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Shah
SHAH (/ˈʃɑː/ ; Persian : شاه‎, translit. Šāh‎, pronounced , "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran
Iran
(historically also known as Persia). It was also adopted by the kings of Shirvan (a historical Iranian region in Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
) namely the Shirvanshahs , the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(in that context spelled as Şah and Şeh), Mughal emperors of the Indian Subcontinent , the Bengal Sultanate , as well as in Afghanistan. In Iran
Iran
(Persia and Greater Persia ) the title was continuously used; rather than King
King
in the European sense, each Persian ruler regarded himself as the Šāhanšāh ( King
King
of Kings) or Emperor
Emperor
of the Persian Empire
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Romanization Of Persian
ا ب پ ت ث ج چ
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Hazinedar
HAZINEDAR or HAZNADAR is a title in Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
hierarchy. Depending of the suffix or prefix it had different meanings. The English language translation of the word is a treasurer . TREASURER Hazinedar
Hazinedar
Agha The CHIEF HAZINEDAR headed the personnel of the Sultan's treasury. Hazinedars subordinated to the Chief Hazinedar
Hazinedar
had a title of HAZINEDAR KALFA. Kalfa is Turkish language word for apprentice. HAZINEDAR-AGHA was a title of chief eunuch treasurer. LORD (HOUSEMISTRESS) OF THE SULTAN\'S PALACE AND HAREMThe HIGH HAZINEDAR or FIRST HAZINEDAR or HAZINEDAR USTA was a title of the housemistress of the sultan's palace, the most influential person after the prince. There were other Hazinedars in the Ottoman hierarchy (the Second, Third...) who were subordinated to the First Hazinedar, hence referred to as Usta (English: superintendent)
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Transcaucasia
TRANSCAUCASIA (Russian : Закавказье), or the SOUTH CAUCASUS, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
on the border of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Western Asia
Western Asia
. Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
roughly corresponds to modern Georgia , Armenia
Armenia
, and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
. Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
and Ciscaucasia (North Caucasus) together comprise the larger Caucasus
Caucasus
geographical region that divides Eurasia
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Agha (Ottoman Empire)
AGHA, also AGA (Ottoman Turkish : أغا, Persian : آقا āghā "chief, master, lord" ), as an honorific title for a civilian or military officer, or often part of such title, was placed after the name of certain civilian or military functionaries in the Ottoman Empire . At the same time some court functionaries were entitled to the agha title. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Agha in Kurdistan * 3 Other uses * 4 See also * 5 References ETYMOLOGYThe word agha entered English from Turkish, and the Turkish word comes from the Old Turkic aqa, meaning "elder brother". It is an equivalent of Mongolian word aka. AGHA IN KURDISTANIn Kurdistan, within the tribal Kurdish society, "agha" is the title given to tribal chieftains, either supreme chieftains, or to village heads. It is also given to wealthy landlords and owners of major real estates in the urban Kurdish centers, although these landlords are usually with heavy tribal relations
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Lala (title)
LALA (Persian : لل‍ه‎‎, Turkish : Lala) was a Turkish and Persian title (of Persian origin) meaning tutor and statesman in the Ottoman and Safavid Empire. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Atabeg vs lala * 3 Some grand viziers of lala background * 4 References HISTORYIn Ottoman tradition, lalas were the experienced statesmen who were assigned as the tutors of young princes (Turkish : Şehzade). While still teenagers, the princes were sent to provinces (sanjak) as provincial governors (Turkish : sanjak bey ). They were accompanied by their lalas who trained them in statesmanship. The purpose of this practice was to prepare the princes for the future duty of regency. Later, when the prince was enthroned as the sultan his lala was usually promoted to be a vizier . Up to the 13th sultan Mehmet III (the end of the 16th century) all sultans enjoyed a period of provincial governorship prior to their reign
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Malik
MALIK, MELIK, MALKA, MALEK or MELEKH (Arabic : ملك‎‎; Hebrew : מֶלֶךְ‎) is the Semitic term translating to "king ", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic (e.g. Aramaic , Canaanite , Hebrew ) and Arabic . Although the early forms of the name were to be found among the Pre- Arab and Pre-Islamic Semites of The Levant , Canaan , and Mesopotamia , it has since been adopted in various other, mainly but not exclusively Islamized or Arabized non-Semitic Asian languages for their ruling princes and to render kings elsewhere. It is also sometimes used in derived meanings. The female version of Malik is MALIKAH (Arabic : ملكة‎‎) (or its various spellings such as MALEKEH or MELIKE), meaning "queen"
