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Social Security (United States)
In the United States
United States
, SOCIAL SECURITY is the commonly used term for the federal OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS, AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (OASDI) program. The original Social Security Act was signed into law by President Franklin Roosevelt in 1935, and the current version of the Act, as amended, encompasses several social welfare and social insurance programs. Social Security is funded primarily through payroll taxes called Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax (FICA) or Self Employed Contributions Act Tax (SECA)
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Economic Policy
ECONOMIC POLICY refers to the actions that governments take in the economic field . It covers the systems for setting levels of taxation , government budgets , the money supply and interest rates as well as the labor market , national ownership , and many other areas of government interventions into the economy. Most factors of economic policy can be divided into either fiscal policy , which deals with government actions regarding taxation and spending, or monetary policy , which deals with central banking actions regarding the money supply and interest rates. Such policies are often influenced by international institutions like the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
or World Bank
World Bank
as well as political beliefs and the consequent policies of parties
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Agricultural Policy
AGRICULTURAL POLICY describes a set of laws relating to domestic agriculture and imports of foreign agricultural products
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Energy Policy
ENERGY POLICY is the manner in which a given entity (often governmental) has decided to address issues of energy development including energy production , distribution and consumption . The attributes of energy policy may include legislation , international treaties, incentives to investment, guidelines for energy conservation , taxation and other public policy techniques
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Industrial Policy
The INDUSTRIAL POLICY of a country, sometimes denoted IP, is its official strategic effort to encourage the development and growth of part or all of the manufacturing sector as well as other sectors of the economy. The government takes measures "aimed at improving the competitiveness and capabilities of domestic firms and promoting structural transformation." A country's infrastructure (transportation, telecommunications and energy industry ) is a major part of the manufacturing sector that often has a key role in IP. Industrial policies are sector-specific, unlike broader macroeconomic policies. Examples of the latter, which are horizontal, economy-wide policies, are tightening credit and taxing capital gains. Traditional examples of industrial policy that involves vertical, sector-specific policies, include protecting textiles from imports and subsidizing export industries
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Investment Policy
An INVESTMENT POLICY is any government regulation or law that encourages or discourages foreign investment in the local economy , e.g. currency exchange limits . CONTENTS * 1 Explanation * 2 Policy drivers * 3 See also * 4 References EXPLANATIONAs globalization integrates the economies of neighboring and of trading states, they are typically forced to trade off such rules as part of a common tax, tariff and trade regime, e.g. as defined by a free trade pact . Investment policy favoring local investors over global ones is typically discouraged in such pacts, and the idea of a separate investment policy rapidly becomes a fiction or fantasy, as real decisions reflect the real need for nations to compete for investment, even from their own local investors
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Public Policy
PUBLIC POLICY is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs . The foundation of public policy is composed of national constitutional laws and regulations. Further substrates include both judicial interpretations and regulations which are generally authorized by legislation. Public policy is considered strong when it solves problems efficiently and effectively, serves justice, supports governmental institutions and policies, and encourages active citizenship
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Public Finance
PUBLIC FINANCE is the study of the role of the government in the economy. It is the branch of economics which assesses the government revenue and government expenditure of the public authorities and the adjustment of one or the other to achieve desirable effects and avoid undesirable ones. The purview of public finance is considered to be threefold: governmental effects on (1) efficient allocation of resources , (2) distribution of income , and (3) macroeconomic stabilization
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Government Budget Balance
A GOVERNMENT BUDGET is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year . The GOVERNMENT BUDGET BALANCE, also alternatively referred to as GENERAL GOVERNMENT BALANCE, PUBLIC BUDGET BALANCE, or PUBLIC FISCAL BALANCE, is the overall difference between government revenues and spending. A positive balance is called a government budget surplus, and a negative balance is a government budget deficit. A budget is prepared for each level of government (from national to local) and takes into account public social security obligations. The government budget balance is further differentiated into the primary balance and the structural balance (also known as cyclically-adjusted balance). The primary budget balance equals the government budget balance before interest payments. The structural budget balances attempts to adjust for the impacts of the real GDP changes in the national economy
