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Soy Sauce
SOY SAUCE (also called SOYA SAUCE in British English
British English
) is a condiment made from a fermented paste of soybeans , roasted grain , brine , and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds . Soy sauce in its current form began about 2200 years ago in Western Han dynasty of ancient China and spread throughout East and Southeast Asia where it is used in cooking and as a condiment (especially atop plain rice)
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Cereal
A CEREAL is any grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis ), composed of the endosperm , germ , and bran . Cereal
Cereal
grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop and are therefore staple crops . Edible grains from other plant families, such as buckwheat ( Polygonaceae ), quinoa ( Amaranthaceae
Amaranthaceae
) and chia ( Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
), are referred to as pseudocereals . In their natural form (as in whole grain ), cereals are a rich source of vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats , oils, and protein . When refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate . In some developing nations , grain in the form of rice , wheat , millet , or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance
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Brine
BRINE is a solution of salt (usually sodium chloride ) in water . In different contexts, brine may refer to salt solutions ranging from about 3.5% (a typical concentration of seawater , or the lower end of solutions used for brining foods) up to about 26% (a typical saturated solution, depending on temperature). Lower levels of concentration are called by different names: fresh water , brackish water and saline water . Brine
Brine
naturally occurs on Earth's surface (salt lakes ), crust, and within brine pools on ocean bottom. High-concentration brine lakes typically emerge due to evaporation of ground saline water on high ambient temperatures. Brine
Brine
is used for food processing and cooking (pickling and brining ), for de-icing of roads and other structures, and in a number of technological processes
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Molds
A MOLD (US ) or MOULD (UK / NZ / AU / ZA / IN / CA / IE ) is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae . In contrast, fungi that can adopt a single-celled growth habit are called yeasts . Molds are a large and taxonomically diverse number of fungal species in which the growth of hyphae results in discoloration and a fuzzy appearance, especially on food. The network of these tubular branching hyphae, called a mycelium , is considered a single organism . The hyphae are generally transparent, so the mycelium appears like very fine, fluffy white threads over the surface. Cross-walls (septa) may delimit connected compartments along the hyphae, each containing one or multiple, genetically identical nuclei . The dusty texture of many molds is caused by profuse production of asexual spores (conidia ) formed by differentiation at the ends of hyphae. The mode of formation and shape of these spores is traditionally used to classify molds
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Mawangdui
MAWANGDUI (simplified Chinese : 马王堆; traditional Chinese : 馬王堆; pinyin : Mǎwángduī; literally: "King Ma's Mound") is an archaeological site located in Changsha
Changsha
, China
China
. The site consists of two saddle-shaped hills and contained the tombs of three people from the western Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BC – 9 AD): Marquis Li Cang, his wife, and a male believed to have been their son. The site was excavated from 1972 to 1974. Most of the artifacts from Mawangdui
Mawangdui
are displayed at the Hunan Provincial Museum . It was called "King Ma's Mound" because it was initially (erroneously) thought to be the tomb of Ma Yin (853–930), a ruler of the Chu kingdom during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
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Traditional Chinese Characters
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan
Taiwan
, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Tagalog Language
TAGALOG (/təˈɡɑːlɒɡ/ ; Tagalog pronunciation: ) is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority. Its standardized form, officially named Filipino , is the national language of the Philippines, and is one of two official languages alongside English . It is related to other Philippine languages , such as the Bikol languages , Ilocano , the Visayan languages , Kapampangan , and Pangasinan , and more distantly to other Austronesian languages, such as the Formosan languages of Taiwan , Malay (Malaysian and Indonesian ), Hawaiian , Māori , and Malagasy
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Hepburn Romanization
HEPBURN ROMANIZATION (ヘボン式ローマ字, Hebon-shiki Rōmaji, 'Hepburn-type Roman letters') is a system for the romanization of Japanese , that is using the Roman alphabet to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Roman alphabet and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries. Largely based on English writing conventions , consonants closely correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation. The Hepburn style (Hebon-shiki) was developed in the late 19th century by an international commission that was formed to develop a unified system of romanization
