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Scallop
See text SCALLOP (/ˈskɒləp/ or /ˈskæləp/ ) is a common name that is primarily applied to any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family PECTINIDAE, the scallops. However, the common name "scallop" is also sometimes applied to species in other closely related families within the superfamily Pectinoidea , which also includes the thorny oysters . Scallops are a cosmopolitan family of bivalves which are found in all of the world's oceans, although never in freshwater. They are one of very few groups of bivalves to be primarily "free-living", with many species capable of rapidly swimming short distances and even of migrating some distance across the ocean floor. A small minority of scallop species live cemented to rocky substrates as adults, while others attach themselves to stationary or rooted objects such as sea grass at some point in their lives by means of a filament they secrete called a byssal thread
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Substrate (biology)
In biology , a SUBSTRATE is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant , fungus , or animal ) lives. A substrate can include biotic or abiotic materials and animals. For example, encrusting algae that lives on a rock (its substrate) can be itself a substrate for an animal that lives on top of the algae. CONTENTS * 1 Abiotic * 2 In animal biotechnology * 2.1 Requirements for animal cell and tissue culture * 2.2 For cell growth * 3 References * 4 External links ABIOTIC * Cellulose
Cellulose
substrate * Rock wool IN ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY This section NEEDS MORE LINKS TO OTHER ARTICLES TO HELP INTEGRATE IT INTO THE ENCYCLOPEDIA
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Byssal Thread
A BYSSUS /ˈbɪsəs/ is a bundle of filaments secreted by many species of bivalve mollusk that function to attach the mollusk to a solid surface. Species from several families of clams have a byssus, including the pen shells, the true mussels and the false mussels: the Pinnidae
Pinnidae
, the Mytilidae
Mytilidae
and the Dreissenidae . Byssus cloth is a rare fabric, also known as sea silk, that is made using the byssus of pen shells as the fiber source. CONTENTS * 1 Filaments * 2 See also * 3 Footnotes * 4 References * 5 External links FILAMENTS Byssus
Byssus
filaments are created by certain kinds of marine and freshwater bivalve mollusks , which use the byssus to attach themselves to rocks, substrates , or seabeds. In edible mussels , the inedible byssus is commonly known as the "beard", and is removed before cooking
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Starfish
† Calliasterellidae † Trichasteropsida STARFISH or SEA STARS are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class ASTEROIDEA. Common usage frequently finds these names being also applied to ophiuroids, which are correctly referred to as brittle stars or "basket stars". About 1,500 species of starfish occur on the seabed in all the world's oceans, from the tropics to frigid polar waters. They are found from the intertidal zone down to abyssal depths, 6,000 m (20,000 ft) below the surface. Starfish are marine invertebrates . They typically have a central disc and five arms, though some species have a larger number of arms. The aboral or upper surface may be smooth, granular or spiny, and is covered with overlapping plates. Many species are brightly coloured in various shades of red or orange, while others are blue, grey or brown. Starfish have tube feet operated by a hydraulic system and a mouth at the centre of the oral or lower surface
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Cosmopolitan Distribution
In biogeography , a taxon is said to have a COSMOPOLITAN DISTRIBUTION if its range extends across all or most of the world in appropriate habitats . Such a taxon is said to exhibit cosmopolitanism or cosmopolitism. The opposite extreme is endemism . CONTENTS * 1 Related terms and concepts * 2 Aspects and degrees * 3 Oceanic and terrestrial * 4 Ecological delimitation * 5 Regional and temporal variation in populations * 6 Ancient and modern * 7 See also * 8 References RELATED TERMS AND CONCEPTSThe term PANDEMISM also is in use, but not all authors are consistent in the sense in which they use the term; some speak of pandemism mainly in referring to diseases and pandemics , and some as a term intermediate between endemism and cosmopolitanism, in effect regarding pandemism as SUBCOSMOPOLITANISM. This means near cosmopolitanism, but with major gaps in the distribution , say, complete absence from Australia
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Ostreoida
Gryphaeidae Ostreidae The order OSTREOIDA includes the true oysters . One superfamily and two families are recognised within it. The two families are Ostreidae , the true oysters, and Gryphaeidae , the foam oysters. 2010 TAXONOMYIn 2010, a new proposed classification system for the Bivalvia
Bivalvia
was published by Bieler, Carter "> * ^ Bieler, R., Carter, J.G. & Coan, E.V. (2010) Classification of Bivalve families. Pp
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Common Name
In biology , a COMMON NAME of a taxon or organism (also known as a VERNACULAR NAME, English name, colloquial name, trivial name , trivial epithet, country name, popular name, or farmer's name) is a name that is based on the normal language of everyday life; this kind of name is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism, which is Latinized. A common name is sometimes frequently used, but that is by no means always the case. Sometimes common names are created by authorities on one particular subject, in an attempt to make it possible for members of the general public (including such interested parties as fishermen, farmers, etc.) to be able to refer to one particular species of organism without needing to be able to memorise or pronounce the Latinized scientific name
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Taxonomic
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Sculpture (mollusc)
