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Shellfish
SHELLFISH is a culinary and fisheries term for exoskeleton -bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food , including various species of molluscs , crustaceans , and echinoderms . Although most kinds of shellfish are harvested from saltwater environments, some kinds are found in freshwater . In addition, a few species of land crabs are eaten, for example Cardisoma guanhumi
Cardisoma guanhumi
in the Caribbean
Caribbean
. Despite the name, shellfish are not a kind of fish , but are simply water-dwelling animals. Many varieties of shellfish (crustaceans in particular) are actually closely related to insects and arachnids, making up one of the main classes of the phylum Arthropoda
Arthropoda
. Cephalopods (squids, octopuses, cuttlefish) and bivalves (clams, oysters) are molluscs , as are snails and slugs
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Phytoplankton
PHYTOPLANKTON /ˌfaɪtoʊˈplæŋktən/ are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems . The name comes from the Greek words φυτόν (phyton), meaning "plant ", and πλαγκτός (planktos), meaning "wanderer" or "drifter". Most phytoplankton are too small to be individually seen with the unaided eye . However, when present in high enough numbers, some varieties may be noticeable as colored patches on the water surface due to the presence of chlorophyll within their cells and accessory pigments (such as phycobiliproteins or xanthophylls ) in some species
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Zooplankton
ZOOPLANKTON (pronounced in several different ways, including /ˈzoʊəˌplæŋktən, ˈzuːəˌ-, ˈzoʊoʊˌ-, ˈzuːˌ-, -ˌplæŋtən/ or /ˌzoʊəˈplæŋktən, -ˌtɒn/ . ) are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous ) plankton . Plankton
Plankton
are organisms drifting in oceans , seas , and bodies of fresh water . The word "zooplankton" is derived from the Greek zoon (ζῴον), meaning "animal", and planktos (πλαγκτός), meaning "wanderer" or "drifter". Individual zooplankton are usually microscopic , but some (such as jellyfish) are larger and visible with the naked eye. CONTENTS * 1 Ecology
Ecology
* 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links ECOLOGY A copepod ( Calanoida sp.) A jellyfish (Aequorea victoria ) Zooplankton
Zooplankton
is a categorization spanning a range of organism sizes including small protozoans and large metazoans
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Newfoundland (island)
NEWFOUNDLAND (/ˈnjuːfən(d)lənd, -lænd, njuːˈfaʊndlənd/ ; French : Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
. It has 29 percent of the province's land area. The island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle
Strait of Belle Isle
and from Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island
by the Cabot Strait . It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River , creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence , the world's largest estuary . Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the French overseas community of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
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Sea Urchin
SEA URCHINS or URCHINS (/ˈɜːrtʃɪnz/ ), archaically called SEA HEDGEHOGS, are small, spiny , globular animals that, with their close kin, such as sand dollars , constitute the class ECHINOIDEA of the echinoderm phylum. About 950 species of echinoids inhabit all oceans from the intertidal to 5,000 metres (16,000 ft; 2,700 fathoms) deep. The shell, or "test", of sea urchins is round and spiny, typically from 3 to 10 cm (1.2 to 3.9 in) across. Common colors include black and dull shades of green, olive, brown, purple, blue, and red. Sea urchins move slowly, feeding primarily on algae . Sea otters , starfish , wolf eels , triggerfish , and other predators hunt and feed on sea urchins. The name "urchin" is an old word for hedgehog , which sea urchins resemble
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Crab
CRABS are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder BRACHYURA, which typically have a very short projecting "tail " (abdomen ) (Greek : βραχύς, translit. brachys = short, οὐρά / οura = tail ), usually entirely hidden under the thorax . They live in all the world's oceans, in fresh water, and on land, are generally covered with a thick exoskeleton and have a single pair of claws. Many other animals with similar names – such as hermit crabs , king crabs , porcelain crabs , horseshoe crabs , and crab lice – are not true crabs
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American Lobster
The AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, is a species of lobster found on the Atlantic coast of North America
North America
, chiefly from Labrador to New Jersey
New Jersey
. It is also known as ATLANTIC LOBSTER, CANADIAN LOBSTER, TRUE LOBSTER, NORTHERN LOBSTER, CANADIAN REDS, or MAINE LOBSTER. It can reach a body length of 64 cm (25 in), and a mass of over 20 kilograms (44 lb), making it not only the heaviest crustacean in the world, but also the heaviest of all living arthropod species. Its closest relative is the European lobster Homarus gammarus , which can be distinguished by its coloration and the lack of spines on the underside of the rostrum . American lobsters are usually bluish green to brown with red spines, but several color variations have been observed
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Scallop
See text SCALLOP (/ˈskɒləp/ or /ˈskæləp/ ) is a common name that is primarily applied to any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family PECTINIDAE, the scallops. However, the common name "scallop" is also sometimes applied to species in other closely related families within the superfamily Pectinoidea , which also includes the thorny oysters . Scallops are a cosmopolitan family of bivalves which are found in all of the world's oceans, although never in freshwater. They are one of very few groups of bivalves to be primarily "free-living", with many species capable of rapidly swimming short distances and even of migrating some distance across the ocean floor. A small minority of scallop species live cemented to rocky substrates as adults, while others attach themselves to stationary or rooted objects such as sea grass at some point in their lives by means of a filament they secrete called a byssal thread
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Crayfish
