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Shellfish Poisoning
SHELLFISH POISONING includes four (4) syndromes that share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve molluscs (such as mussels , clams , oysters and scallops .) These shellfish are filter feeders and, therefore, accumulate toxins produced by microscopic algae , such as cyanobacteria , diatoms and dinoflagellates
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Specialty (medicine)
A SPECIALTY (or SPECIALITY) in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school , physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a MEDICAL SPECIALIST
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ICD-10 Chapter XIX
CHAPTER may refer to: * Chapter (books) , a main division of a piece of writing or document * Chapter book , a story book intended for intermediate readers, generally age 7-10 * Chapter (religion) , an assembly of members in a religious order * Chapter Arts Centre
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Gonyaulax
GONYAULAX is a genus of dinoflagellates with the type species Gonyaulax
Gonyaulax
spinifera (Claparède et Lachmann) Diesing. Gonyaulax belongs to red dinoflagellates and commonly causes red tides . CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Classification * 3 Adaptations * 4 Reproduction * 5 Effect on Humans * 6 Red Tide * 7 References * 8 Further reading STRUCTURE Gonyaulax
Gonyaulax
is a genus of dinoflagellates that are aquatic organisms that with two separate flagella , each having characteristics of both a plant and animal organism. These algae have two separate flagella: one flagella extends backward, and the other wraps around the cell in a lateral groove helping to keep the organism afloat by creating rotational swimming. The plate formula in the genus Gonyaulax
Gonyaulax
Diesing was redefined as Po, 3', 2a, 6", 6c, 4-8s, 5'", 1p, 1""
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Dinoflagellate
The DINOFLAGELLATES (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum DINOFLAGELLATA. Most are marine plankton , but they are common in freshwater habitats, as well. Their populations are distributed depending on temperature , salinity , or depth. Many dinoflagellates are known to be photosynthetic , but a large fraction of these are in fact mixotrophic , combining photosynthesis with ingestion of prey (phagotrophy ). In terms of number of species, dinoflagellates form one of the largest groups of marine eukaryotes , although this group is substantially smaller than the diatoms . Some species are endosymbionts of marine animals and play an important part in the biology of coral reefs . Other dinoflagellates are unpigmented predators on other protozoa, and a few forms are parasitic (see for example Oodinium
Oodinium
, Pfiesteria
Pfiesteria
)
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Cyanobacteria
As of 2014 the taxonomy was under revision * Chroococcales * Chroococcidiopsidales * Gloeobacterales * Nostocales * Oscillatoriales *
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Diatom
DIATOMS are a major group of algae , and are among the most common types of phytoplankton . Diatoms are unicellular , although they can form colonies in the shape of filaments or ribbons (e.g. Fragilaria), fans (e.g. Meridion), zigzags (e.g. Tabellaria ), or stars (e.g. Asterionella ). The first diatom formally described in scientific literature, the colonial Bacillaria paradoxa , was found in 1783 by Danish naturalist Otto Friedrich Müller . Diatoms are producers within the food chain . A unique feature of diatom cells is that they are enclosed within a cell wall made of silica (hydrated silicon dioxide) called a frustule . These frustules show a wide diversity in form, but are usually almost bilaterally symmetrical, hence the group name. The symmetry is not perfect since one of the valves is slightly larger than the other, allowing one valve to fit inside the edge of the other
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List Of ICD-9 Codes 800–999
In communications and information processing , CODE is a system of rules to convert information —such as a letter , word , sound, image, or gesture —into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret , for communication through a channel or storage in a medium . An early example is the invention of language which enabled a person, through speech , to communicate what he or she saw, heard, felt, or thought to others. But speech limits the range of communication to the distance a voice can carry, and limits the audience to those present when the speech is uttered. The invention of writing , which converted spoken language into visual symbols , extended the range of communication across space and time . The process of ENCODING converts information from a source into symbols for communication or storage. DECODING is the reverse process, converting code symbols back into a form that the recipient understands
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Inorganic Chemistry
