emitting from within the body rather than radiation that is generated by external sources like X-rays. In addition, nuclear medicine scans differ from radiology as the emphasis is not on imaging anatomy but the function and for such reason, it is called a physiological imaging modality
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Plastic Surgery
Plastic surgery
Plastic surgery
is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body. It can be divided into two categories. The first is reconstructive surgery which includes craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. The other is cosmetic or aesthetic surgery.[1] While reconstructive surgery aims to reconstruct a part of the body or improve its functioning, cosmetic surgery aims at improving the appearance of it
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Internal Medicine
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. Physicians specializing in internal medicine are called internists, or physicians (without a modifier) in Commonwealth nations
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Health Informatics
Health informatics
Health informatics
(also called health care informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, nursing informatics, clinical informatics, or biomedical informatics) is information engineering applied to the field of health care, essentially the management and use of patient healthcare information. It is a multidisciplinary field[1] that uses health information technology (HIT) to improve health care via any combination of higher quality, higher efficiency (spurring lower cost and thus greater availability), and new opportunities. The disciplines involved include information science, computer science, social science, behavioral science, management science, and others
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