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Route Of Administration
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.[1] Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action is
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Pharmacology
Pharmacology
Pharmacology
is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action,[1] where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species). More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals. The field encompasses drug composition and properties, synthesis and drug design, molecular and cellular mechanisms, organ/systems mechanisms, signal transduction/cellular communication, molecular diagnostics, interactions, toxicology, chemical biology, therapy, and medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities
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Distal
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. All vertebrates (including humans) have the same basic body plan – they are strictly bilaterally symmetrical in early embryonic stages and largely bilaterally symmetrical in adulthood.[1] That is, they have mirror-image left and right halves if divided down the centre.[2] For these reasons, the basic directional terms can be considered to be those used in vertebrates. By extension, the same terms are used for many other (invertebrate) organisms as well. While these terms are standardized within specific fields of biology, there are unavoidable, sometimes dramatic, differences between some disciplines
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Toxicology
Toxicology
Toxicology
is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms[1] and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants. The relationship between dose and its effects on the exposed organism is of high significance in toxicology. Factors that influence chemical toxicity include the dosage (and whether it is acute or chronic), route of exposure, species, age, sex, and environment
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Small Intestine
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place. The small intestine has three distinct regions – the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The duodenum is the shortest part of the small intestine and is where preparation for absorption begins. It also receives bile and pancreatic juice through the pancreatic duct, controlled by the sphincter of Oddi
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Duodenal
The duodenum [help 1] is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear, and the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine may be used instead of duodenum.[5] In mammals the duodenum may be the principal site for iron absorption.[6] The duodenum precedes the jejunum and ileum and is the shortest part of the small intestine . In humans, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25–38 cm (10–15 inches) long connecting the stomach to the jejunum
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Mucosa
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs. It consists of one or more layers of epithelial cells overlying a layer of loose connective tissue. It is mostly of endodermal origin and is continuous with the skin at various body openings such as the eyes, ears, inside the nose, inside the mouth, lip, the urethral opening and the anus. Some mucous membranes secrete mucus, a thick protective fluid
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Vascularized
Angiogenesis
Angiogenesis
is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.[1][2][3] In precise usage this is distinct from vasculogenesis, which is the de novo formation of endothelial cells from mesoderm cell precursors,[4] and from neovascularization, although discussions are not always precise (especially in older texts). The first vessels in the developing embryo form through vasculogenesis, after which angiogenesis is responsible for most, if not all, blood vessel growth during development and in disease.[5] Angiogenesis
Angiogenesis
is a normal and vital process in growth and development, as well as in wound healing and in the formation of granulation tissue. However, it is also a fundamental step in the transition of tumors from a benign state to a malignant one, leading to the use of angiogenesis inhibitors in the treatment of cancer
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Hospice Care
Hospice
Hospice
care is a type of care and philosophy of care that focuses on the palliation of a chronically ill, terminally ill or seriously ill patient's pain and symptoms, and attending to their emotional and spiritual needs. In Western society, the concept of hospice has been evolving in Europe since the 11th century. Then, and for centuries thereafter in Roman Catholic tradition, hospices were places of hospitality for the sick, wounded, or dying, as well as those for travelers and pilgrims
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Indwelling Catheter
In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions. Catheters are medical devices that can be inserted in the body to treat diseases or perform a surgical procedure. By modifying the material or adjusting the way catheters are manufactured, it is possible to tailor catheters for cardiovascular, urological, gastrointestinal, neurovascular, and ophthalmic applications. Catheters can be inserted into a body cavity, duct, or vessel. Functionally, they allow drainage, administration of fluids or gases, access by surgical instruments, and also perform a wide variety of other tasks depending on the type of catheter.[1] The process of inserting a catheter is catheterization. In most uses, a catheter is a thin, flexible tube ("soft" catheter) though catheters are available in varying levels of stiffness depending on the application
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Gingiva
The gums or gingiva (plural: gingivae), consist of the mucosal tissue that lies over the mandible and maxilla inside the mouth. Gum health and disease can have an effect on general health.[1]Contents1 Structure1.1 Marginal gums 1.2 Attached gum 1.3 Interdental gum2 Characteristics of healthy gums2.1 Color 2.2 Contour 2.3 Texture 2.4 Reaction to disturbance3 Clinical significance 4 See also 5 ReferencesStructure[edit] The gums are part of the soft tissue lining of the mouth. They surround the teeth and provide a seal around them. Unlike the soft tissue linings of the lips and cheeks, most of the gums are tightly bound to the underlying bone which helps resist the friction of food passing over them. Thus when healthy, it presents an effective barrier to the barrage of periodontal insults to deeper tissue
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Epidural Space
In the spine, the epidural space (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater also known as "epidural cavity", "extradural space" or "peridural space") is an anatomic space that is the outermost part of the spinal canal. It is the space within the canal (formed by the surrounding vertebrae) lying outside the dura mater (which encloses the arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, the cerebrospinal fluid, and the spinal cord). In humans the epidural space contains lymphatics, spinal nerve roots, loose connective tissue, fatty tissue, small arteries, and a network of internal vertebral venous plexuses.[citation needed] In humans[edit] The upper limit of the epidural space is the foramen magnum, which is the point where the spine meets the base of the skull. The lower limit is at the tip of the sacrum, at the sacrococcygeal membrane. In the head, the epidural space is known as a potential space. In rare circumstances, a torn artery (e.g
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Intracerebroventricular Injection
Intracerebroventricular injection (ICVI) is an invasive injection technique of substances directly into the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral ventricles in order to bypass the blood brain barrier.[1] Although this barrier effectively protects the brain, it can prevent important medications to enter the CNS. The technique is widely used in biomedical research to introduce drugs, therapeutic RNAs, plasmid DNAs, and viral vectors into the CNS of diseased mice models.[2] It can also be used in human in cases of neurodegenerative disorders like spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), or administering chemotherapy in gliomas as well as delivering neurotrophic factors to CNS. Ommaya reservoir
Ommaya reservoir
is a catheter system invented by Ayub Ommaya, a Pakistani neurosurgeon in 1963
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Cancer Pain
Pain
Pain
in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures
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Local Anesthesia
Local anesthesia is any technique to induce the absence of sensation in a specific part of the body,[1] generally for the aim of inducing local analgesia, that is, local insensitivity to pain, although other local senses may be affected as well. It allows patients to undergo surgical and dental procedures with reduced pain and distress. In many situations, such as cesarean section, it is safer and therefore superior to general anesthesia. It is also used for relief of non-surgical pain and to enable diagnosis of the cause of some chronic pain conditions
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Endometrium
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus. It has a basal layer and a functional layer; the functional layer thickens and then is shed during menstruation in humans. Some other mammals including apes, Old World monkeys, some species of bat , and the elephant shrew menstruate.[1] In most other mammals the endometrium is reabsorbed in the estrous cycle. During pregnancy, the glands and blood vessels in the endometrium further increase in size and number
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