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Soft Coal
SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL is a type of coal whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal and are used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation . CONTENTS * 1 Properties * 2 Reserves * 3 Current use * 4 See also * 5 References PROPERTIESSub-bituminous coals may be dull, dark brown to black, soft and crumbly at the lower end of the range, to bright jet-black , hard , and relatively strong at the upper end. They contain 15-30% inherent moisture by weight and are non-coking (undergo little swelling upon heating). The heat content of sub-bituminous coals range from 8300 to 11,500 BTu /lb or 19.3 to 26.7 M J /kg . Their relatively low density and high water content renders some types of sub-bituminous coals susceptible to spontaneous combustion if not packed densely during storage in order to exclude free air flow
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Coke (fuel)
COKE is a fuel with few impurities and a high carbon content, usually made from coal . It is the solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulphur bituminous coal . Cokes made from coal are grey, hard, and porous . While coke can be formed naturally, the commonly used form is synthetic. The form known as petroleum coke , or pet coke, is derived from oil refinery coker units or other cracking processes. Coke is used in preparation of producer gas which is a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen (N2). Producer gas is produced by passing air over red-hot coke. Coke is also used to manufacture water gas
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Coal Seam Fire
A COAL SEAM FIRE or MINE FIRE is the underground smouldering of a coal deposit, often in a coal mine . Such fires have economic, social and ecological impacts. They are often started by lightning, grass, or forest fires, and are particularly insidious because they continue to smoulder underground after surface fires have been extinguished, sometimes for many years, before flaring up and restarting forest and brush fires nearby. They propagate in a creeping fashion along mine shafts and cracks in geologic structures. Coal fires are a serious health and safety hazard, affecting the environment by releasing toxic fumes, reigniting grass, brush, or forest fires, and causing subsidence of surface infrastructure such as roads, pipelines, electric lines, bridge supports, buildings, and homes
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Coal Tar
COAL TAR is a very thick, dark liquid with a number of medical and industrial uses. As a medication it is used to treat psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff). For psoriasis it may be used together with ultraviolet light therapy . It is used by application to the affected area. Coal
Coal
tar is one of the by-products when coal is made into coke and coal gas . Industrial uses include preservation of railway ties and improving the surface of roads. Side effects include skin irritation, sun sensitivity, allergic reactions , and skin discoloration. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe for the baby and use during breastfeeding is not typically recommended. The exact mechanism of action is unknown. It is a complex mixture of phenols , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heterocyclic compounds . It may have antifungal , anti-inflammatory , anti-itch , and antiparasitic properties
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Energy Value Of Coal
The ENERGY VALUE OF COAL, or the FUEL CONTENT, is the amount of potential energy in coal that can be converted into actual heating ability . The value can be calculated and compared with different grades of coal or even other materials. Materials of different grades will produce differing amounts of heat for a given mass . While chemistry provides methods of calculating the heating value of a certain amount of a substance, there is a difference between this theoretical value and its application to real coal. The grade of a sample of coal does not precisely define its chemical composition , so calculating the actual usefulness of coal as a fuel requires determining its proximate and ultimate analysis (see "Chemical Composition" below). CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Chemical composition of the coal is defined in terms of its proximate and ultimate (elemental) analyses
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Flue Gas
FLUE GAS is the gas exiting to the atmosphere via a flue , which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace , boiler or steam generator . Quite often, the flue gas refers to the combustion exhaust gas produced at power plants . Its composition depends on what is being burned, but it will usually consist of mostly nitrogen (typically more than two-thirds) derived from the combustion of air, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor as well as excess oxygen (also derived from the combustion air). It further contains a small percentage of a number of pollutants, such as particulate matter (like soot ), carbon monoxide , nitrogen oxides , and sulfur oxides . SCRUBBINGAt power plants, flue gas is often treated with a series of chemical processes and scrubbers , which remove pollutants
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Coal Preparation Plant
A COAL PREPARATION PLANT (CPP; also known as a COAL HANDLING AND PREPARATION PLANT (CHPP), COAL HANDLING PLANT, PREP PLANT, TIPPLE or WASH PLANT) is a facility that washes coal of soil and rock , crushes it into graded sized chunks (sorting), stockpiles grades preparing it for transport to market, and more often than not, also loads coal into rail cars, barges, or ships. The more of this waste material that can be removed from coal, the lower its total ash content , the greater its market value and the lower its transportation costs
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Coal Pollution Mitigation
COAL POLLUTION MITIGATION, often referred to by the public relations term CLEAN COAL, is a series of systems and technologies that seek to mitigate the pollution and other environmental effects normally associated with the burning (though not the mining or processing) of coal , which is widely regarded as the dirtiest of the common fuels for industrial processes and power generation. The preferred industry term "clean coal" has been described as " Orwellian
Orwellian
