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Reinhard Heydrich
REINHARD TRISTAN EUGEN HEYDRICH (German: ( listen )) (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German Nazi official during World War II , and a main architect of the Holocaust
Holocaust
. He was an SS - Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
und General der Polizei (Senior Group Leader and Chief of Police) as well as chief of the Reich Main Security Office (including the Gestapo
Gestapo
, Kripo , and SD ). He was also Stellvertretender Reichsprotektor (Deputy/Acting Reich-Protector ) of Bohemia and Moravia
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Oberleutnant Zur See
OBERLEUTNANT ZUR SEE (OLt zS or OLZS in the German Navy
German Navy
, Oblt.z.S. in the Kriegsmarine ) is traditionally the first and highest Lieutenant grade in the German Navy. It is grouped as OF-1a in NATO , equivalent to a Lieutenant Junior Grade in the United States Navy
United States Navy
, and a Sub-Lieutenant in the British Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The rank was introduced in the Imperial German Navy
German Navy
by renaming the former rank of Premier Lieutenant in 1890. In navy context officers of this rank were simply addressed as Herr Oberleutnant. To distinguish naval officers from officers of the army, the suffix zur See (at sea) was added in official communication, sometimes shortened to z.S. or Oblt.z.S. The rank has since been used by the Reichsmarine , the Kriegsmarine , and the German Navy
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Reichsmarine
The REICHSMARINE (German: , Navy
Navy
of the Realm ) was the name of the German Navy
Navy
during the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
and first two years of Nazi Germany . It was the naval branch of the Reichswehr , existing from 1919 to 1935. In 1935, it became known as the Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine
, a branch of the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
; a change implemented by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
. Many of the administrative and organizational tenets of the Reichsmarine
Reichsmarine
were then carried over into the organization of the Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine

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Weimar Republic
WEIMAR REPUBLIC (German : Weimarer Republik ( listen )) was an unofficial, historical designation for the German state between 1919 and 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar
Weimar
, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
; it had remained unchanged since 1871. In English the country was usually known simply as Germany. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
was written, and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar
Weimar
Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation , political extremism (with paramilitaries – both left- and right-wing); and contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War
First World War

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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
* Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIED POWERS AXIS POWERS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS * Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
* Franklin D
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Jewish Question
The JEWISH QUESTION was a wide-ranging debate in 19th- and 20th-century European society pertaining to the appropriate status and treatment of Jews
Jews
in society. The debate was similar to other so-called "national questions " and dealt with the civil, legal, national and political status of Jews
Jews
as a minority within society, particularly in Europe
Europe
in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. The debate started within societies, politicians and writers in western and central Europe
Europe
influenced by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
and the ideals of the French Revolution
French Revolution
. The issues included the legal and economic Jewish disabilities (e.g. Jewish quotas and segregation ), Jewish assimilation , Jewish emancipation and Jewish Enlightenment
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Czech Culture
This article is about the culture of the Czech Republic . CONTENTS * 1 Festivities and traditions * 2 Food * 3 Music * 4 Theatre * 5 Literature * 6 Art * 7 Architecture * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links FESTIVITIES AND TRADITIONSCzech people celebrate Christmas
Christmas
every year, beginning with a dinner on December 24. The table is set for exactly how many people are going to dine, but there is also a tradition, that you should set one more place, in case a stranger arrives. - this is why everyone must stand up at the same time. The traditional dinner usually includes a potato salad and a carp (fish), but many people replace it with a chicken or pork snitzel. Easter
Easter
, or "Velikonoce" (meaning "great nights"), is a very cheerful and lighthearted holiday in the Czech Republic
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Austria
Coordinates : 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333 Republic
Republic
of Austria Republik Österreich (German ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: * Land der Berge, Land am Strome (German ) * Land of Mountains, Land by the River * Location of <
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German-occupied Europe
GERMAN–OCCUPIED EUROPE or NAZI EUROPE refers to the sovereign countries of Europe
Europe
which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Occupied countries * 2.1 Governments in exile * 2.1.1 Allied governments in exile * 2.1.2 Axis governments in exile * 2.1.3 Neutral governments in exile * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links BACKGROUND This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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German Empire
The GERMAN EMPIRE (German : Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
) was the German nation state that existed from the Unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the Hohenzollern dynasty was proclaimed the German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles . Berlin
Berlin
became its capital with the Berlin
Berlin
Palace as the Emperor's official residence. Its constitution then entered into force, and Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
became the first Chancellor
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Luftwaffe
The LUFTWAFFE (German pronunciation: ( listen )) was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
military forces during World War II
World War II
. Germany 's military air arms during World War I
World War I
, the Luftstreitkräfte
Luftstreitkräfte
of the Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Navy , had been disbanded in May 1920 as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force. During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base . With the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe was officially established on 26 February 1935
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Prague
Motto: " Praga
Praga
Caput Rei publicae" (Latin ) "Prague, Head of the Republic" other historical mottos * " Praga
Praga
mater urbium" (Latin ) "Praha matka měst" (Czech ) "Prague, Mother of Cities" * "
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Protector (title)
PROTECTOR, sometimes spelled PROTECTER, is used as a title or part of various historical titles of heads of state and others in authority. The word literally means one who protects. CONTENTS* 1 Political and administrative * 1.1 Heads of state * 1.1.1 Iran * 1.1.2 Europe * 1.1.3 Americas * 1.2 Foreign hegemons * 1.2.1 Napoleonic France * 1.2.2 Nazi Germany * 1.2.3 Fictitious * 1.3 Colonial administration * 2 Religious * 2.1 Catholic * 2.2 Islamic * 3 See also * 4 Sources and references POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVEHEADS OF STATEIranWakil ar-Ra`aya (rendered as PROTECTOR OF THE PEOPLE) was the (or a?) title of the Persian imperial Monarch under the Zand dynasty - those rulers refused (except the last as noted) the style Shahanshah . The founding ruler adopted the style; it appears that his successors used the same style, although documentation is obscure * 1773 - 1 March 1779 Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (b. c.1707 - d
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Genocide
GENOCIDE is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic , national , racial , or religious group) in whole or in part. The hybrid word "genocide" is a combination of the Greek word génos ("race, people") and the Latin suffix -cide ("act of killing"). The United Nations Genocide Convention , which was established in 1948, defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group"
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Czech Republic
The CZECH REPUBLIC (/ˈtʃɛk rᵻˈpʌblɪk/ ( listen ) CHEK-rə-PUB-lik ; Czech : Česká republika, Czech pronunciation: ( listen )), also known as CZECHIA (/ˈtʃɛkiə/ ( listen ), CHEK-ee-ə ; Czech : Česko, pronounced ( listen )), is a nation state in Central Europe
Europe
bordered by Germany
Germany
to the west, Austria
Austria
to the south, Slovakia
Slovakia
to the east and Poland
Poland
to the northeast. The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate . It is a unitary parliamentary republic , has 10.5 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague
Prague
, with over 1.2 million residents
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Halle (Saale)
HALLE (SAALE) (German : Halle (Saale), pronounced ( listen )) is a city in the southern part of the German state Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
. Halle is an economic and educational center in central-eastern Germany. The University of Halle-Wittenberg is the largest university in Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
and one of the oldest universities in Germany, and a nurturing ground for the local startup ecosystem . Together with Leipzig
Leipzig
, Halle is at the heart of the Central German Metropolitan Region
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