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SS
The SCHUTZSTAFFEL (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes
Armanen runes
; German pronunciation: ( listen ); literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II
World War II
. It began with a small guard unit known as the Saal-Schutz (Hall-Protection) made up of NSDAP
NSDAP
volunteers to provide security for party meetings in Munich. In 1925, Heinrich Himmler joined the unit, which had by then been reformed and given its final name. Under his direction (1929–45), it grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the most powerful organizations in Nazi Germany
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Gau (territory)
GAU (Dutch : gouw, Frisian : gea or goa) is a Germanic term for a region within a country, often a former or actual province . It was used in medieval times, when it can be seen as roughly corresponding to an English shire . The administrative use of the term was revived as a subdivision during the period of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in 1933–1945. It still appears today in regional names, such as the Rheingau
Rheingau
or Allgäu . CONTENTS* 1 Middle Ages * 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Conceptual history * 2 Nazi period * 2.1 Reichsgaue * 3 Legacy in topography * 4 References * 5 External links MIDDLE AGESETYMOLOGYThe Germanic word is reflected in Gothic gavi (neuter; genitive gaujis) and early Old High German
Old High German
gewi, gowi (neuter) and in some compound names still -gawi as in Gothic (e.g
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Munich
MUNICH (/ˈmjuːnɪk/ ; German: München, pronounced ( listen ), Austro-Bavarian : Minga , Czech : Mnichov) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria
Bavaria
, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps
Alps
. Munich
Munich
is also the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin
Berlin
and Hamburg
Hamburg
, and the 12th largest city in the European Union, with a population of around 1.5 million. The Munich Metropolitan Region
Munich Metropolitan Region
is home to 6 million people
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Erhardt Naval Brigade
German Revolution of 1918–19
German Revolution of 1918–19
First Silesian Uprising
First Silesian Uprising
Kapp Putsch
Kapp Putsch
COMMANDERS COMMANDER Hermann Ehrhardt
Hermann Ehrhardt
The MARINEBRIGADE EHRHARDT was a Free Corps ( Freikorps
Freikorps
) group of around 6,000 men formed by Captain (Korvettenkapitän ) Hermann Ehrhardt in the aftermath of World War I , also known as II Marine Brigade or the Ehrhardt Brigade. It took part in the fighting for the cities of central Germany
Germany
and the northwestern ports, in addition to participating in the Kapp Putsch
Kapp Putsch
. The Brigade was formed from former Naval personnel in the area of Generalkommando des Garde-Korps (Berlin)
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German-occupied Europe
GERMAN–OCCUPIED EUROPE or NAZI EUROPE refers to the sovereign countries of Europe
Europe
which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Occupied countries * 2.1 Governments in exile * 2.1.1 Allied governments in exile * 2.1.2 Axis governments in exile * 2.1.3 Neutral governments in exile * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links BACKGROUND This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Crimes Against Humanity
CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population. The first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the Nuremberg trials . Crimes against humanity have since been prosecuted by other international courts – such as the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Court, as well as in domestic prosecutions. The law of crimes against humanity has primarily developed through the evolution of customary international law. Crimes against humanity are not codified in an international convention, although there is currently an international effort to establish such a treaty, led by the Crimes Against Humanity Initiative
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Japanese Samurai
SAMURAI (侍) were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan
Japan
. In Japanese, they are usually referred to as BUSHI (武士, ) or BUKE (武家). According to translator William Scott Wilson : "In Chinese, the character 侍 was originally a verb meaning "to wait upon", "accompany persons" in the upper ranks of society, and this is also true of the original term in Japanese, saburau. In both countries the terms were nominalized to mean "those who serve in close attendance to the nobility", the pronunciation in Japanese changing to saburai. According to Wilson, an early reference to the word "samurai" appears in the Kokin Wakashū
Kokin Wakashū
(905–914), the first imperial anthology of poems, completed in the first part of the 10th century
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Paramilitary
A PARAMILITARY is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military , but which is not included as part of a state\'s formal armed forces . Under the law of war , a state may incorporate a paramilitary organization or armed agency (such as a national police , a private volunteer militia ) into its combatant armed forces . The other parties to a conflict have to be notified thereof. The use of the term paramilitary can be debated, but the general consensus being of a combatant force or organization, more military-like than civilian . Organizations that have been described as paramilitary are as diverse as the Minutemen , Black Panthers , SS , youth groups (from scouting to the Pioneer movement ), and even military-themed boarding schools
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Freikorps
FREIKORPS (pronounced , "Free Corps
