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Ramalina
RAMALINA is a genus of greenish fruticose lichens that grow in the form of flattened, strap-like branches. :189 Members of the genus are commonly called STRAP LICHENS :189 or CARTILAGE LICHENS. Apothecia are lecanorine . :189 Lichen
Lichen
spot tests on the cortex are K-, C-, KC+ dark yellow, and P-. :189 It is in the Ramalinaceae and in the suborder Lecanorineae . CONTENTS * 1 Distribution * 2 Species * 3 References * 4 External links DISTRIBUTIONThe genus has a widespread distribution and contains over 240 species
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Lecanorine
A lichen has LECANORINE fruiting body parts if they are shaped like a plate with a ring around them, and that ring is made of tissue similar to the main non-fruiting body part of the lichen. The name comes from the name of the lichen genus Lecanora , whose members have such apothecia. If a lichen has lecanorine apothecia, the lichen itself is sometimes described as being lecanorine. REFERENCES * ^ A B Field Guide to California Lichens, Stephen Sharnoff, Yale University Press, 2014, ISBN 978-0-300-19500-2 , page 279 This fungus -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA /ˈdʒɛnərə/ ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis
Felis
silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Index Fungorum
INDEX FUNGORUM is an international project to index all formal names (scientific names ) in the Fungus
Fungus
Kingdom . As of 2015 the project is based at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew , one of three partners along with Landcare Research and the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences . It is somewhat comparable to the International Plant Names Index (IPNI), in which the Royal Botanic Gardens is also involved. A difference is that where IPNI does not indicate correct names , the Index Fungorum does indicate the status of a name. In the returns from the search page a currently correct name is indicated in green, while others are in blue (a few, aberrant usages of names are indicated in red). All names are linked to pages giving the correct name, with lists of synonyms
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands
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Apothecia
An ASCOCARP, or ASCOMA (plural: ASCOMATA), is the fruiting body (sporocarp ) of an ascomycete phylum fungus. It consists of very tightly interwoven hyphae and may contain millions of asci , each of which typically contains four to eight ascospores . Ascocarps are most commonly bowl-shaped (apothecia) but may take a spherical (cleistothecia) or flask-like (perithecia) form. CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Apothecium * 3 Cleistothecium * 4 Gymnothecium * 5 Perithecium * 6 Pseudothecium * 7 See also * 8 References CLASSIFICATION TISSUE ARRANGEMENT. Peridium is indicated in pink. Note the cylindrical asci on the left types, and the globose asci on types. RELATIVE SIZES of various ascomatal types. Schematic diagrams of ascomatal types (left-right in each figure): apothecium, perithecium/ pseudothecium, cleistothecium/ gymnothecium. The ascocarp is classified according to its placement (in ways not fundamental to the basic taxonomy)
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Erik Acharius
ERIK ACHARIUS (10 October 1757, in Gävle
Gävle
– 14 August 1819) was a Swedish botanist who pioneered the taxonomy of lichens and is known as the "father of lichenology ". Acharius was born in Gävle
Gävle
, matriculated at Uppsala University
Uppsala University
in 1773 and was one of the last of the students of Linnaeus . He later worked for the Royal Academy of Sciences in Stockholm
Stockholm
and completed his medical studies at Lund University
Lund University
in 1782. He was appointed town medical officer in Vadstena
Vadstena
in 1785, district medical officer in Östergötland County
Östergötland County
in 1789, director of the new Vadstena
Vadstena
Hospital (which he had initiated) in 1795, and titular professor in 1803
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Fungi
Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota ) Ascomycota
Ascomycota
Pezizomycotina Saccharomycotina Taphrinomycotina Basidiomycota Agaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Subphyla incertae sedis Entomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina Zoopagomycotina A FUNGUS (/ˈfʌŋɡəs/ ; plural : FUNGI or FUNGUSES ) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds , as well as the more familiar mushrooms . These organisms are classified as a kingdom , FUNGI, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals
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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature , a TYPE SPECIES (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s). A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus . In botanical nomenclature , these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature , but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, and some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types. In bacteriology , a type species is assigned for each genus
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Lecanoromycetes
Subclass Acarosporomycetidae * Acarosporales Subclass Lecanoromycetidae * Lecanorales * Peltigerales * Teloschistales Subclass Ostropomycetidae * Agyriales * Baeomycetales * Ostropales * Pertusariales incertae sedis (not placed in a subclass) * Candelariales * Umbilicariales LECANOROMYCETES is the largest class of lichenized fungi . It belongs to the subphylum Pezizomycotina in the phylum Ascomycota
Ascomycota
. The asci (spore -bearing cells) of the Lecanoromycetes
Lecanoromycetes
most often release spores by rostrate dehiscence . REFERENCES * ^ A B Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, F; Hofstetter, V; Fraker, E; Grube, M; Hafellner, J; Reeb, V; Hodkinson, BP; et al. (2006)
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Ascomycota
ASCOMYCOTA is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi
Fungi
that, together with the Basidiomycota , form the subkingdom Dikarya . Its members are commonly known as the SAC FUNGI or ASCOMYCETES. They are the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species . The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus " (from Greek : ἀσκός (askos), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores , called ascospores , are formed
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Fruticose Lichen
A FRUTICOSE LICHEN is a form of lichen fungi that is characterized by a coral -like shrubby or bushy growth structure. It is composed of a thallus and a holdfast . The lichen is formed from a symbiotic relationship of a photobiont such as cyanobacteria and two mycobionts such as fungus. Fruticose lichen is characterized by an ascending, bushy or pendulous appearance, and composed of a complex vegetation structure. While lichen communities are mainly controlled by water and light, vegetative dispersal and filamentous growth in fruticose lichen is often associated with areas of low elevation. Fruticose lichens can endure high degrees of desiccation . They grow very slowly and will often occur in extreme habitats such as on tree barks, on rock surfaces and on soils in the Arctic and mountain regions
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