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Malay Language
Latin ( Malay alphabet ) Arabic script
Arabic script
( Jawi alphabet ) Thai alphabet (in Thailand)
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Indonesian Language
INDONESIAN (bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
) is the official language of Indonesia . It is a standardized register of Malay , an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Indonesia
Indonesia
is the fourth most populous nation in the world. Of its large population, the majority speak Indonesian, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are fluent in any of more than 700 indigenous local languages ; examples include Javanese , Sundanese and Balinese , which are commonly used at home and within the local community. However, most formal education , and nearly all national mass media , governance , administration , judiciary , and other forms of communication, are conducted in Indonesian
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Qimin Yaoshu
QíMíN YàOSHù (simplified Chinese : 齐民要术; traditional Chinese : 齊民要術; literally: "Essential techniques for the welfare of the people")is the most completely preserved of the ancient Chinese agricultural texts, and was written by the Northern Wei Dynasty official Jia Sixie. The book is believed to have been completed in the second year of Wu Ding of Eastern Wei , 544 C.E., while another account gives the completion between 533 and 544 C.E. The text of the book is divided into ten volumes and 92 chapters, and records 1500-year-old Chinese agronomy , horticulture , afforestation , sericulture , animal husbandry , veterinary medicine , breeding , brewing , cooking , storage, as well as remedies for barren land
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History Of Salt
Salt
Salt
, NaCl, is an ionic compound made of sodium and chloride ions . It has been important to humans for thousands of years, because all life has evolved to depend on it. Humans, like all life, need dietary salt to survive. Salt's ability to preserve food was a founding contributor to civilization . It helped to eliminate dependence on seasonal availability of food, and made it possible to ship some foods over long distances. However, salt was difficult to obtain, so it was a highly valued trade item, and was considered a form of currency by certain peoples. Many salt roads , such as the via Salaria in Italy, had been established by the Bronze age
Bronze age
. All through history, availability of salt has been pivotal to civilization. In Britain, the suffix " -wich " in a placename means it was once a source of salt, as in Sandwich and Norwich
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Goguryeo
GOGURYEO (고구려; 高句麗; , 37 BCE–668 CE), also called GORYEO (고려; 高麗; ), was a kingdom located in northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
and southern Manchuria
Manchuria
. It was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea , together with Baekje
Baekje
and Silla
Silla
. Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was an active participant in the power struggle for control of the Korean peninsula
Korean peninsula
and was also associated with the foreign affairs of neighboring polities in China
China
and Japan
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Dongyi
The DONGYI or EASTERN YI (simplified Chinese : 东夷; traditional Chinese : 東夷; pinyin : Dōngyí; Wade–Giles : Tung-i) was a collective term, referring to ancient peoples who lived in eastern China during the prehistory of ancient China and in lands located to the east of ancient China. The people referred to as Dongyi vary across the ages. They were one of the Four Barbarians in Chinese culture, along with the Northern Di , the Southern Man , and the Western Rong ; as such, the name "Yi" was something of a catch-all and was applied to different groups over time. According to the earliest Chinese record, the Zuo Zhuan , the Shang Dynasty was attacked by King Wu of Zhou while attacking the Dongyi and collapsed afterwards
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Book Of Wei
The BOOK OF WEI (WèI SHū) is a classic Chinese historical text compiled by Wei Shou from 551 to 554, and is an important text describing the history of the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
and Eastern Wei from 386 to 550. In compiling the work, Wei Shou was criticized for showing partiality to ancestors of political allies and intentionally defamatory to or entirely ignoring ancestors of political enemies. Detractors of the work referred to the book as 穢書, (Hui Shu), nearly pronounced as 'Wei Shu', but meaning "Book of Filth"
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Jin Dynasty (265–420)
The JIN DYNASTY, distinguished as the SIMA JIN and LIANG JIN, was a Chinese dynasty , empire , and era traditionally dated from AD 265 to 420. It was founded by Sima Yan , son of Sima Zhao who was made Prince of Jin and posthumously declared the founder of the dynasty. It followed the Three Kingdoms period (220-280 AD), which ended with the conquest of Eastern Wu by the Jin. There are two main divisions in the history of the dynasty
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