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Rock (geology)
ROCK or STONE is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids . For example, granite , a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz , feldspar and biotite . The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere , is made of rock. Rock has been used by mankind throughout history. The minerals and metals found in rocks have been essential to human civilization. Three major groups of rocks are defined: igneous , sedimentary , and metamorphic . The scientific study of rocks is called petrology , which is an essential component of geology
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Texture (geology)
TEXTURE (or rock microstructure ) in geology refers to the relationship between the materials of which a rock is composed. The broadest textural classes are crystalline (in which the components are intergrown and interlocking crystals), fragmental (in which there is an accumulation of fragments by some physical process), aphanitic (in which crystals are not visible to the unaided eye), and glassy (in which the particles are too small to be seen and amorphously arranged). The geometric aspects and relations amongst the component particles or crystals are referred to as the crystallographic texture or preferred orientation . Textures can be quantified in many ways. The most common parameter is the crystal size distribution . This creates the physical appearance or character of a rock, such as grain size, shape, arrangement, and other properties, at both the visible and microscopic scale. Crystalline textures include phaneritic , foliated , and porphyritic
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Particle Size (grain Size)
PARTICLE SIZE, also called GRAIN SIZE, refers to the diameter of individual grains of sediment , or the lithified particles in clastic rocks . The term may also be applied to other granular materials . This is different from the crystallite size, which refers to the size of a single crystal inside a particle or grain. A single grain can be composed of several crystals . Granular material
Granular material
can range from very small colloidal particles , through clay , silt , sand , gravel , and cobbles , to boulders . CONTENTS * 1 Krumbein phi scale * 2 International scale * 3 Sorting * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links KRUMBEIN PHI SCALESize ranges define limits of classes that are given names in the Wentworth scale (or Udden–Wentworth scale) used in the United States . The Krumbein phi (φ) scale, a modification of the Wentworth scale created by W. C
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Igneous Rock
IGNEOUS ROCK (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or MAGMATIC ROCK, is one of the three main rock types , the others being sedimentary and metamorphic . Igneous rock
Igneous rock
is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava . The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planet 's mantle or crust . Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature , a decrease in pressure , or a change in composition. Solidification into rock occurs either below the surface as intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive rocks. Igneous rock
Igneous rock
may form with crystallization to form granular, crystalline rocks, or without crystallization to form natural glasses
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Earth's Crust
In geology , the CRUST is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet , dwarf planet , or natural satellite . It is usually distinguished from the underlying mantle by its chemical makeup; however, in the case of icy satellites, it may be distinguished based on its phase (solid crust vs. liquid mantle). The crusts of Earth
Earth
, Moon
Moon
, Mercury , Venus
Venus
, Mars
Mars
, Io , and other planetary bodies formed via igneous processes, and were later modified by erosion , impact cratering , volcanism, and sedimentation. Most terrestrial planets have fairly uniform crusts. Earth, however, has two distinct types: continental crust and oceanic crust . These two types have different chemical compositions and physical properties, and were formed by different geological processes
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Chemical Bond
A CHEMICAL BOND is a lasting attraction between atoms that enables the formation of chemical compounds . The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between atoms with opposite charges, or through the sharing of electrons as in the covalent bonds . The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" or "primary bond" such as metallic , covalent or ionic bonds and "weak bonds" or "secondary bond" such as Dipole-dipole interaction , the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding . Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force , the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond
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Homogeneity And Heterogeneity
HOMOGENEITY AND HETEROGENEITY are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism. A material or image that is HOMOGENEOUS is uniform in composition or character (i.e. color, shape, size, weight, height, distribution, texture, language, income, disease, temperature, radioactivity, architectural design, etc.); one that is HETEROGENEOUS is distinctly nonuniform in one of these qualities
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Chemical Compound
A CHEMICAL COMPOUND is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities ) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds . There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together: * molecules held together by covalent bonds * ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds * intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds * certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds .Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS): its CAS number . A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, and subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved
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Aggregate (composite)
