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Rod Cell
ROD CELLS are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells . Rods are usually found concentrated at the outer edges of the retina and are used in peripheral vision . On average, there are approximately 90 million rod cells in the human retina. Rod cells are more sensitive than cone cells and are almost entirely responsible for night vision. However, rods have little role in color vision , which is one of the main reasons why colors are much less apparent in darkness. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Function * 2.1 Photoreception * 2.2 Reversion to the resting state * 2.3 Desensitization * 2.4 Sensitivity * 3 References * 4 External links STRUCTURERods are a little longer and leaner than cones but have the same basic structure
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Transducin
TRANSDUCIN (Gt) is a protein naturally expressed in vertebrate retina rods and cones and it is very important in vertebrate phototransduction . It is a type of heterotrimeric G-protein with different α subunits in rod and cone photoreceptors. Light leads to conformational changes in rhodopsin , which in turn leads to the activation of transducin. Transducin activates phosphodiesterase , which results in the breakdown of cGMP. The intensity of the flash response is directly proportional to the number of transducin activated. CONTENTS * 1 Function in Phototransduction * 2 Mechanism of Activation * 2.1 The Tβγ Complex * 2.2 Interaction with cGMP Phosphodiesterase and Deactivation * 3 Genes * 4 References * 5 External links FUNCTION IN PHOTOTRANSDUCTIONTransducin is activated by metarhodopsin II , a conformational change in rhodopsin caused by the absorption of a photon by the rhodopsin moiety retinal
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Acetylcholine
ACETYLCHOLINE (ACH) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter —a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells. Its name is derived from its chemical structure: it is an ester of acetic acid and choline . Parts in the body that use or are affected by acetylcholine are referred to as cholinergic . Substances that interfere with acetylcholine activity are called anticholinergics . Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine
is the neurotransmitter used at the neuromuscular junction —in other words, it is the chemical that motor neurons of the nervous system release in order to activate muscles. This property means that drugs that affect cholinergic systems can have very dangerous effects ranging from paralysis to convulsions
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Arrestin
ARRESTINS are a small family of proteins important for regulating signal transduction at G protein-coupled receptors . Arrestins were first discovered as a part of a conserved two-step mechanism for regulating the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the visual rhodopsin system by Hermann Kühn and co-workers and in the β-adrenergic system by Martin J. Lohse and co-workers. CONTENTS * 1 Function * 2 Subtypes * 3 Tissue distribution * 4 Mechanism * 5 Structure * 6 References * 7 External links FUNCTIONIn response to a stimulus, GPCRs activate heterotrimeric G proteins . In order to turn off this response, or adapt to a persistent stimulus, active receptors need to be desensitized. The first step is phosphorylation by a class of serine/threonine kinases called G protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs)
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Membrane Potential
MEMBRANE POTENTIAL (also TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL or MEMBRANE VOLTAGE) is the difference in electric potential between the interior and the exterior of a biological cell . With respect to the exterior of the cell, typical values of membrane potential range from –40 mV to –80 mV. All animal cells are surrounded by a membrane composed of a lipid bilayer with proteins embedded in it. The membrane serves as both an insulator and a diffusion barrier to the movement of ions . Ion transporter/pump proteins actively push ions across the membrane and establish concentration gradients across the membrane, and ion channels allow ions to move across the membrane down those concentration gradients. Ion
Ion
pumps and ion channels are electrically equivalent to a set of batteries and resistors inserted in the membrane, and therefore create a voltage between the two sides of the membrane
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Neurotransmitter
NEUROTRANSMITTERS, also known as CHEMICAL MESSENGERS, are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission . They transmit signals across a chemical synapse , such as a neuromuscular junction , from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell , or gland cell . Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into the synaptic cleft , where they are received by receptors on the target cells. Many neurotransmitters are synthesized from simple and plentiful precursors such as amino acids , which are readily available from the diet and only require a small number of biosynthetic steps for conversion. Neurotransmitters play a major role in shaping everyday life and functions. Their exact numbers are unknown, but more than 100 chemical messengers have been uniquely identified
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Organelle
In cell biology , an ORGANELLE (/ɔːrɡəˈnɛl/ ) is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function. Individual organelles are usually separately enclosed within their own lipid bilayers . The name organelle comes from the idea that these structures are parts of cells, as organs are to the body , hence organelle, the suffix -elle being a diminutive . Organelles are identified by microscopy , and can also be purified by cell fractionation . There are many types of organelles, particularly in eukaryotic cells. While prokaryotes do not possess organelles per se, some do contain protein-based bacterial microcompartments , which are thought to act as primitive organelles
