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Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (German: [ˈʁaɪnhaʁt ˈtʁɪstan ˈɔʏɡn̩ ˈhaɪdʁɪç] ( listen); 7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German Nazi official during World War II, and a main architect of the Holocaust. He was an SS- Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
und General der Polizei (Senior Group Leader and General of Police) as well as chief of the Reich Main Security Office (including the Gestapo, Kripo, and SD). He was also Stellvertretender Reichsprotektor
Reichsprotektor
(Deputy/Acting Reich-Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia
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Luftwaffe
The Luftwaffe[N 2] (German pronunciation: [ˈlʊftvafə] ( listen)) was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
military forces during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the Luftstreitkräfte of the Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Navy, had been disbanded in May 1920 as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force. During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base. With the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
was officially established on 26 February 1935. The Condor Legion, a Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
detachment sent to aid Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, provided the force with a valuable testing ground for new doctrines and aircraft
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Jewish Question
The Jewish question
Jewish question
was a wide-ranging debate in 19th- and 20th-century European society pertaining to the appropriate status and treatment of Jews
Jews
in society. The debate was similar to other so-called "national questions" and dealt with the civil, legal, national and political status of Jews
Jews
as a minority within society, particularly in Europe
Europe
in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. The debate started within societies, politicians and writers in western and central Europe
Europe
influenced by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
and the ideals of the French Revolution. The issues included the legal and economic Jewish disabilities (e.g
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Oberleutnant Zur See
Oberleutnant zur See (OLt zS or OLZS[1] in the German Navy, Oblt.z.S. in the Kriegsmarine) is traditionally the first and highest Lieutenant grade in the German Navy. It is grouped as OF-1a in NATO, equivalent to a Lieutenant Junior Grade
Lieutenant Junior Grade
in the United States Navy, and a Sub-Lieutenant
Sub-Lieutenant
in the British Royal Navy The rank was introduced in the Imperial German Navy
German Navy
by renaming the former rank of Premier Lieutenant in 1890. In navy context officers of this rank were simply addressed as Herr Oberleutnant. To distinguish naval officers from officers of the army, the suffix zur See (at sea) was added in official communication, sometimes shortened to z.S. or Oblt.z.S. The rank has since been used by the Reichsmarine, the Kriegsmarine, and the German Navy
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German Empire
The German Empire
German Empire
(German: Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),[5][6][7][8] also known as Imperial Germany,[9] was the German nation state[10] that existed from the Unification of Germany
Unification of Germany
in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states joined the North German Confederation. On January 1st, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia
King of Prussia
from the Hohenzollern dynasty.[11] Berlin
Berlin
remained its capital. Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
remained Chancellor, the head of government
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Weimar Republic
The Weimar
Weimar
Republic (German: Weimarer Republik [ˈvaɪmaʁɐ ʁepuˈbliːk] ( listen)) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the state remained Deutsches Reich, unchanged since 1871. In English, the country was usually known simply as Germany. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar
Weimar
Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism (with paramilitaries – both left- and right-wing) as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War
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Reichsmarine
The Reichsmarine
Reichsmarine
(German: [ˈʁaɪçs.maˌʁiːnə], Navy
Navy
of the Realm) was the name of the German Navy
Navy
during the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
and first two years of Nazi Germany.[1] It was the naval branch of the Reichswehr, existing from 1919 to 1935. In 1935, it became known as the Kriegsmarine, a branch of the Wehrmacht; a change implemented by Adolf Hitler
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German-occupied Europe
German-occupied Europe
Europe
refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regimes.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Occupied countries2.1 Governments in exile2.1.1 Allied governments in exile 2.1.2 Axis governments in exile 2.1.3 Neutral governments in exile3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksBackground[edit] Several German occupied countries entered World War II
World War II
as Allies of the United Kingdom[2] or the Soviet Union.[3] Some were forced to surrender before outbreak of the war such as Czechoslovakia;[4] others like Poland
Poland
(invaded on 1 September 1939)[1] were conquered in battle and then occupied
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Austria
Coordinates: 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333 Republic
Republic
of Austria Republik Österreich  (German)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Land der Berge, Land am Strome  (German) Land of Mountains, Land by the RiverLocation of  Austria  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Vienna 48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200°N 16.350°E / 48.200; 16.350Off
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Czech Culture
This article is about the culture of the Czech Republic.Contents1 Festivities and traditions 2 Food 3 Music 4 Theatre 5 Literature 6 Art 7 Architecture 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksFestivities and traditions[edit] Czech people celebrate Christmas
Christmas
every year, beginning with a dinner on December 24. The table is set for exactly how many people are going to dine, but there is also a tradition, that you should set one more place, in case a stranger arrives. - this is why everyone must stand up at the same time. The traditional dinner usually includes a potato salad and a carp (fish), but many people replace it with a chicken or pork snitzel. Easter, or "Velikonoce" (meaning "great nights"), is a very cheerful and lighthearted holiday in the Czech Republic. Red is a very commonly worn color during this time, because it symbolizes joy, health, happiness, and new life that comes with spring
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Genocide
European colonization of the AmericasDzungar genocide, 1750s Manifest DestinyIndian Removal, 1830s California Genocide, 1848–1873Circassian genocide, 1860s Selk'nam genocide, 1890s–1900s Herero and Namaqua genocide, 1904–1907 Greek genocide, 1914–1923 Assyrian genocide, 1914–1925 Armenian Genocide, 1915–1923 Libyan Genocide, 1923–1932Soviet genocide Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
in the Soviet UnionSoviet famine of 1932–33Holodomor, 1931–1933 Kazakhstan, 1930–1933Mass Deportations during World War IIKalmyks, 1943 Chechens and Ingush, 1
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Protector (title)
Protector, sometimes spelled protecter, is used as a title or part of various historical titles of heads of state and others in authority. The word literally means one who protects.Contents1 Political and administrative1.1 Heads of state1.1.1 Iran 1.1.2 Europe 1.1.3 Americas1.2 Foreign hegemons1.2.1 Napoleonic France 1.2.2 Nazi Germany 1.2.3 Fictitious1.3 Colonial administration2 Religious2.1 Catholic 2.2 Islamic3 See also 4 Sources and referencesPolitical and administrative[edit] Heads of state[edit] Iran[edit] Wakil ar-Ra`aya (rendered as Protector of the People) was the (or a?) title of the Persian imperial Monarch under the Zand dynasty
Zand dynasty
- those rulers refused (except the last as noted) the style Shahanshah. The founding ruler adopted the style; it appears that his successors used the same style, although documentation is obscure1773 - 1 March 1779 Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (b. c.1707 - d
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Halle (Saale)
Halle (Saale)[2] (German: Halle (Saale), pronounced [ˈhalə ˈzaːlə] ( listen)) is a city in the southern part of the German state Saxony-Anhalt. Halle is an economic and educational center in central-eastern Germany. The University of Halle- Wittenberg
Wittenberg
is the largest university in Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
and one of the oldest universities in Germany, and a nurturing ground for the local startup ecosystem
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Prague
Motto(s): " Praga
Praga
Caput Rei publicae" (Latin)[1] "Prague, Head of the Republic"other historical mottos  " Praga
Praga
mater urbium" (Latin) "Praha matka měst" (Czech)[1] "Prague, Mother of Cities" "
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Czech Republic
The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(/ˈtʃɛk rɪˈpʌblɪk/ ( listen)[10] Czech: Česká republika, Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka] ( listen)),[11] also known as Czechia[12] (/ˈtʃɛkiə/ ( listen); Czech: Česko, pronounced [ˈtʃɛsko] ( listen)), is a landlocked country in Central Europe
Europe
bordered by Germany
Germany
to the west, Austria
Austria
to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland
Poland
to the northeast.[13] The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.6 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents
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