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Kshatriya
KSHATRIYA (from Sanskrit kśatra, "rule, authority") is one of the four varna (social orders) of the Hindu society. The Sanskrit term kśatriya is used in the context of Vedic society wherein members organised themselves into four classes: brahmin , KSHATRIYA, vaishya and shudra . Traditionally, the kshatriya constituted the ruling and military elite. Their role was to protect society by fighting in wartime and governing in peacetime. The Prakrit derivative of Kshatriya is " Khatri ". CONTENTS* 1 Origins * 1.1 Early Rigvedic tribal chiefdom * 1.2 Later Vedic period * 2 Historical role * 3 Symbols * 4 Lineage * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading ORIGINSEARLY RIGVEDIC TRIBAL CHIEFDOMThe administrative machinery in the Rig Vedic period functioned with a tribal chief called Rajan whose position was not hereditary
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Avestan
AVESTAN /əˈvɛstən/ , formerly also known as " Zend ", is one of the Eastern Iranian languages
Iranian languages
within the Indo-European language family known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture, i.e. the Avesta
Avesta
, from which it derives its name. Its area of composition comprised ancient Arachosia
Arachosia
, Aria , Bactria
Bactria
, and Margiana , corresponding to the entirety of present-day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and parts of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
, and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
. The Yaz culture of Bactria- Margiana has been regarded as a likely archaeological reflection of the early " Eastern Iranian " culture described in the Avesta
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Old Persian
Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
------------------------- OLD PERSIAN (c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian cuneiform ------------------------- MIDDLE PERSIAN (c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scripts Manichaean alphabet Avestan alphabet ------------------------- MODERN PERSIAN (from 800) Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
• Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet The OLD PERSIAN LANGUAGE is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages
Iranian languages
(the other being Avestan ). Old Persian
Old Persian
appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets , and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE)
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Rumelia
RUMELIA (Ottoman Turkish : روم ايلى‎, Rūm-ėli; Turkish : Rumeli; in Latin Genoese documents Romania, Bosnian : Rumelija, Greek : Ρωμυλία, Romylía, or Ρούμελη, Roúmeli; Albanian : Rumelia; Macedonian and Serbian : Румелија, Rumelija and Bulgarian : Румелия, Rumeliya), also known as TURKEY IN EUROPE, was a historical term describing the area now referred to as the Balkans
Balkans
(Balkan Peninsula) when it was administered by the Ottoman Empire
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Median Language
The MEDIAN LANGUAGE (also MEDEAN or MEDIC) was the language of the Medes
Medes
. It is an Old Iranian language and classified as belonging to the Northwestern Iranian subfamily, which includes many other languages such as Azari , Gilaki , Mazandarani , Kurdish (Zazaki, Gorani, Sorani, Kurmanji) , and Baluchi . CONTENTS * 1 Attestation * 2 Identity * 3 Predecessor of modern Iranian languages
Iranian languages
* 4 References ATTESTATION Median is attested only by numerous loanwords in Old Persian
Old Persian
. Nothing is known of its grammar, "but it shares important phonological isoglosses with Avestan
Avestan
, rather than Old Persian. Under the Median rule.... Median must to some extent have been the official Iranian language in western Iran"
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Nobleman
NOBILITY is a social class , normally ranked immediately under royalty , that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society, membership thereof typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence ), and vary from country to country and era to era. The Medieval chivalry motto noblesse oblige , which literally means "nobility obligates", explains that privileges carry a life-long obligation of duty to uphold social responsibilities, be it of honorable behavior, customary service or leadership, that lives on by a familial or kinship bond
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Basileus
BASILEUS (Greek : βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history. In the English -speaking world it is perhaps most widely understood to mean "king" or "emperor". The title was used by the Byzantine emperors , and has a longer history of use by sovereigns and other persons of authority in ancient Greece , as well as for the kings of modern Greece . The feminine forms are basilissa (Βασίλισσα), basileia (Βασίλεια), basilis (Βασιλίς), or the archaic basilinna (Βασιλίννα), meaning "queen" or "empress". CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
* 2.1 Original senses encountered on clay tablets * 2.1.1 Basileus
Basileus
vs
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