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Nucleus (cell)
In cell biology , the NUCLEUS (pl. nuclei; from Latin
Latin
nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane -enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells . Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei , and a few others have many . Human skeletal muscle cells have more than one nucleus, as do eukaryotes like fungi. Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material , organized as multiple long linear DNA
DNA
molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins , such as histones , to form chromosomes . The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome and are structured in such a way to promote cell function. The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression —the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell
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Hyperpolarization (biology)
HYPERPOLARIZATION is a change in a cell\'s membrane potential that makes it more negative. It is the opposite of a depolarization . It inhibits action potentials by increasing the stimulus required to move the membrane potential to the action potential threshold. Hyperpolarization is often caused by efflux of K+ (a cation ) through K+ channels , or influx of Cl– (an anion ) through Cl– channels . On the other hand, influx of cations , e.g. Na+ through Na+ channels or Ca2+ through Ca2+ channels , inhibits hyperpolarization. If a cell has Na+ or Ca2+ currents at rest, then inhibition of those currents will also result in a hyperpolarization. This voltage-gated ion channel response is how the hyperpolarization state is achieved. In neurons , the cell enters a state of hyperpolarization immediately following the generation of an action potential
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Regulator Of G Protein Signalling
REGULATORS OF G PROTEIN SIGNALING (OR RGS) are protein structural domains that activate GTPases for heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunits. RGS proteins are multi-functional, GTPase-accelerating proteins that promote GTP hydrolysis by the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, thereby inactivating the G protein and rapidly switching off G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways. Upon activation by receptors, G proteins exchange GDP for GTP, are released from the receptor, and dissociate into a free, active GTP-bound alpha subunit and beta-gamma dimer, both of which activate downstream effectors. The response is terminated upon GTP hydrolysis by the alpha subunit (InterPro : IPR001019), which can then re-bind the beta-gamma dimer (InterPro : IPR001632 InterPro : IPR001770) and the receptor. RGS proteins markedly reduce the lifespan of GTP-bound alpha subunits by stabilising the G protein transition state
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GTPase-activating Protein
GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS or GTPASE-ACCELERATING PROTEINS (GAPS) are a family of regulatory proteins whose members can bind to activated G proteins and stimulate their GTPase activity, with the result of terminating the signaling event. GAPs are also known as RGS protein , or RGS proteins, and these proteins are crucial in controlling the activity of G proteins. Regulation of G proteins is important because these proteins are involved in a variety of important cellular processes. The large G proteins, for example, are involved in transduction of signaling from the G protein-coupled receptor
G protein-coupled receptor
for a variety of signaling processes like hormonal signaling, and small G proteins are involved in processes like cellular trafficking and cell cycling. GAP’s role in this function is to turn the G protein’s activity off
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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PubMed Central
PUBMED CENTRAL (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology , and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML
XML
structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez
Entrez
search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge
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Neuroscience Information Framework
The NEUROSCIENCE INFORMATION FRAMEWORK is a repository of global neuroscience web resources, including experimental , clinical, and translational neuroscience databases , knowledge bases, atlases, and genetic /genomic resources and provides many authoritative links throughout the neuroscience portal of. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Goals * 3 Content * 4 Data Via Web Services * 5 Notes and references * 6 See also * 7 External links DESCRIPTIONThe Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) is an initiative of the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research , which was established in 2004 by the National Institutes of Health
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Image Resolution
IMAGE RESOLUTION is the detail an image holds. The term applies to raster digital images , film images, and other types of images. Higher resolution means more image detail. Image
Image
resolution can be measured in various ways. Resolution quantifies how close lines can be to each other and still be visibly resolved. Resolution units can be tied to physical sizes (e.g. lines per mm, lines per inch), to the overall size of a picture (lines per picture height, also known simply as lines, TV lines , or TVL), or to angular subtense. Line pairs are often used instead of lines; a line pair comprises a dark line and an adjacent light line. A line is either a dark line or a light line. A resolution of 10 lines per millimeter means 5 dark lines alternating with 5 light lines, or 5 line pairs per millimeter (5 LP/mm). Photographic lens and film resolution are most often quoted in line pairs per millimeter
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