SCULPTURE is a feature of many of the shells of mollusks. It is three-dimensional ornamentation on the outer surface of the shell, as distinct from either the basic shape of the shell itself or the pattern of colouration , if any. Sculpture is a feature found in the shells of gastropods , bivalves , and scaphopods . The word "sculpture" is also applied to surface features of the aptychus of ammonites , and to the outer surface of some calcareous opercula of marine gastropods such as some species in the family Trochidae . Sculpture can be concave or convex, incised into the surface or raised from it. Sometimes the sculpture has microscopic detailing. The term "sculpture" refers only to the calcareous outer layer of shell, and does not include the proteinaceous periostracum , which is in some cases textured even when the underlying shell surface is smooth. In many taxa , there is no sculpture on the shell surface at all, apart from the presence of fine growth lines
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Beachcombing
BEACHCOMBING is an activity that consists of an individual "combing" (or searching) the beach and the intertidal zone , looking for things of value, interest or utility. A BEACHCOMBER is a person who participates in the activity of beachcombing. Despite these general definitions, beachcombing and beachcomber are words with multiple, but related, meanings that have evolved over time. CONTENTS * 1 Historical usage * 2 Other languages * 3 Archaeology
Archaeology
* 4 Modern usage * 4.1 In films and television * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORICAL USAGEThe first appearance of the word "beachcombers" in print was in Herman Melville
Herman Melville
's Omoo (1847). It described a population of Europeans who lived in South Pacific islands, "combing" the beach and nearby water for flotsam, jetsam , or anything else they could use or trade
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Plane Of Symmetry
REFLECTION SYMMETRY, LINE SYMMETRY, MIRROR SYMMETRY, MIRROR-IMAGE SYMMETRY, is symmetry with respect to reflection . That is, a figure which does not change upon undergoing a reflection has reflectional symmetry. In 2D there is a line/axis of symmetry, in 3D a plane of symmetry. An object or figure which is indistinguishable from its transformed image is called mirror symmetric . A 3D shaped of symmetry is shown as if there is it shadow along it sides
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Beak (bivalve)
The BEAK is part of the shell of a bivalve mollusk , i.e. part of the shell of a saltwater or freshwater clam. The beak is the basal projection of the oldest part of the valve of the adult animal. The beak usually, but not always, coincides with the umbo , the highest and most prominent point on the valve. Because by definition, all bivalves have two valves, the shell of a bivalve has two umbones, and two beaks. In many species of bivalves the beaks point towards one another. However, in some species of bivalves the beaks point posteriorly, in which case they are referred to as opisthogyrate; in others the beaks point forward, and are described as being prosogyrate. If the beak is not eroded or worn down at all, it may still be capped with the prodissoconch , which is the larval shell of the animal. REFERENCES * ^ Hatterlie, Eugene C.; Abbott, Donald P. (1980). "15: Bivalvia: the clams and allies". Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford University. p. 356
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Umbo (bivalve)
The UMBO (plural UMBONES or UMBOS) is the vaguely defined, often most prominent, highest part of each valve of the shell of a bivalve or univalve mollusk . It usually contains the valve's beak , the oldest point of the valve, and its degree of prominence and its position relative to the hinge line are sometimes helpful in distinguishing bivalve taxa . The umbo forms while the animal is a juvenile, and radial growth subsequently proceeds around that area. The umbo (plural umbones or umbos) is situated above the hinge line . In those bivalves where the umbones do not protrude, as is the case for example in some mussels , the umbones can nonetheless usually be readily identified by examining the concentric growth lines of the shell. Umbo is also in use in anatomic descriptions of brachiopods , for the origin of growth of the valves. SEE ALSO * Beak (bivalve) REFERENCES * ^ Brink, Laura A. "Mollusca: Bivalva" (PDF). University of Oregon
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Valve (mollusc)
A mollusc VALVE is each articulating part of the shell of a mollusc. Each part is known as a valve or in the case of chitons, a "plate". Members of two classes of molluscs: the Bivalvia
Bivalvia
(clams) and the Polyplacophora (chitons) have valves. Species within one family of very unusual small sea snails , marine opisthobranch gastropods in the family Juliidae
Juliidae
, also have two articulating shells or valves, which resemble those of a bivalve. This exceptional family is commonly known as the bivalved gastropods. Gastropods in general are sometimes called "univalves", because in those that have a shell, the shell is usually in one part
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Byssus
A BYSSUS /ˈbɪsəs/ is a bundle of filaments secreted by many species of bivalve mollusk, that function to attach the mollusk to a solid surface. Species from several families of clams have a byssus, including the pen shells, the true mussels and the false mussels: the Pinnidae
Pinnidae
, the Mytilidae and the Dreissenidae . BYSSUS CLOTH is a rare fabric, also known as sea silk, that is made using the byssus of pen shells as the fiber source. Look up BYSSUS in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.CONTENTS * 1 The filaments * 2 See also * 3 Footnotes * 4 References THE FILAMENTS Byssus
Byssus
filaments are created by certain kinds of marine and freshwater bivalve mollusks , which use the byssus to attach themselves to rocks, substrates , or seabeds. In edible mussels , the inedible byssus is commonly known as the "beard", and is removed before cooking
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