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Sparta
Coordinates: 37°4′55″N 22°25′25″E / 37.08194°N 22.42361°E / 37.08194; 22.42361LacedaemonΣπάρτα / Λακεδαίμων900s–192 BCLambda was used by the Spartan army
Spartan army
as a symbol of Lacedaemon (Λακεδαίμων)Territory of ancient SpartaCapital SpartaLanguages Doric GreekReligion Greek polytheismGovernment Diarchy OligarchyKing See listLegislature GerousiaHistorical era Classical antiquity •  Foundation 900s BC •  Messenian War 685–668 BC •  Battle of Thermopylae 480 BC •  Peloponnesian War 431–404 BC •  Battle of Mantinea 362 BC •  Annexed by Achaea 192 BCPreceded by Succeeded byGreek Dark AgesAchaean LeagueRoman RepublicThis article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.Hollow Lacedaemon
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Western Culture
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization, or Christian
Christian
civilization,[2] is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe. The term also applies beyond Europe
Europe
to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to Europe
Europe
by immigration, colonization, or influence
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Founding Myth
An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world. One type of origin myth is the cosmogonic myth, which describes the creation of the world
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Annexation
Annexation
Annexation
( Latin
Latin
ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action[1] and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by a
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Battle Of Corinth (146 BC)
The Battle
Battle
of Corinth was a battle fought between the Roman Republic and the Greek city-state of Corinth and its allies in the Achaean League in 146 BC, which resulted in the complete and total destruction of Corinth. This battle marked the beginning of the period of Roman domination in Greek history.Contents1 Overview 2 Aftermath 3 In popular culture 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] In 146 BCE, the Romans finally defeated and destroyed their main rival in the Mediterranean, Carthage, and spent the following months in provoking the Greeks, aiming to a final battle that would also strengthen their hold in this area
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Oligarchy
Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); from ὀλίγος (olígos), meaning 'few', and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning 'to rule or to command')[1][2][3] is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. These people might be distinguished by nobility, wealth, family ties, education or corporate, religious or military control. Such states are often controlled by families who typically pass their influence from one generation to the next, but inheritance is not a necessary condition for the application of this term. Throughout history, oligarchies have often been tyrannical, relying on public obedience or oppression to exist
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Linear B
Linear B
Linear B
is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek. The script predates the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
by several centuries. The oldest Mycenaean writing dates to about 1450 BC.[1] It is descended from the older Linear A, an undeciphered earlier script used for writing the Minoan language, as is the later Cypriot syllabary, which also recorded Greek. Linear B, found mainly in the palace archives at Knossos, Cydonia,[2] Pylos, Thebes and Mycenae,[3] disappeared with the fall of Mycenaean civilization during the Late Bronze Age
Late Bronze Age
collapse. The succeeding period, known as the Greek Dark Ages, provides no evidence of the use of writing
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Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.[1] These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is. When these principles are written down into a single document or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to embody a written constitution; if they are written down in a single comprehensive document, it is said to embody a codified constitution. Some constitutions (such as the constitution of the United Kingdom) are uncodified, but written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties.[2] Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from sovereign states to companies and unincorporated associations. A treaty which establishes an international organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted
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City-state
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome, Athens, Carthage,[1] and the Italian city-states
Italian city-states
during the Renaissance. As of March 2018 only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies currently to Singapore, Monaco, and Vatican City. City states are also sometimes called micro-states which however also includes other configurations of very small countries. A number of other small states share similar characteristics, and therefore are sometimes also cited as modern city-states
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Roman Republic
The Roman Republic
Republic
(Latin: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians, Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome, and the plebeians, the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Taygetus
The Taygetus, Taugetus, Taygetos or Taÿgetus (Greek: Ταΰγετος, translit. Taygetos) is a mountain range in the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
peninsula in Southern Greece. The highest mountain of the range is Mount Taygetus, also known as the "Profitis Ilias", or "Prophet Elias". The name is one of the oldest recorded in Europe, appearing in the Odyssey.[2] In classical mythology, it was associated with the nymph Taygete
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Roman Greece
Greece in the Roman era
Greece in the Roman era
describes the period of Greek history
Greek history
when it was dominated by the Roman republic, the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(collectively, the Roman era). It began with the Roman victory over the Corinthians, at the Battle of Corinth
Corinth
(146 BC). It continued with the adoption of the city of Byzantium
Byzantium
by the Emperor Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
as the capital of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(as Nova Roma, later Constantinople) in AD 330
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Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete
Crete
and Cyprus
Cyprus
in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece. The language is preserved in inscriptions in Linear B, a script first attested on Crete
Crete
before the 14th century. Most inscriptions are on clay tablets found in Knossos, in central Crete, as well as in Pylos, in the southwest of the Peloponnese
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