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Red Pandas
A. f. fulgens F. Cuvier, 1825 A. f. styani Thomas , 1902 Range of the red pandaThe RED PANDA (Ailurus fulgens), also called the LESSER PANDA, the RED BEAR-CAT, and the RED CAT-BEAR, is a mammal native to the eastern Himalayas
Himalayas
and southwestern China
China
. It has reddish-brown fur, a long, shaggy tail, and a waddling gait due to its shorter front legs; it is roughly the size of a domestic cat , though with a longer body and somewhat heavier. It is arboreal , feeds mainly on bamboo , but also eats eggs, birds , and insects . It is a solitary animal , mainly active from dusk to dawn , and is largely sedentary during the day
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Mustelidae
Lutrinae (otters) Melinae (European badgers) Mellivorinae (honey badgers) Taxidiinae
Taxidiinae
(American badgers) Mustelinae
Mustelinae
(weasels, tayra, wolverines, martens, polecats) Note ambiguity about classification at the section Systematics . The MUSTELIDAE (from Latin mustela, weasel) are a family of carnivorous mammals , including the weasel , badger , otter , marten , ferret , mink , stoat , and wolverine . MUSTELIDS are diverse and the largest family in the order Carnivora
Carnivora
. The internal classification is still disputed, with rival proposals containing between two and eight subfamilies. One study, published in 2008, questions the long-accepted Mustelinae
Mustelinae
subfamily, and suggests that the Mustelidae
Mustelidae
consist of four major clades and three much smaller lineages
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Musteloidea
MUSTELOIDEA is a superfamily of carnivoran mammals united by shared characters of the skull and teeth. Musteloids share a common ancestor with the pinnipeds , the group which includes seals. The Musteloidea
Musteloidea
consists of the families Ailuridae
Ailuridae
(red pandas ), Mustelidae
Mustelidae
(mustelids: weasels , otters , martens , and badgers ), Procyonidae
Procyonidae
(procyonids: raccoons , coatis , kinkajous , olingos , olinguitos , ringtails and cacomistles ), and Mephitidae
Mephitidae
(skunks ). In North America
North America
, ursoids and musteloids first appear in the Chadronian (late Eocene
Eocene
). In Europe
Europe
, ursoids and musteloids first appear in the early Oligocene
Oligocene
immediately following the Grande Coupure
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Skunk
Conepatus Mydaus Mephitis (type ) Spilogale Brachyprotoma Skunk
Skunk
genera rangesSKUNKS are mammals known for their ability to spray a liquid with a strong unpleasant smell . Different species of skunk vary in appearance from black-and-white to brown, cream or ginger colored, but all have warning coloration . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Physical description * 3 Diet * 4 Behavior * 5 Reproduction * 6 Anal scent glands * 7 Bites * 8 Domestication * 9 Classification * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links ETYMOLOGY1630s, squunck, from a southern New England Algonquian language (probably Abenaki) seganku, from Proto-Algonquian */šeka:kwa/, from */šek-/ "to urinate" + */-a:kw/ "fox." "Skunk" has historic use as an insult, attested from 1841. Skunk
Skunk
cabbage is attested from 1751; earlier skunkweed (1738)
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Subspecies
In biological classification , SUBSPECIES (abbreviated "SUBSP." or "SSP."; plural : "subspecies") is either a taxonomic rank subordinate to species , or a taxonomic unit in that rank. A subspecies cannot be recognized independently: a species will either be recognized as having no subspecies at all or at least two (including any that are extinct). In zoology , under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature , the subspecies is the only taxonomic rank below that of species that can receive a name. In botany and mycology , under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants , other infraspecific ranks , such as variety , may be named. In bacteriology and virology , under standard bacterial nomenclature and virus nomenclature , there are recommendations but not strict requirements for recognizing other important infraspecific ranks. A taxonomist decides whether to recognize a subspecies or not
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Giant Panda
The GIANT PANDA ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca, literally "black and white cat-foot"; Chinese : 大熊猫; pinyin : dà xióng māo, literally "big bear cat"), also known as PANDA BEAR or simply PANDA, is a bear native to south central China
China
. It is easily recognized by the large, distinctive black patches around its eyes, over the ears, and across its round body. The name "giant panda" is sometimes used to distinguish it from the unrelated red panda . Though it belongs to the order Carnivora , the giant panda's diet is over 99% bamboo . Giant pandas in the wild will occasionally eat other grasses, wild tubers, or even meat in the form of birds, rodents, or carrion. In captivity, they may receive honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves , oranges, or bananas along with specially prepared food
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Phylogenetic
In biology , PHYLOGENETICS /ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, -lə-/ (Greek : φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon = tribe, clan, race + γενετικός - genetikós = origin, source, birth) is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms (e.g. species , or populations ). These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as DNA
