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Pioneer Venus Multiprobe
The PIONEER VENUS MULTIPROBE, also known as PIONEER VENUS 2 or PIONEER 13 was a spacecraft launched in 1978 to explore Venus
Venus
as part of NASA
NASA
's Pioneer program
Pioneer program
. CONTENTS * 1 Spacecraft * 2 Probes * 2.1 Large probe * 2.2 Small probes * 3 Launch * 4 Arrival at Venus
Venus
* 5 Scientific results * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links * 9 Science Magazine in year 1979 issue 4401 SPACECRAFT Pioneer Venus
Venus
Bus with probes attached The Pioneer Venus
Venus
Multiprobe bus was constructed by the Hughes Aircraft Company , built around the HS-507 bus . It was cylindrical in shape, with a diameter of 2.5 metres (8 ft 2 in) and a mass of 290 kilograms (640 lb)
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Solar Wind
The SOLAR WIND is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun
Sun
. This plasma consists of mostly electrons , protons and alpha particles with thermal energies between 1.5 and 10 keV . Embedded within the solar-wind plasma is the interplanetary magnetic field . The solar wind varies in density , temperature and speed over time and over solar latitude and longitude. Its particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy resulting from the high temperature of the corona , which in turn is a result of the coronal magnetic field. At a distance of more than a few solar radii from the Sun, the solar wind is supersonic and reaches speeds of 250 to 750 kilometers per second. The flow of the solar wind is no longer supersonic at the termination shock . The Voyager 2
Voyager 2
spacecraft crossed the shock more than five times between 30 August and 10 December 2007
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Gas Chromatograph
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition . Typical uses of GC include testing the purity of a particular substance, or separating the different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such components can also be determined). In some situations, GC may help in identifying a compound. In preparative chromatography , GC can be used to prepare pure compounds from a mixture. In gas chromatography, the mobile phase (or "moving phase") is a carrier gas , usually an inert gas such as helium or an unreactive gas such as nitrogen . Helium
Helium
remains the most commonly used carrier gas in about 90% of instruments although hydrogen is preferred for improved separations
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Nephelometer
A NEPHELOMETER is an instrument for measuring concentration of suspended particulates in a liquid or gas colloid . A nephelometer measures suspended particulates by employing a light beam (source beam) and a light detector set to one side (often 90°) of the source beam. Particle density is then a function of the light reflected into the detector from the particles. To some extent, how much light reflects for a given density of particles is dependent upon properties of the particles such as their shape, color , and reflectivity . Nephelometers are calibrated to a known particulate, then use environmental factors (k-factors) to compensate lighter or darker colored dusts accordingly. K-factor is determined by the user by running the nephelometer next to an air sampling pump and comparing results. There is a wide variety of research-grade nephelometers on the market as well as open source varieties
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Radiant Flux
In radiometry , RADIANT FLUX or RADIANT POWER is the radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time, and SPECTRAL FLUX or SPECTRAL POWER is the radiant flux per unit frequency or wavelength , depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength. The SI unit of radiant flux is the watt (W), that is the joule per second (J/s) in SI base units, while that of spectral flux in frequency is the watt per hertz (W/Hz) and that of spectral flux in wavelength is the watt per metre (W/m)—commonly the watt per nanometre (W/nm)
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Spectrometer
A SPECTROMETER ( /spɛkˈtrɒmɪtər/ ) is a scientific instrument originally used to split light into an array of separate colors, called a spectrum . Spectrometers were developed in early studies of physics , astronomy , and chemistry . The capability of spectroscopy to determine chemical composition drove its advancement and continues to be one of its primary uses. Spectrometers are used in astronomy to analyze the chemical composition of stars and planets , and spectrometers gather data on the origin of the universe . The concept of a spectrometer now encompasses instruments that do not examine light. Spectrometers separate particles , atoms , and molecules by their mass , momentum , or energy . These types of spectrometers are used in chemical analysis and particle physics
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Interplanetary Space
OUTER SPACE, or just SPACE, is the void that exists between celestial bodies , including Earth
Earth
. It is not completely empty, but consists of a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium as well as electromagnetic radiation , magnetic fields , neutrinos , dust , and cosmic rays . The baseline temperature , as set by the background radiation from the Big Bang
Big Bang
, is 2.7 kelvins (K) (−270.45 °C; −454.81 °F). Plasma with a number density of less than one hydrogen atom per cubic metre and a temperature of millions of kelvins in the space between galaxies accounts for most of the baryonic (ordinary) matter in outer space; local concentrations have condensed into stars and galaxies
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Ion
An ION (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/ ) is a an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons ). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds , such as salts . Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization . Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions . If they consist of two or more atoms, then they are called molecular ions or polyatomic ions . In the case of physical ionization of a medium such as a gas, what are known as "ion pairs" are created by ion impact, and each pair consists of a free electron and a positive ion
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Mass Spectrometer
MASS SPECTROMETRY (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio . In simpler terms, a mass spectrum measures the masses within a sample. Mass
Mass
spectrometry is used in many different fields and is applied to pure samples as well as complex mixtures. A mass spectrum is a plot of the ion signal as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio . These spectra are used to determine the elemental or isotopic signature of a sample, the masses of particles and of molecules , and to elucidate the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and other chemical compounds . In a typical MS procedure, a sample, which may be solid, liquid, or gas, is ionized, for example by bombarding it with electrons
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Solar Radiation
This article NEEDS ATTENTION FROM AN EXPERT ON THE SUBJECT. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. Consider associating this request with a WikiProject . (July 2015)SOLAR IRRADIANCE is the power per unit area received from the Sun
Sun
in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument. Irradiance may be measured in space or at the Earth\'s surface after atmospheric absorption and scattering . It is measured perpendicular to the incoming sunlight. TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE (TSI), is a measure of the solar power over all wavelengths per unit area incident on the Earth's upper atmosphere . The solar constant is a conventional measure of mean TSI at a distance of one astronomical Unit (AU). Irradiance is a function of distance from the Sun, the solar cycle , and cross-cycle changes
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Cloud
In meteorology , a CLOUD is an aerosol comprising a visible mass of minute liquid droplets , frozen crystals , or particles suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of a planetary body. The droplets and crystals may be made of water or various chemicals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point , or when it gains sufficient moisture (usually in the form of water vapor ) from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature. They are seen in the Earth's homosphere (which includes the troposphere , stratosphere , and mesosphere ). NEPHOLOGY is the science of clouds which is undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology . There are two methods of naming clouds in their respective layers of the atmosphere; Latin
Latin
and common
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Argon
ARGON is a chemical element with symbol AR and atomic number 18. It is in group 18 of the periodic table and is a noble gas . Argon
Argon
is the third-most abundant gas in the Earth\'s atmosphere , at 0.934% (9340 ppmv ). It is more than twice as abundant as water vapor (which averages about 4000 ppmv, but varies greatly), 23 times as abundant as carbon dioxide (400 ppmv), and more than 500 times as abundant as neon (18 ppmv). Argon
Argon
is the most abundant noble gas in Earth's crust, comprising 0.00015% of the crust. Nearly all of the argon in Earth's atmosphere is radiogenic argon-40 , derived from the decay of potassium-40 in the Earth's crust. In the universe, argon-36 is by far the most common argon isotope , being the preferred argon isotope produced by stellar nucleosynthesis in supernovas
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAY-stor ; short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals , it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals. As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR; most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Content * 3 Access * 3.1 Aaron Swartz incident * 3.2 Limitations * 3.3 Increasing public access * 4 Use * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORY William G. Bowen , president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, founded JSTOR
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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