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Route Of Administration
A ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug , fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action is. Action may be topical (local), enteral (system-wide effect, but delivered through the gastrointestinal tract), or parenteral (systemic action, but delivered by routes other than the GI tract)
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Pharmacology
PHARMACOLOGY is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species). More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals . The field encompasses drug composition and properties, synthesis and drug design, molecular and cellular mechanisms , organ/systems mechanisms, signal transduction/cellular communication, molecular diagnostics, interactions , toxicology , chemical biology , therapy, and medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities
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Toxicology
TOXICOLOGY is a discipline , overlapping with biology , chemistry , pharmacology , medicine , and nursing , that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants . The relationship between dose and its effects on the exposed organism is of high significance in toxicology. Factors that influence chemical toxicity include the dosage (and whether it is acute or chronic), route of exposure, species, age, sex, and environment. TOXICOLOGISTS are experts on poisons and poisoning
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Medication
A PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG (also referred to as MEDICINE, MEDICATION, or simply as DRUG) is a drug used to diagnose , cure , treat , or prevent disease . Drug
Drug
therapy (pharmacotherapy ) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Drugs are classified in various ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control , which distinguishes prescription drugs (those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician , physician assistant , or qualified nurse ) from over-the-counter drugs (those that consumers can order for themselves)
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Oral Administration
ORAL ADMINISTRATION is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth . PER OS (P.O.) is sometimes used as an abbreviation for medication to be taken orally. Many medications are taken orally because they are intended to have a systemic effect , reaching different parts of the body via the bloodstream , for example. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Scope * 3 Facilitating methods * 4 See also * 5 References TERMINOLOGY"Per os" (/ˌpɜːrˈoʊs/ ; P.O.) is an adverbial phrase meaning literally from Latin "by opening" or "by way of the opening." The expression is used in medicine to describe a treatment that is taken orally. The abbreviated P.O. is often used on medical prescriptions . P.O. is also occasionally rendered per orem, which is sometimes corrupted to per oram. These are grammatically incorrect; "os" is a neuter noun of the 3rd declension and thus the accusative case is the same as the nominative case
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Intravenous Therapy
INTRAVENOUS THERAPY is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein . _Intravenous_ (IV) means "within vein". Intravenous infusions are commonly referred to as DRIPS. The intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver fluids and medications throughout the body. Intravenous therapy
Intravenous therapy
may be used for fluid administration (such as correcting dehydration ), to correct electrolyte imbalances, to deliver medications and for blood transfusions
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Topical Medication
A TOPICAL MEDICATION is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body. Most often topical administration means application to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including creams , foams , gels , lotions , and ointments. Many topical medications are epicutaneous, meaning that they are applied directly to the skin. Topical
Topical
medications may also be inhalational , such as asthma medications , or applied to the surface of tissues other than the skin, such as eye drops applied to the conjunctiva , or ear drops placed in the ear, or medications applied to the surface of a tooth . The word _topical_ derives from Greek τοπικός _topikos_, "of a place"
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Enteral Administration
In general medicine, ENTERAL nutrition or drug administration (Greek enteros, "intestine") is feeding or drug administration by the digestion process of a gastrointestinal (GI) tract, such as the human gastrointestinal tract . This contrasts with parenteral nutrition or drug administration (Greek para, "besides" + enteros), which occurs from routes outside the GI tract, such as intravenous routes. Generally, drugs are given by two general methods: enteral and parenteral administration. Enteral administration involves the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines (i.e., the gastrointestinal tract). Methods of administration include oral, sublingual (dissolving the drug under the tongue), and rectal. Parenteral routes do not involve the gastrointestinal tract. In pharmacology , the route of drug administration is important because it affects drug metabolism , drug clearance , and thus dosage
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Pharmacokinetics
