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Rock (geology)
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar and biotite. The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. Rock has been used by humankind throughout history. The minerals and metals in rocks have been essential to human civilization.[1] Three major groups of rocks are defined: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is an essential component of geology.Contents1 Classification1.1 Igneous rock 1.2 Sedimentary rock 1.3 Metamorphic rock2 Human use2.1 Mining3 See also 4 References 5 External linksClassification See also: Formation of rocksRock outcrop along a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica.Rocks are composed of grains of minerals, which are homogeneous solids formed from a chemical compound arranged in an orderly manner
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Silicon Dioxide
Silica Silicic oxide Silicon(IV) oxide Crystalline silicaIdentifiersCAS Number7631-86-9 YChEBICHEBI:30563 YChemSpider22683 YECHA InfoCard 100.028.678EC Number 231-545-4E number E551 (acidity regulators, ...)Gmelin Reference200274KEGGC16459 NMeSH Silicon+dioxide PubChem CID24261 RTECS number VV7565000UNIIETJ7Z6XBU4 YInChIInChI=1S/O2Si/c1-3-2 Y Key: VYPSYNLAJGMNEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N YPropertiesChemical formulaSiO2Molar mass 60.08 g/molAppearance
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Petrology
Petrology
Petrology
(from the Greek πέτρος, pétros, "rock" and λόγος, lógos, "subject matter", see -logy) is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form. Petrology
Petrology
has three subdivisions: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary petrology. Igneous
Igneous
and metamorphic petrology are commonly taught together because they both contain heavy use of chemistry, chemical methods, and phase diagrams
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Gabbro
Gabbro
Gabbro
( /ˈɡæbroʊ/) refers to a large group of dark, often phaneritic (coarse-grained), mafic intrusive igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt, being its coarse-grained analogue. It forms when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and slowly cools into a holocrystalline mass. Much of the Earth's oceanic crust is made of gabbro, formed at mid-ocean ridges. Gabbro
Gabbro
is also found as plutons associated with continental volcanism
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Particle Size (grain Size)
Grain size
Grain size
(or particle size) refers to the diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in clastic rocks. The term may also be applied to other granular materials. This is different from the crystallite size, which refers to the size of a single crystal inside a particle or grain. A single grain can be composed of several crystals. Granular material
Granular material
can range from very small colloidal particles, through clay, silt, sand, gravel, and cobbles, to boulders.Contents1 Krumbein phi scale 2 International scale 3 Sorting 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksKrumbein phi scale[edit] Size ranges define limits of classes that are given names in the Wentworth scale (or Udden–Wentworth scale) used in the United States. The Krumbein phi (φ) scale, a modification of the Wentworth scale created by W. C
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Texture (geology)
Texture (or rock microstructure[1]) in geology refers to the relationship between the materials of which a rock is composed.[2] The broadest textural classes are crystalline (in which the components are intergrown and interlocking crystals), fragmental (in which there is an accumulation of fragments by some physical process), aphanitic (in which crystals are not visible to the unaided eye), and glassy (in which the particles are too small to be seen and amorphously arranged).[2] The geometric aspects and relations amongst the component particles or crystals are referred to as the crystallographic texture or preferred orientation. Textures can be quantified in many ways.[3] The most common[citation needed] parameter is the crystal size distribution
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Lava
Lava
Lava
is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C (1,292 to 2,192 °F). The resulting structures after solidification and cooling are also sometimes described as lava. The molten rock is formed in the interior of some planets, including Earth, and some of their satellites, though such material located below the crust is referred to by other terms. A lava flow is a moving outpouring of lava created during a non-explosive effusive eruption. When it has stopped moving, lava solidifies to form igneous rock. The term lava flow is commonly shortened to lava
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Earth's Crust
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite. It is usually distinguished from the underlying mantle by its chemical makeup; however, in the case of icy satellites, it may be distinguished based on its phase (solid crust vs. liquid mantle). The crusts of Earth, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Io, and other planetary bodies formed via igneous processes, and were later modified by erosion, impact cratering, volcanism, and sedimentation. Most terrestrial planets have fairly uniform crusts. Earth, however, has two distinct types: continental crust and oceanic crust