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Government Debt
GOVERNMENT DEBT (also known as PUBLIC INTEREST, NATIONAL DEBT and SOVEREIGN DEBT) is the debt owed by a central government . (In federal states , "government debt" may also refer to the debt of a state or provincial , municipal or local government). By contrast, the annual "government deficit " refers to the difference between government receipts and spending in a single year. A central government with its own currency can pay for its spending by creating money ex novo . In this instance, a government issues securities not to raise funds, but instead to remove excess bank reserves (caused by government spending that is higher than tax receipts) and '...create a shortage of reserves in the market so that the system as a whole must come to the Bank for liquidity.' Governments create debt by issuing securities , government bonds and bills. Less creditworthy countries sometimes borrow directly from a supranational organization (e.g
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Balance Of Payments
The BALANCE OF PAYMENTS, also known as BALANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PAYMENTS and abbreviated B.O.P., of a country is the record of all economic transactions between the residents of the country and the rest of the world in a particular period (over a quarter of a year or more commonly over a year). These transactions are made by individuals, firms and government bodies. Thus the balance of payments includes all external visible and non-visible transactions of a country. It is an important issue to be studied, especially in international financial management field, for a few reasons. First, the balance of payments provides detailed information concerning the demand and supply of a country's currency. For example, if Mauritius imports more than it exports, then this means that the supply of rupees is likely to exceed the demand in the foreign exchanging market, ceteris paribus . One can thus infer that the Mauritius rupee would be under pressure to depreciate against other currencies
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Inflation
In economics , INFLATION is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services; consequently, inflation reflects a reduction in the purchasing power per unit of money – a loss of real value in the medium of exchange and unit of account within the economy. A chief measure of price inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index , usually the consumer price index , over time. The opposite of inflation is deflation
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Trade Policy
A COMMERCIAL POLICY (also referred to as a TRADE POLICY or international trade policy) is a governmental policy governing economic transactions across international borders . This covers tariffs , trade subsidies , import quotas , Voluntary Export Restraints , restrictions on the establishment of foreign-owned businesses, regulation of trade in services, and other barriers to international trade. These are sometimes agreed by treaty within a customs union . In the case of the European Union , commercial policy has been governed in common since the EU was created in 1957. A common commercial policy is also an aim of Mercosur . SEE ALSO * Business and economics portal * Commerce minister * European Commissioner for Trade * Free trade * Protectionism * Trade policy of Japan * Trade policy of the United States This economic policy related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This international trade related article is a stub
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Fiscal Policy
In economics and political science , FISCAL POLICY is the use of government revenue collection (mainly taxes ) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy. According to Keynesian economics , when the government changes the levels of taxation and government spending, it influences aggregate demand and the level of economic activity. Fiscal policy
Fiscal policy
is often used to stabilize the economy over the course of the business cycle
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Government Budget Deficit
A GOVERNMENT BUDGET is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year . The GOVERNMENT BUDGET BALANCE, also alternatively referred to as GENERAL GOVERNMENT BALANCE, PUBLIC BUDGET BALANCE, or PUBLIC FISCAL BALANCE, is the overall difference between government revenues and spending. A positive balance is called a government budget surplus, and a negative balance is a government budget deficit. A budget is prepared for each level of government (from national to local) and takes into account public social security obligations. The government budget balance is further differentiated into the primary balance and the structural balance (also known as cyclically-adjusted balance). The primary budget balance equals the government budget balance before interest payments. The structural budget balances attempts to adjust for the impacts of the real GDP changes in the national economy
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Finance Minister
A FINANCE MINISTER is an executive or cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation. It may also be a junior minister in the finance department, the British Treasury, for example has four junior ministers. A finance minister's portfolio has a large variety of names across the world, such as "treasury", "finance", "financial affairs", "economy" or "economic affairs". The position of the finance minister might be named for this portfolio, but it may also have some other name, like "Treasurer" or, in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, "Chancellor of the Exchequer ". The duties of a finance minister differ between countries
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