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Phraortes
PHRAORTES (from Old Persian : 𐎳𐎼𐎺𐎼𐎫𐎡𐏁, Fravartiš, or Frâda via Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Φραόρτης; died c. 653 BC), son of Deioces , was the second king of the Median Empire
Median Empire
. Like his father Deioces, Phraortes started wars against Assyria
Assyria
, but was defeated and killed by Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
, the king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (668 – c. 627 BC). All information about him is from Herodotus
Herodotus
. According to him (1.102), Phraortes was the son of Deioces and united all Median tribes into a single state. He also subjugated the Persians and Parthians while still a vassal of the Assyrian kings Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
and Ashurbanipal , and began to conquer other nations of Ancient Iran
Ancient Iran

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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Rhagae
1st row: Left to right: Tughrul Tower
Tughrul Tower
--- Bahram fire temple
Bahram fire temple
2nd row: Rey Castle ---
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Ancient Iran
The HISTORY OF IRAN, commonly also known as PERSIA in the Western world , is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran , comprising the area from Anatolia
Anatolia
, the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
, and Egypt
Egypt
in the west to the borders of Ancient India
Ancient India
and the Syr Darya
Syr Darya
in the east, and from the Caucasus
Caucasus
and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and the Gulf of Oman in the south. Iran
Iran
is home to one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical and urban settlements dating back to 7000 BC
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Encyclopædia Iranica
ENCYCLOPæDIA IRANICA is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language
English language
encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times. SCOPEThe Encyclopædia Iranica is dedicated to the study of Iranian civilization in the wider Middle East
Middle East
, the Caucasus
Caucasus
, Europe, Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
. The academic reference work will eventually cover all aspects of Iranian history and culture as well as all Iranian languages
Iranian languages
and literatures, facilitating the whole range of Iranian studies research from archeology to political sciences
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Old Persian Language
Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
------------------------- OLD PERSIAN (c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian cuneiform ------------------------- MIDDLE PERSIAN (c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scripts Manichaean alphabet Avestan alphabet ------------------------- MODERN PERSIAN (from 800) Persian alphabet • Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet The OLD PERSIAN LANGUAGE is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages
Iranian languages
(the other being Avestan ). Old Persian appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets , and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE)
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Achaemenid Empire
The ACHAEMENID EMPIRE (/əˈkiːmənɪd/ ; c. 550–330 BC), also called the FIRST PERSIAN EMPIRE, was an empire based in Western Asia , founded by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans
Balkans
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was one of the largest empires in history , spanning 5.5 million square kilometers, and was larger than any previous empire in history . It is equally notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings ), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system , the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires
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Iranian Language
The IRANIAN LANGUAGES or IRANIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages , which in turn are a branch of the Indo-European language family . The speakers of Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are known as Iranian peoples . Historical Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are grouped in three stages: Old Iranian (until 400 BC), Middle Iranian (400 BC – 900 AD), and New Iranian (since 900 AD). Of the Old Iranian languages, the better understood and recorded ones are Old Persian
Old Persian
(a language of Achaemenid Iran) and Avestan
Avestan
(the language of the Avesta
Avesta
). Middle Iranian languages
Iranian languages
included Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(a language of Sassanid Iran), Parthian , and Bactrian
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Esarhaddon
ESARHADDON (Akkadian : Aššur-aḥa-iddina "Ashur has given a brother"; Hebrew : אֵסַר חַדֹּן‎‎; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ασαρχαδδων; Latin : Asor Haddan ) was a king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
who reigned 681 – 669 BC. He was the youngest son of Sennacherib
Sennacherib
and the West Semitic queen Naqi\'a (Zakitu), Sennacherib's second wife. CONTENTS * 1 Rise to power * 2 Military campaigns * 3 Death * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links RISE TO POWER Victory stele. When, despite being the youngest son, Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
was named successor by his father, his elder brothers tried to discredit him
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Iranian Calendar
The IRANIAN CALENDARS (Persian : گاه‌شماری ایرانی‎‎ Gâhshomâriye Irâni) are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran
Iran
(Persia). One of the longest chronological records in human history, the Iranian calendar has been modified time and again during its history to suit administrative, climatic, and religious purposes. The modern Iranian calendar is now the official calendar in Iran. It begins at the midnight nearest to the instant of the vernal equinox as determined by astronomical calculations for the Iran
Iran
Standard Time meridian (52.5°E or GMT+3.5h). It is, therefore, an observation-based calendar, unlike the Gregorian , which is rule-based. The Iranian year usually begins within a day of 21 March of the Gregorian calendar. To find the corresponding year of the Gregorian calendar, add 621 or 622 (depending on the time of the year) to a solar hijri year
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Assyria
ASSYRIA was a major Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant
Levant
. It existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BC in the form of the Assur city-state, until its collapse between 612 BC and 609 BC, spanning the Early to Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
through to the late Iron Age
Iron Age

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Nahavand
NAHAVAND (Persian : نهاوند‎‎, also Romanized as NAHāVAND and NEHāVEND) is a city in and capital of Nahavand County , Hamadan Province , Iran
Iran
. At the 2006 census, its population was 72,218, in 19,419 families. It is located south of Hamadan
Hamadan
, east of Malayer
Malayer
and northwest of Borujerd
Borujerd
. Nahavand
Nahavand
is one of the oldest existing cities in Iran
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Ancient Greek
The ANCIENT GREEK language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
( Koine Greek
Koine Greek
, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Ashurbanipal
ASHURBANIPAL (Akkadian : Aššur-bāni-apli; Syriac : ܐܫܘܪ ܒܢܐ ܐܦܠܐ‎; 'Ashur is the creator of an heir'), also spelled ASSURBANIPAL or ASHSHURBANIPAL, was King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 668 BC to c. 627 BC, the son of Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
and the last strong ruler of the empire, which is usually dated between 934 and 609 BC. He is famed for amassing a significant collection of cuneiform documents for his royal palace at Nineveh
Nineveh
. This collection, known as the Library of Ashurbanipal
Library of Ashurbanipal
, now in the British Museum
British Museum
, which also holds the famous Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal set of Assyrian palace reliefs . In the Hebrew Bible he is called ASENAPPAR (Hebrew : אָסְנַפַּר‬, Modern 'Asnapar, Tiberian 'Āsenapar - Ezra 4:10)
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Eclipse Of Thales
The ECLIPSE OF THALES was a solar eclipse that was, according to The Histories of Herodotus , accurately predicted by the Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus . If Herodotus's account is accurate, this eclipse is the earliest recorded as being known in advance of its occurrence. Many historians believe that the predicted eclipse was the solar eclipse of May 28, 585 BC. How exactly Thales predicted the eclipse remains uncertain; some historians claim the eclipse was never predicted at all. Others have argued for different dates. According to Herodotus, the appearance of the eclipse was interpreted as an omen, and interrupted a battle in a long-standing war between the Medes and the Lydians . The fighting immediately stopped, and they agreed to a truce
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