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (carbon based compounds, usually containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry . The distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, as there is much overlap in the subdiscipline of organometallic chemistry . It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry, including catalysis , materials science , pigments , surfactants , coatings , medications , fuels , and agriculture
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Cobalt Poisoning
COBALT POISONING is intoxication caused by excessive levels of cobalt in the body. Cobalt is an essential element for health in animals in minute amounts as a component of Vitamin B12 . A deficiency of cobalt, which is very rare, is also potentially lethal, leading to pernicious anemia . CONTENTS * 1 How cobalt enters the body * 2 Toxicity of cobalt salts * 3 Cobalt in the environment * 4 References HOW COBALT ENTERS THE BODYExposure to cobalt metal dust is most common in the fabrication of tungsten carbide . Another potential source is wear and tear of metal-on-metal hip prostheses ; however, this is a relatively uncommon phenomenon with 18 reported cases being documented in the medical literature. TOXICITY OF COBALT SALTSThe LD50 values of soluble cobalt salts has been estimated to be between 150 and 500 mg/kg. Thus, for a 100 kg person the LD50 would be about 20 grams
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Metalloid
Recognition status, as metalloids, of some elements in the p-block of the periodic table. Percentages are median appearance frequencies in the list of metalloid lists . The staircase-shaped line is a typical example of the arbitrary metal–nonmetal dividing line found on some periodic tables
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Dietary Mineral
In the context of nutrition, a MINERAL is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. Minerals originate in the earth and cannot be made by living organisms. Plants get minerals from soil . Most of the minerals in a human diet come from eating plants and animals or from drinking water. As a group, minerals are one of the four groups of essential nutrients, the others of which are vitamins , essential fatty acids , and essential amino acids . The five major minerals in the human body are calcium , phosphorus , potassium , sodium , and magnesium . All of the remaining elements in a human body are called "trace elements". The trace elements that have a specific biochemical function in the human body are iron , cobalt , copper , zinc , manganese , molybdenum , iodine , and selenium . Most chemical elements that are ingested by organisms are in the form of simple compounds
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Thallium Poisoning
Thallium and its compounds are often highly toxic. Contact with skin is dangerous, and adequate ventilation should be provided when melting this metal. Many thallium(I) compounds are highly soluble in water and are readily absorbed through the skin. Exposure to them should not exceed 0.1 mg per m2 of skin in an 8-hour time-weighted average (40-hour work week). Thallium is a suspected human carcinogen . Part of the reason for thallium's high toxicity is that, when present in aqueous solution as the univalent thallium(I) ion (Tl+), it exhibits some similarities with essential alkali metal cations, particularly potassium (due to similar ionic radii). It can thus enter the body via potassium uptake pathways. Other aspects of thallium's chemistry differ strongly from that of the alkali metals, such as its high affinity for sulfur ligands
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Metal
A METAL (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal" ) is a material (an element , compound , or alloy ) that is typically hard, opaque , shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity . Metals are generally malleable —that is, they can be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking—as well as fusible (able to be fused or melted) and ductile (able to be drawn out into a thin wire). About 91 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals; the others are nonmetals or metalloids . Some elements appear in both metallic and non-metallic forms. Astrophysicists use the term "metal" to collectively describe all elements other than hydrogen and helium , the simplest two, in a star. The star fuses smaller atoms, mostly hydrogen and helium, to make larger ones over its lifetime. In that sense, the metallicity of an object is the proportion of its matter made up of all heavier chemical elements, not just traditional metals
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Alga
ALGAE (/ˈældʒi, ˈælɡi/ ; singular ALGA /ˈælɡə/ ) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms which are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic . Included organisms range from unicellular genera, such as Chlorella and the diatoms , to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp , a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types, such as stomata , xylem , and phloem , which are found in land plants . The largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds , while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta , a division of green algae which includes, for example, Spirogyra
Spirogyra
and the stoneworts . No definition of algae is generally accepted
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