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Shah
Shah
Shah
(/ʃɑː/; Persian: شاه‎, translit. Šāh, pronounced [ʃɒːh], "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran
Iran
(historically also known as Persia). It was also adopted by the kings of Shirvan
Shirvan
(a historical Iranian region in Transcaucasia) namely the Shirvanshahs, the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(in that context spelled as Şah and Şeh), Mughal emperors of the Indian Subcontinent, the Bengal Sultanate,[1] as well as in Afghanistan
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Rumelia
Rumelia
Rumelia
(Ottoman Turkish: روم ايلى‎, Rūm-ėli; Turkish: Rumeli), also known as Turkey
Turkey
in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe
Europe
that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.Contents1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksEtymology[edit] The term Rûm means "Roman", while Rumelia
Rumelia
(Turkish: Rumeli) means "Land of the Romans" in Turkish, referring to the lands conquered by the Ottoman Turks from the Byzantine Empire, at the time still known as the Roman Empire (the neologism "Byzantine Empire" was coined only in 1557 by a German historian, Hieronymus Wolf, in his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ[1])
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Lala (title)
Lala (Persian: لل‍ه‎, Turkish: Lala) was a Turkish and Persian title (of Persian origin) meaning tutor and statesman in the Ottoman and Safavid Empire.[1]Contents1 History 2 Atabeg vs lala 3 Some grand viziers of lala background 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] In Ottoman tradition, lalas were the experienced statesmen who were assigned as the tutors of young princes (Turkish: Şehzade). While still teenagers, the princes were sent to provinces (sanjak) as provincial governors (Turkish: sanjak bey). They were accompanied by their lalas who trained them in statesmanship. The purpose of this practice was to prepare the princes for the future duty of regency. Later, when the prince was enthroned as the sultan his lala was usually promoted to be a vizier. Up to the 13th sultan Mehmet III
Mehmet III
(the end of the 16th century) all sultans enjoyed a period of provincial governorship prior to their reign
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Kshatriya
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra


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Avestan
Avestan
Avestan
/əˈvɛstən/,[2] also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name. The language is classified as an Iranian language, a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages within the Indo-European family
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Old Persian
Western Iranian languages Old Persian
Old Persian
(c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian
Old Persian
cuneiform Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scripts
Pahlavi scripts
Manichaean alphabet
Manichaean alphabet
Avestan
Avestan
alphabet Modern Persian
Modern Persian
(from 800) Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
• Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet Old Persian
Old Persian
is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan). Old Persian
Old Persian
appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE)
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Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
(Russian: Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Western Asia.[1][2] Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
roughly corresponds to modern Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
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Romanization Of Persian
ا
ا
ب
ب
پ
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Agha (Ottoman Empire)
Agha, also Aga (Ottoman Turkish: أغا‬, Persian: آقا‎ āghā "chief, master, lord"[2]), as an honorific title for a civilian or military officer, or often part of such title, and was placed after the name of certain civilian or military functionaries in the Ottoman Empire. At the same time some court functionaries were entitled to the agha title.Contents1 Etymology 2 Agha in Kurdistan 3 Other uses 4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word agha entered English from Turkish,[2] and the Turkish word comes from the Old Turkic aqa, meaning "elder brother".[3] It is an equivalent of Mongolian word aka.[4] Agha in Kurdistan[edit] In Kurdistan, within the tribal Kurdish society, "agha" is the title given to tribal chieftains, either supreme chieftains, or to village heads. It is also given to wealthy landlords and owners of major real estates in the urban Kurdish centers, although these landlords are usually with heavy tribal relations
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Hazinedar
Hazinedar
Hazinedar
or Haznadar[1] is a title in Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
hierarchy. Depending of the suffix or prefix it had different meanings. The English language translation of the word is a treasurer.[2] Treasurer[edit] Hazinedar
Hazinedar
AghaThe Chief Hazinedar
Hazinedar
headed the personnel of the Sultan's treasury.[3] Hazinedars subordinated to the Chief Hazinedar
Hazinedar
had a title of Hazinedar
Hazinedar
Kalfa
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Median Language
The Median
Median
language (also Medean or Medic) was the language of the Medes.[2] It is an Old Iranian language
Iranian language
and classified as belonging to the Northwestern Iranian subfamily, which includes many other languages such as Azari, Gilaki, Mazandarani, Kurdish (Zazaki, Gorani, Sorani, Kurmanji), and Baluchi.[3]Contents1 Attestation 2 Identity 3 Predecessor of modern Iranian languages 4 ReferencesAttestation[edit] Median
Median
is attested only by numerous loanwords in Old Persian. Nothing is known of its grammar, "but it shares important phonological isoglosses with Avestan, rather than Old Persian. Under the Median rule.... Median
Median
must to some extent have been the official Iranian language in western Iran".[4] No documents dating to Median
Median
times have been preserved, and it is not known what script these texts might have been in
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Nobleman
Nobility
Nobility
is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence), and vary by country and era
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High King
A high king is a king who holds a position of seniority over a group of other kings, without the title of Emperor. Similar titles include Great King
King
and King
King
of Kings. The high kings of history usually ruled over lands of cultural unity; thus high kings differentiate from emperors who control culturally different lands, and feudal monarchs, where underlings assume lesser positions. High kings can be chosen by lesser rulers through elections, or be put into power by force through conquest of weaker kingdoms.Contents1 High kingship 2 Historical high kings 3 Other uses 4 See also 5 ReferencesHigh kingship[edit] In history and literature, high kings may be found where there is a high degree of cultural unity, along with sufficient political fragmentation that the high king's subordinates style themselves, kings
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Basileus
Basileus
Basileus
(Greek: βασιλεύς)[n 1] is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history. In the English-speaking world it is perhaps most widely understood to mean "king" or "emperor". The title was used by the Byzantine emperors, and has a longer history of use by sovereigns and other persons of authority in ancient Greece, as well as for the kings of modern Greece. The feminine forms are basileia (βασίλεια), basilis (βασιλίς), basilissa (βασίλισσα), or the archaic basilinna (βασιλίννα), meaning "queen" or "empress".[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Ancient Greece2.1 Original senses encountered on clay tablets2.1.1 Basileus
Basileus
vs
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King
King
King
is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant,[1] while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king.In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship
Germanic kingship
is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership (c.f
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