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Silicon
Silicon
Silicon
is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. A hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, it is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table, along with carbon above it and germanium, tin, and lead below. It is rather unreactive, though less so than germanium, and has a very large chemical affinity for oxygen; as such, it was first prepared and characterized in pure form only in 1823 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius. Its melting and boiling points of 1414 °C and 3265 °C respectively are the second-highest among all the metalloids and nonmetals, being only surpassed by boron (carbon sublimes rather than melts at atmospheric pressure, albeit at a higher temperature than boron). Silicon
Silicon
is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure element in the Earth's crust
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Crust (geology)
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite. It is usually distinguished from the underlying mantle by its chemical makeup; however, in the case of icy satellites, it may be distinguished based on its phase (solid crust vs. liquid mantle). The crusts of Earth, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Io, and other planetary bodies formed via igneous processes, and were later modified by erosion, impact cratering, volcanism, and sedimentation. Most terrestrial planets have fairly uniform crusts. Earth, however, has two distinct types: continental crust and oceanic crust
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Chemical Bond
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions as in ionic bonds; or through the sharing of electrons as in covalent bonds. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" or "primary bond" such as metallic, covalent or ionic bonds and "weak bonds" or "secondary bond" such as dipole–dipole interactions, the London dispersion force
London dispersion force
and hydrogen bonding. Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond
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Aggregate (composite)
Aggregate is the component of a composite material that resists compressive stress and provides bulk to the composite material. For efficient filling, aggregate should be much smaller than the finished item, but have a wide variety of sizes. For example, the particles of stone used to make concrete typically include both sand and gravel.Contents1 Comparison to fiber composites 2 Aggregate properties2.1 Aggregate size 2.2 Toughened composites 2.3 Nanocomposites3 See alsoComparison to fiber composites[edit] Aggregate composites tend to be much easier to fabricate, and much more predictable in their finished properties, than fiber composites. Fiber orientation and continuity can have an overwhelming effect, but can be difficult to control and assess
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Chemical Compound
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together:molecules held together by covalent bonds ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds.Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service
Chemical Abstracts Service
(CAS): its CAS number. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, and subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved
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Homogeneity And Heterogeneity
Homogeneity and heterogeneity
Homogeneity and heterogeneity
are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism. A material or image that is homogeneous is uniform in composition or character (i.e
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Costa Rica
Coordinates: 10°N 84°W / 10°N 84°W / 10; -84Republic of Costa Rica República de Costa Rica  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Noble patria, tu hermosa bandera" (Spanish) "Noble motherland, your beautiful flag"Capital and largest city San José 9°56′N 84°5′W / 9.933°N 84.083°W / 9.933; -84.083Official languages SpanishRecognized regional languagesMekatelyu Bribri PatoisEthnic groups (2011[2])83.6% White/Castizo or Mestizo 6.7% Mulatto 2.4% Amerindian 1.1% Black (of African descent) 6.2% Others[1]Religion Roman CatholicismDemonymCosta Rican Tico(a)Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic• PresidentLuis Guillermo Solís• 1st Vice-PresidentHelio Fallas Venegas• 2nd Vice-PresidentAna Helena Chacón EcheverríaLegislature Legislative Assembly<
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Orosí
Orosi is a town in the Cartago Province in Costa Rica, about 35 kilometers south of the capital San José. Orosi is situated on the Reventazón River in the Orosi Valley, a deep valley with a humid climate, surrounded by hills and lush vegetation. The cultivation of coffee is the leading industry in the area. Orosi has a population of approximately 4,600 and has the oldest Catholic church still in use in Costa Rica. The church, Iglesia de San Jose de Orosi, was built in 1743 during the time the country was a Colony. With its rain forests, volcanoes, hills and valleys lined with rows upon rows of coffee plants and sugar cane, the Orosi region offers some of the richest scenery to be found in Costa Rica. But the region is also rich in history and contains a number of monuments to the past, including a colonial capital founded in 1563 and archeological excavations that date back to 1000 B.C
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