PHARMACOKINETICS (from Ancient Greek _pharmakon_ "drug" and _kinetikos_ "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics ), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism. The substances of interest include any chemical xenobiotic such as: pharmaceutical drugs , pesticides , food additives , cosmetic ingredients , etc. It attempts to analyze chemical metabolism and to discover the fate of a chemical from the moment that it is administered up to the point at which it is completely eliminated from the body . Pharmacokinetics is the study of how an organism affects a drug, whereas pharmacodynamics is the study of how the drug affects the organism. Both together influence dosing , benefit, and adverse effects , as seen in PK/PD models
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Transdermal
TRANSDERMAL is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution. Examples include transdermal patches used for medicine delivery. CONTENTS* 1 Techniques * 1.1 Obstacles * 1.2 Transdermal
Transdermal
pathways * 1.2.1 Transcellular pathway * 1.2.2 Intercellular pathway * 1.2.3 Microneedles * 1.3 Devices and formulations * 2 References TECHNIQUESOBSTACLESAlthough the skin is a large and logical target for drug delivery, its basic functions limit its utility for this purpose. The skin functions mainly to protect the body from external insults (e.g. harmful substances and microorganisms) and to contain all body fluids. It must be tough, yet flexible enough to allow for movement. The lipids in our skin serve as poor conductors of electricity and can hence protect us from electrical currents if the need so arises
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Pharmacodynamics
PHARMACODYNAMICS is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs ). The effects can include those manifested within animals (including humans), microorganisms , or combinations of organisms (for example, infection ). Pharmacodynamics is the study of how a drug affects an organism, whereas pharmacokinetics is the study of how the organism affects the drug. Both together influence dosing , benefit, and adverse effects . Pharmacodynamics is sometimes abbreviated as PD and pharmacokinetics as PK, especially in combined reference (for example, when speaking of PK/PD models ). Pharmacodynamics places particular emphasis on dose–response relationships , that is, the relationships between drug concentration and effect
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Gastrointestinal Tract
GASTROINTESTINAL is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and INTESTINES. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. The GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT (DIGESTIVE TRACT, GI TRACT, GIT, GUT, or ALIMENTARY CANAL) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces and urine . The mouth , oesophagus , stomach, and intestines are part of the human alimentary canal. All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract, also called a gut or an alimentary canal. This is a tube that transfers food to the organs of digestion . In large bilaterians, the gastrointestinal tract generally also has an exit, the anus , by which the animal disposes of feces (solid wastes). Some small bilaterians have no anus and dispose of solid wastes by other means (for example, through the mouth)
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Intestines
GASTROINTESTINAL is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and INTESTINES. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. The GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT (DIGESTIVE TRACT, GI TRACT, GIT, GUT, or ALIMENTARY CANAL) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces and urine . The mouth , oesophagus , stomach, and intestines are part of the human alimentary canal. All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract, also called a gut or an alimentary canal. This is a tube that transfers food to the organs of digestion . In large bilaterians, the gastrointestinal tract generally also has an exit, the anus , by which the animal disposes of feces (solid wastes). Some small bilaterians have no anus and dispose of solid wastes by other means (for example, through the mouth)
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Mouth
In biological anatomy, commonly referred to as the MOUTH, under formal names such as the ORAL CAVITY, BUCCAL CAVITY, or in Latin CAVUM ORIS, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds. It is also the cavity lying at the upper end of the alimentary canal , bounded on the outside by the lips and inside by the pharynx and containing in higher vertebrates the tongue and teeth. This cavity is also known as the BUCCAL CAVITY, from the Latin _bucca_ ("cheek"). Some animal phyla , including vertebrates , have a complete digestive system , with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. Which end forms first in ontogeny is a criterion used to classify animals into protostome and deuterostome
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Rectal (medicine)
RECTAL ADMINISTRATION uses the rectum as a route of administration for medication and other fluids, which are absorbed by the rectum's blood vessels , and flow into the body's circulatory system , which distributes the drug to the body's organs and bodily systems . A drug that is administered rectally will in general (depending on the drug) have a faster onset, higher bioavailability , shorter peak, and shorter duration than the oral route. Another advantage of administering a drug rectally, is that it tends to produce less nausea compared to the oral route and prevents any amount of the drug from being lost due to emesis (vomiting). In addition, the rectal route bypasses around two thirds of the first-pass metabolism as the rectum's venous drainage is two thirds systemic (middle and inferior rectal vein ) and one third hepatic portal system (superior rectal vein )
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