AGGREGATE is the component of a composite material that resists compressive stress and provides bulk to the composite material. For efficient filling, aggregate should be much smaller than the finished item, but have a wide variety of sizes. For example, the particles of stone used to make concrete typically include both sand and gravel . CONTENTS * 1 Comparison to fiber composites * 2 Aggregate properties * 2.1 Aggregate size * 2.2 Toughened composites * 2.3 Nanocomposites * 3 See also COMPARISON TO FIBER COMPOSITESAggregate composites tend to be much easier to fabricate, and much more predictable in their finished properties, than fiber composites . Fiber orientation and continuity can have an overwhelming effect, but can be difficult to control and assess. Fabrication aside, aggregate materials themselves also tend to be less expensive; the most common aggregates mentioned above are found in nature and can often be used with only minimal processing
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Gabbro
GABBRO ( /ˈɡæbroʊ/ ) refers to a large group of dark, often phaneritic (coarse-grained), mafic intrusive igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt . It forms when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth
Earth
's surface and slowly cools into a holocrystalline mass. Much of the Earth's oceanic crust is made of gabbro, formed at mid-ocean ridges . Gabbro
Gabbro
is also found as plutons associated with continental volcanism . Due to its variant nature, the term "gabbro" may be applied loosely to a wide range of intrusive rocks, many of which are merely "gabbroic". CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Petrology * 3 Distribution * 4 Uses * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe term "gabbro" was used in the 1760s to name a set of rock types that were found in the ophiolites of the Apennine Mountains
Apennine Mountains
in Italy
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Crystallization
CRYSTALLIZATION is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal . Some of the ways by which crystals form are through precipitating from a solution , melting , or more rarely deposition directly from a gas . Attributes of the resulting crystal depend largely on factors such as temperature, air pressure, and in the case of liquid crystals, time of fluid evaporation. Crystallization
Crystallization
occurs in two major steps. The first is nucleation , the appearance of a crystalline phase from either a supercooled liquid or a supersaturated solvent. The second step is known as crystal growth , which is the increase in the size of particles and leads to a crystal state. An important feature of this step is that loose particles form layers at the crystal's surface lodge themselves into open inconsistencies such as pores, cracks, etc
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Earth
EARTH is the third planet from the Sun
Sun
and the only object in the Universe
Universe
known to harbor life . According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth
Earth
formed over 4 billion years ago . Earth\'s gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun
Sun
and the Moon
Moon
, Earth's only natural satellite . Earth
Earth
revolves around the Sun
Sun
in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth
Earth
year . During this time, Earth
Earth
rotates about its axis about 366.26 times. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface
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Extrusive (geology)
EXTRUSIVE refers to the mode of igneous volcanic rock formation in which hot magma from inside the Earth
Earth
flows out (extrudes) onto the surface as lava or explodes violently into the atmosphere to fall back as pyroclastics or tuff . This is as opposed to intrusive rock formation, in which magma does not reach the surface. The main effect of extrusion is that the magma can cool much more quickly in the open air or under seawater , and there is little time for the growth of crystals . Sometimes, a residual portion of the matrix fails to crystallize at all, instead becoming a natural glass or obsidian . If the magma contains abundant volatile components which are released as free gas, then it may cool with large or small vesicles (bubble-shaped cavities) such as in pumice , scoria , or vesicular basalt
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Intrusion
INTRUSIVE ROCK (also called PLUTONIC ROCK) is formed when magma crystallizes and solidifies underground to form intrusions, for example plutons , batholiths , dikes , sills , laccoliths , and volcanic necks . CONTENTS * 1 Formation * 2 Related forms * 3 Related terms * 4 Relationship to the term Intrusive Suite * 5 How they vary * 6 Examples * 7 Structural types * 8 Characteristics * 9 See also * 10 References FORMATION Intrusive rock
Intrusive rock
forms within Earth
Earth
's crust from the crystallization of magma . Magma
Magma
slowly pushes up from deep within the earth into any cracks or spaces it can find, sometimes pushing existing country rock out of the way, a process that can take millions of years. As the magma slowly cools into a solid, the different parts of the magma crystallize into rocks
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Plutonic
In geology , a PLUTON is a body of intrusive igneous rock (called a PLUTONIC ROCK) that is crystallized from magma slowly cooling below the surface of the Earth
Earth
. Plutons include batholiths , stocks , dikes , sills , laccoliths , lopoliths , and other igneous bodies. In practice, "pluton" usually refers to a distinctive mass of igneous rock, typically several kilometers in dimension, without a tabular shape like those of dikes and sills. Batholiths commonly are aggregations of plutons. Examples of plutons include Denali
Denali
, Cuillin , Cardinal Peak , Mount Kinabalu
Mount Kinabalu
and Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain
. The most common rock types in plutons are granite , granodiorite , tonalite , monzonite , and quartz diorite . Generally light colored, coarse-grained plutons of these compositions are referred to as granitoids
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