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Ramalina Siliquosa
Lichen
Lichen
siliquosus Huds. (1762) RAMALINA SILIQUOSA, also known as SEA IVORY, is a tufted and branched lichen which is widely found on siliceous rocks and stone walls on coastlands round the British Isles
British Isles
, occasionally slightly inland. It grows well above the high-tide mark but is still very tolerant of salt spray . The branches are flattened and grey, and bear disc-like spore -producing bodies. It forms part of the diet of sheep on Shetland
Shetland
and on the coast of North Wales
North Wales
. TAXONOMYThe species was originally described as Lichen
Lichen
siliquosus by the botanist William Hudson in 1762. It was transferred to the genus Ramalina by Annie Lorrain Smith in 1918. REFERENCES * ^ " Ramalina siliquosa (Huds.) A.L. Sm. 1918". MycoBank. International Mycological Association
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Sea Spray
SEA SPRAY refers to aerosol particles that are formed directly from the ocean , mostly by ejection into the atmosphere by bursting bubbles at the air-sea interface. CONTENTS * 1 Composition * 2 Effects * 3 Chemical resistance * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links COMPOSITION Sea salt aerosol (SSA) contains both inorganic salts and organic matter from the ocean. It is thought that the amount of organic matter transferred to SSA depends on microbiological activity. The organic matter in sea spray can contain dissolved organic matter or even microbes themselves, like bacteria and viruses. EFFECTSSalt spray is largely responsible for corrosion of metallic objects near the coastline, as the salts accelerate the corrosion process in the presence of abundant atmospheric oxygen and moisture. Salts do not dissolve in air directly, but are suspended as fine particulates , or dissolved in microscopic airborne water droplets
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Spore
In biology , a SPORE is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavorable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants , algae , fungi and protozoa . Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but also reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula. Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte . Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte , which eventually goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote which develops into a new sporophyte
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British Isles
The BRITISH ISLES are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe
Europe
that consist of the islands of Great Britain
Great Britain
, Ireland
Ireland
and over six thousand smaller isles. Situated in the North Atlantic , the islands have a total area of approximately 315,159 km2, and a combined population of just under 70 million. Two sovereign states are located on the islands: Ireland
Ireland
(which covers roughly five-sixths of the island with the same name) and the United Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
Ireland

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Coastland
A COASTLINE or a SEASHORE is the area where land meets the sea or ocean , or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake . A precise line that can be called a coastline cannot be determined due to the Coastline paradox
Coastline paradox
. The term coastal zone is a region where interaction of the sea and land processes occurs. Both the terms coast and coastal are often used to describe a geographic location or region; for example, New Zealand's West Coast
Coast
, or the East and West Coasts of the United States . Edinburgh for example is a city on the coast of Scotland. A pelagic coast refers to a coast which fronts the open ocean, as opposed to a more sheltered coast in a gulf or bay
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Stone Wall
STONE WALLS are a kind of masonry construction that has been used for thousands of years. The first stone walls were constructed by farmers and primitive people by piling loose field stones into a dry stone wall . Later, mortar and plaster were used, especially in the construction of city walls , castles , and other fortifications before and during the Middle Ages . These stone walls are spread throughout the world in different forms. One of the best example is the Cyclopean Wall in Rajgir, India. CONTENTS * 1 Materials * 2 Dimensions * 3 See also * 4 References MATERIALSStone walls are usually made of local materials varying from limestone and flint to granite and sandstone . However, the quality of building stone varies greatly, both in its endurance to weathering , resistance to water penetration and in its ability to be worked into regular shapes before construction
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Diet (nutrition)
In nutrition , DIET is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism . The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores , each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy. Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins , minerals , and food energy in the form of carbohydrates , proteins , and fats . Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the quality of life , health and longevity
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Sheep
The SHEEP ( Ovis
Ovis
aries) is a quadrupedal , ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock . Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates . Although the name "sheep" applies to many species in the genus Ovis
Ovis
, in everyday usage it almost always refers to Ovis
Ovis
aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are also the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe (/juː/ ), an intact male as a ram or occasionally a tup, a castrated male as a wether, and a younger sheep as a lamb. Sheep
Sheep
are most likely descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleece , meat (lamb, hogget or mutton) and milk . A sheep's wool is the most widely used animal fiber, and is usually harvested by shearing
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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The Marine Life Information Network
The MARINE LIFE INFORMATION NETWORK (MARLIN) is an information system for marine biodiversity for Great Britain and Ireland . MarLIN was established in 1998 by the Marine Biological Association together with the environmental protection agencies and academic institutions in Britain and Ireland. The MarLIN data access programme has now become the DASSH Marine Data Archive Cantre. DASSH is built on the existing extensive data and dissemination skills of the Marine Life Information Network (MarLIN), the library and information services of the National Marine Biological Library (NMBL) and the MBA's historical role in marine science. REFERENCES * ^ A B MarLIN website This oceanography article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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North Wales
NORTH WALES (Welsh : Gogledd Cymru) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales
Wales
. Retail, transport and educational infrastructure are centred on Wrexham
Wrexham
, Rhyl
Rhyl
, Colwyn Bay
Colwyn Bay
, Llandudno
Llandudno
and Bangor . It is bordered to the south by the counties of Ceredigion
Ceredigion
and Powys in Mid Wales
Wales
, and to the east by the counties of Shropshire
Shropshire
in the West Midlands and Cheshire
Cheshire
in North West England
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Shetland
SHETLAND /ˈʃɛtlənd/ , also called the SHETLAND ISLANDS, is a subarctic archipelago that lies northeast of the island of Great Britain and forms part of Scotland
Scotland
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. The islands lie some 80 km (50 mi) to the northeast of Orkney
Orkney
and 280 km (170 mi) southeast of the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
. They form part of the division between the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west and the North Sea
North Sea
to the east. The total area is 1,466 km2 (566 sq mi), and the population totalled 23,210 in 2011
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Rock (geology)
ROCK or STONE is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids . For example, granite , a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz , feldspar and biotite . The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere , is made of rock. Rock has been used by mankind throughout history. The minerals and metals found in rocks have been essential to human civilization. Three major groups of rocks are defined: igneous , sedimentary , and metamorphic . The scientific study of rocks is called petrology , which is an essential component of geology
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Ramalinaceae
The RAMALINACEAE are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales
Lecanorales
. The family name is synonymous with the name Bacidiaceae. Species of this family have a widespread distribution
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Lecanorales
The LECANORALES are an order of mostly lichen -forming fungi belonging to the class Lecanoromycetes
Lecanoromycetes
in the division Ascomycota
Ascomycota
. The order contains 26 families , 269 genera , and 5695 species
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