", an oxymoron , and a myth . Approaches attempt to mitigate emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases , and radioactive materials , that arise from the use of coal, mainly for electrical power generation, using various technologies . Historical efforts to reduce coal pollution focused on flue-gas desulfurization starting in the 1850s and clean burn technologies
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Anthracite
ANTHRACITE is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster . It has the highest carbon content, the fewest impurities, and the highest calorific content of all types of coal except for graphite . Anthracite
Anthracite
is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism), in which the carbon content is between 92% and 98%. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point of ignition . Anthracite
Anthracite
ignites with difficulty and burns with a short, blue, and smokeless flame. Anthracite
Anthracite
is categorized into standard grade, which is used mainly in power generation, and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG), the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector
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Graphite
GRAPHITE ( /ˈɡræfaɪt/ ), archaically referred to as PLUMBAGO, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon , a semimetal and a native element mineral . Graphite
Graphite
is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions . Therefore, it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds
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Black Coal Equivalent
BLACK COAL EQUIVALENT (BCE) is an export coal product derived from the Coldry Process , a patented coal upgrading technology operated by ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES LIMITED, in Victoria , Australia
Australia
. The Coldry Process is applied to brown coal (lignite ) with a typical moisture content of 60 per cent by weight and transforms the coal into a densified coal product of equal or better calorific value (5,800 kcal/kg) to typical export quality black coal , with less ash and sulfur content. Black coal equivalent derived from brown coal is ostensibly a 'cleaner' burning coal fuel than most black coals. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Characteristics * 2.1 Chemical composition * 2.2 Comparison of calorific values * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links OVERVIEW Densified coal as a black coal equivalent product derived from brown coal was first discovered by Dr R.B
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Char
CHAR is the solid material that remains after light gases (e.g. coal gas ) and tar have been driven out or released from a carbonaceous material during the initial stage of combustion , which is known as carbonization , charring , devolatilization or pyrolysis . Further stages of efficient combustion (with or without char deposits) are known as gasification reactions, ending quickly when the reversible gas phase of the water gas shift reaction is reached
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Fly Ash
FLY ASH, also known as "pulverised fuel ash" in the United Kingdom, is a coal combustion product composed of fine particles that are driven out of the boiler with the flue gases . Ash that falls in the bottom of the boiler is called bottom ash . In modern coal-fired power plants , fly ash is generally captured by electrostatic precipitators or other particle filtration equipment before the flue gases reach the chimneys. Together with bottom ash removed from the bottom of the boiler, it is known as COAL ASH. Depending upon the source and makeup of the coal being burned, the components of fly ash vary considerably, but all fly ash includes substantial amounts of silicon dioxide (SiO2) (both amorphous and crystalline ), aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and calcium oxide (CaO), the main mineral compounds in coal-bearing rock strata
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Coal Mining
COAL MINING is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content , and, since the 1880s, has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel
Steel
and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production . In the United Kingdom and South Africa
South Africa
a coal mine and its structures are a COLLIERY; a coal mine a PIT; the above-ground structures the pit head . In Australia, "colliery" generally refers to an underground coal mine. In the United States
United States
"colliery" has been used to describe a coal mine operation but nowadays the word is not commonly used. Coal
Coal
mining has had many developments over the recent years, from the early days of men tunnelling, digging and manually extracting the coal on carts, to large open cut and long wall mines
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Coal-mining Region
COAL MINING REGIONS are significant resource extraction industries in many parts of the world. They provide a large amount of the fossil fuel energy in the world economy . The People\'s Republic of China
China
is the largest producer of coal in the world, while the United States
United States
contains the world's largest 'recoverable' coal reserves (followed by Pakistan
Pakistan
, Russia
Russia
, China, and India
India
). China
China
and the United States
United States
are also among the largest coal consumers. Other important coal producing countries include Australia
Australia
, India
India
, South Africa
South Africa
, and Russia
Russia
. A COAL-MINING REGION is a region in which coal mining is a significant economic activity
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Environmental Impact Of The Coal Industry
The ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE COAL INDUSTRY includes issues such as land use , waste management , water and air pollution , caused by the coal mining , processing and the use of its products. In addition to atmospheric pollution, coal burning produces hundreds of millions of tons of solid waste products annually, including fly ash , bottom ash , and flue-gas desulfurization sludge, that contain mercury , uranium , thorium , arsenic , and other heavy metals . There are severe health effects caused by burning coal . According to a report by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
in 2008, coal particulates pollution are estimated to shorten approximately 1,000,000 lives annually worldwide. A 2004 study commissioned by environmental groups, but contested by the US EPA, concluded that coal burning costs 24,000 lives a year in the United States
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