DNA
sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits. The result of these analyses is a phylogeny (also known as a phylogenetic tree ) – a diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms. The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils, and represent the "end," or the present, in an evolutionary lineage. Phylogenetic analyses have become central to understanding biodiversity, evolution, ecology, and genomes
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Ursidae
Amphicynodontinae Hemicyoninae
Hemicyoninae
†Ursavinae † Agriotheriinae
Agriotheriinae
Ailuropodinae
Ailuropodinae
Tremarctinae
Tremarctinae
Ursinae
Ursinae
BEARS are carnivoran mammals of the family URSIDAE. They are classified as caniforms , or doglike carnivorans. Although only eight species of bears are extant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and partially in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
. Bears are found on the continents of North America
North America
, South America
South America
, Europe
Europe
, and Asia
Asia

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Inbreeding Depression
INBREEDING DEPRESSION is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding , or breeding of related individuals. Population
Population
biological fitness refers to an organism's ability to survive and perpetuate its genetic material. Inbreeding depression is often the result of a population bottleneck . In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression. Inbreeding
Inbreeding
depression seems to be present in most groups of organisms, but varies across mating systems. Hermaphroditic
Hermaphroditic
species often exhibit lower degrees of inbreeding depression than outcrossing species, as repeated generations of selfing is thought to purge deleterious alleles from populations
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Genus (biology)
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Procyonidae
†Angustictis Bassariscus †Probassariscus †Edaphocyon † Arctonasua Cyonasua †Amphinasua † Chapalmalania †Protoprocyon †Paranasua Procyon Nasua Nasuella †Bassaricynoides †Parapotos Bassaricyon Potos PROCYONIDAE is a New World family of the order Carnivora
Carnivora
. It includes the raccoons , coatis , kinkajous , olingos , olinguitos , ringtails and cacomistles . Procyonids inhabit a wide range of environments and are generally omnivorous
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Basal (phylogenetics)
In phylogenetics , BASAL is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram . Clade
Clade
C may be described as basal within a larger clade D if its root is directly linked (adjacent) to the root of D. If C is a basal clade within D that has the lowest taxonomic rank of all basal clades within D, C may be described as the basal taxon of that rank within D. While there must always be two or more equally basal clades sprouting from the root of every cladogram, those clades may differ widely in rank and/or species diversity. Greater diversification may be associated with more evolutionary innovation, but ancestral characters should not be imputed to the members of a less species-rich basal clade without additional evidence, as there can be no assurance such an assumption is valid. In general, clade A is more basal than clade B if B is a subgroup of the sister group of A
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Bear
Amphicynodontinae Hemicyoninae
Hemicyoninae
†Ursavinae † Agriotheriinae
Agriotheriinae
Ailuropodinae
Ailuropodinae
Tremarctinae
Tremarctinae
Ursinae
Ursinae
BEARS are carnivoran mammals of the family URSIDAE. They are classified as caniforms , or doglike carnivorans. Although only eight species of bears are extant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and partially in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
. Bears are found on the continents of North America
North America
, South America
South America
, Europe
Europe
, and Asia
Asia

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Temperate Broadleaf And Mixed Forests
TEMPERATE BROADLEAF AND MIXED FOREST is a temperate climate terrestrial biome , with broadleaf tree ecoregions , and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions. The term 'Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest' is used by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in global biogeography as one of the biome designations under which to organize ecoregions . CONTENTS * 1 Ecology * 2 Trees * 3 Climate * 4 Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest ecoregions * 4.1 Australasia * 4.2 Eurasia * 4.3 Americas * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ECOLOGYThe typical structure of these forests includes four layers. The uppermost layer is the canopy composed of tall mature trees ranging from 30 to 61 m (100 to 200 ft) high. Below the canopy is the three-layered, shade-tolerant understory that is roughly 9 to 15 m (30 to 50 ft) shorter than the canopy
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Endemic
ENDEMISM is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution . An alternative term for a species that is endemic is PRECINCTIVE, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Overview * 3 Threats to highly endemistic regions * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading ETYMOLOGYThe word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people". The term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism"
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