Corps
") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, the members of which effectively fought as mercenaries , regardless of their own nationality. In German-speaking countries the first so-called Freikorps
Freikorps
"free regiments" (German : Freie Regimenter) were formed in the 18th century from native volunteers, enemy renegades and deserters, and criminals. These sometimes exotically equipped units served as infantry and cavalry or, more rarely, as artillery . Sometimes in just company strength, sometimes in formations up to several thousand strong, there were also various mixed formations or legions. The Prussian von Kleist Freikorps
Freikorps
included infantry, jäger , dragoons , and hussars . The French Volontaires de Saxe combined uhlans and dragoons
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Berlin
BERLIN (/bɜːrˈlɪn/ , German: ( listen )) is the capital and the largest city of Germany
Germany
as well as one of its 16 constituent states . With a steadily growing population of approximately 3.7 million, Berlin
Berlin
is the second most populous city proper in the European Union behind London
London
and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union. Located in northeastern Germany
Germany
on the banks of the rivers Spree and Havel
Havel
, it is the centre of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region , which has roughly 6 million residents from more than 180 nations. Due to its location in the European Plain , Berlin
Berlin
is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers, canals and lakes
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Beer Hall Putsch
Nazi Party
Nazi Party
* Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung

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War Crime
A WAR CRIME is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the law of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility. Examples of war crimes include intentionally killing civilians or prisoners, torture , destroying civilian property, taking hostages , perfidy , rape , using child soldiers , pillaging , declaring that no quarter will be given, and serious violations of the principles of distinction and proportionality , such as strategic bombing of civilian populations. The concept of war crimes emerged at the turn of the twentieth century when the body of customary international law applicable to warfare between sovereign states was codified. Such codification occurred at the national level, such as with the publication of the Lieber Code in the United States, and at the international level with the adoption of the treaties during the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
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List Of Gauleiters
The following LIST OF GAULEITERS enumerates those who have held the Nazi party rank of Gauleiter
Gauleiter
, a type of regional party leader germane only within Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
's system. Of the 44 former Gauleiter
Gauleiter
of the NSDAP thirteen committed suicide when Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
surrendered, eight were executed by the allies after the war, one was executed by the SS and one died in Soviet captivity. By 1954, when Karl Wahl became the first former Gauleiter
Gauleiter
to publish his memoirs, eight were still missing, three in jail and the remaining ten were free men
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Jesuits
The SOCIETY OF JESUS (S.J. – from Latin
Latin
: Societas Iesu) is a religious congregation of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which originated in Spain. The members are called JESUITS. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits
Jesuits
work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities, and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits
Jesuits
also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries , and promote ecumenical dialogue . Ignatius of Loyola , a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona
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Niederkirchnerstraße
Coordinates : 52°30′26″N 13°22′57″E / 52.50722°N 13.38250°E / 52.50722; 13.38250 A preserved section of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
in 2014 (top); same location showing Gestapo headquarters, Prinz-Albrecht-Straße No.8 in 1933 (below). NIEDERKIRCHNERSTRAßE (German: ) is a street in Berlin
Berlin
, the capital of Germany
Germany
. Then named PRINZ-ALBRECHT-STRAßE, it is best known for having been the location of the headquarters of the Reich Main Security Office , SD , Gestapo
Gestapo
and the SS in Nazi Germany
Germany
. The site is now marked by the Topography of Terror
Topography of Terror
memorial and museum which includes a permanent exhibition that tells the worst of Nazism and its crimes
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Stoßtrupp-Hitler
STOßTRUPP-HITLER or STOSSTRUPP-HITLER ("Shock Troop-Hitler") was a small short-lived bodyguard unit set up specifically for Adolf Hitler in 1923. Notable members included Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
, Julius Schreck , Joseph Berchtold , Emil Maurice , Erhard Heiden , Ulrich Graf , and Bruno Gesche . CONTENTS * 1 Formation * 2 Notable members * 3 See also * 4 References * 4.1 Citations * 4.2 Bibliography FORMATIONIn the earliest days of the Nazi Party, the leadership realized that a bodyguard unit composed of zealous and reliable men was needed. Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
formed a guard formation from the 19.Granatwerfer-Kompanie; from this formation the Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA) soon evolved. In early 1923, Hitler ordered a separate small bodyguard unit formed
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