CRAYFISH, also known as CRAWFISH, CRAWDADS, FRESHWATER LOBSTERS , MOUNTAIN LOBSTERS, MUDBUGS or YABBIES, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters , to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea . They breathe through feather-like gills . Some species are found in brooks and streams where there is running fresh water , while others thrive in swamps , ditches , and paddy fields . Most crayfish cannot tolerate polluted water , although some species such as Procambarus clarkii are hardier. Crayfish
Crayfish
feed on animals and plants, either living or decomposing , and detritus
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Marine (ocean)
MARINE is an adjective for things relating to the sea or ocean , such as marine biology , marine ecology and marine geology . As a noun it can be a term for a kind of navy , those enlisted in such a navy, or members of troops attached to a navy, e.g. the United States Marine Corps or the UK Royal Marines . In scientific contexts, the term almost always refers exclusively to saltwater environments, although in other contexts (e.g., engineering ) it may refer to any (usually navigable) body of water
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Vertebrate
Fire salamander (Amphibia), saltwater crocodile (Reptilia), southern cassowary (Aves), black-and-rufous giant elephant shrew (Mammalia), ocean sunfish (Osteichthyes) SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Clade: Craniata Subphylum: VERTEBRATA J-B. Lamarck , 1801 SIMPLIFIED GROUPING (SEE TEXT) * Fishes * Tetrapods SYNONYMS Ossea Batsch, 1788 VERTEBRATES /ˈvɜːrtɪbrɪts/ comprise all species of animals within the subphylum VERTEBRATA /-eɪ/ (chordates with backbones ). Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum Chordata , with currently about 66,000 species described. Vertebrates include the jawless fish and the jawed vertebrates , which include the cartilaginous fish (sharks , rays , and ratfish) and the bony fish
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Horseradish
HORSERADISH (Armoracia rusticana, syn. Cochlearia armoracia) is a perennial plant of the Brassicaceae
Brassicaceae
family (which also includes mustard , wasabi , broccoli , and cabbage ). It is a root vegetable used as a spice . The plant is probably native to southeastern Europe
Europe
and western Asia . It is now popular around the world. It grows up to 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) tall, and is cultivated primarily for its large, white, tapered root . The intact horseradish root has hardly any aroma. When cut or grated, however, enzymes from the now-broken plant cells break down sinigrin (a glucosinolate ) to produce allyl isothiocyanate (mustard oil ), which irritates the mucous membranes of the sinuses and eyes . Grated mash should be used immediately or preserved in vinegar for best flavor. Once exposed to air or heat it will begin to lose its pungency, darken in color, and become unpleasantly bitter tasting over time
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Perilla
PERILLA is a genus consisting of one major Asiatic crop species P. frutescens and a few recognized wild species in nature, belonging to the mint family, Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
. It encompasses several distinct varieties of Asian herb , seed , and vegetable crop , including P. frutescens (deulkkae) and P. frutescens var. crispa (shiso). The genus name Perilla
Perilla
is also a frequently employed common name ("perilla"), applicable to all varieties. Perilla
Perilla
varieties are cross-fertile and intra-specific hybridization occurs naturally . Some varieties are considered invasive
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Mentha
MENTHA (also known as MINT, from Greek míntha, Linear B
Linear B
mi-ta) is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
(MINT FAMILY). It is estimated that 13 to 18 species exist, and the exact distinction between species is still unclear. Hybridization between some of the species occurs naturally . Many other hybrids , as well as numerous cultivars , are known. The genus has a subcosmopolitan distribution across Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, and North America. Mints are aromatic, almost exclusively perennial , rarely annual herbs . They have wide-spreading underground and overground stolons and erect, square, branched stems. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, from oblong to lanceolate , often downy, and with a serrated margin. Leaf
Leaf
colors range from dark green and gray-green to purple, blue, and sometimes pale yellow
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Wasabi
WASABI (ワサビ or わさび(山葵), earlier 和佐比; Eutrema japonicum or Wasabia japonica) is a plant of the Brassicaceae family, which includes cabbages , horseradish , and mustard . It is also called JAPANESE HORSERADISH, although horseradish is a different plant (which is generally used as a substitute for wasabi, due to the scarcity of the wasabi plant). Its stem is used as a condiment and has an extremely strong pungency more akin to hot mustard than the capsaicin in a chili pepper , producing vapours that stimulate the nasal passages more than the tongue. The plant grows naturally along stream beds in mountain river valleys in Japan
Japan
. The two main cultivars in the marketplace are E. japonicum 'Daruma' and 'Mazuma', but there are many others
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Sashimi
SASHIMI (/səˈʃiːmiː/ ; Japanese : 刺身, pronounced ) is a Japanese delicacy consisting of very fresh raw meat or fish sliced into thin pieces. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Serving * 3 Preparation * 4 Varieties * 5 Safety * 6 Environmental concerns * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links ORIGINThe word sashimi means "pierced body", i.e. "刺身" = sashimi, where 刺し = sashi (pierced, stuck) and 身 = mi (body, meat). This word dates from the Muromachi period
Muromachi period
, and was possibly coined when the word "切る" = kiru (cut), the culinary step, was considered too inauspicious to be used by anyone other than samurai . This word may derive from the culinary practice of sticking the fish's tail and fin to the slices in identifying the fish being eaten. Another possibility for the name could come from the traditional method of harvesting. "Sashimi-grade" fish is caught by individual handline
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