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Pharmacokinetics
PHARMACOKINETICS (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics ), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism. The substances of interest include any chemical xenobiotic such as: pharmaceutical drugs , pesticides , food additives , cosmetics , etc. It attempts to analyze chemical metabolism and to discover the fate of a chemical from the moment that it is administered up to the point at which it is completely eliminated from the body . Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics
is the study of how an organism affects a drug, whereas pharmacodynamics (PD) is the study of how the drug affects the organism. Both together influence dosing , benefit, and adverse effects , as seen in PK/PD models
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Expression (mathematics)
In mathematics , an EXPRESSION or MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION is a finite combination of symbols that is well-formed according to rules that depend on the context. Mathematical symbols can designate numbers (constants ), variables , operations , functions , brackets , punctuation, and grouping to help determine order of operations , and other aspects of logical syntax
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Graph Of A Function
In mathematics, the GRAPH of a function f is the collection of all ordered pairs (x, f(x)). If the function input x is a scalar , the graph is a two-dimensional graph , and for a continuous function is a curve . If the function input x is an ordered pair (x1, x2) of real numbers, the graph is the collection of all ordered triples (x1, x2, f(x1, x2)), and for a continuous function is a surface . Informally, if x is a real number and f is a real function , graph may mean the graphical representation of this collection, in the form of a line chart : a curve on a Cartesian plane , together with Cartesian axes, etc. Graphing on a Cartesian plane is sometimes referred to as curve sketching. The graph of a function on real numbers may be mapped directly to the graphic representation of the function
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Cell Membrane
The CELL MEMBRANE (also known as the PLASMA MEMBRANE or CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment . The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. It consists of the lipid bilayer with embedded proteins . Cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion , ion conductivity and cell signalling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall , glycocalyx , and intracellular cytoskeleton . Cell membranes can be artificially reassembled
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Ancient Greek
The ANCIENT GREEK language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
( Koine Greek
Koine Greek
, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Pharmaceutical Formulation
PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION, in pharmaceutics , is the process in which different chemical substances, including the active drug , are combined to produce a final medicinal product . The word formulation is often used in a way that includes dosage form . CONTENTS* 1 Stages and timeline * 1.1 Container closure * 2 Formulation types * 3 Enteral formulations * 3.1 Tablet * 3.2 Capsule * 3.3 Sustained release * 4 Parenteral
Parenteral
formulations * 4.1 Liquid * 4.2 Lyophilized * 5 Topical formulations * 5.1 Cutaneous * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links STAGES AND TIMELINEFormulation studies involve developing a preparation of the drug which is both stable and acceptable to the patient. For orally administered drugs, this usually involves incorporating the drug into a tablet or a capsule
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Drugs
A DRUG is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled , injected , smoked , consumed , absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body. In pharmacology , a pharmaceutical drug , also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat , cure , prevent , or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being . Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants , but more recently also by organic synthesis . Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders . Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classes —groups of related drugs that have similar chemical structures , the same mechanism of action (binding to the same biological target ), a related mode of action , and that are used to treat the same disease
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Molecule
A MOLECULE is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds . Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge . However, in quantum physics , organic chemistry , and biochemistry , the term molecule is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions . In the kinetic theory of gases , the term molecule is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are in fact monoatomic molecules. A molecule may be homonuclear , that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element , as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear , a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O). Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent interactions , such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds , are generally not considered single molecules
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Acid Dissociation Constant
An ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANT, Ka, (also known as ACIDITY CONSTANT, or ACID-IONIZATION CONSTANT) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution . It is the equilibrium constant for a chemical reaction known as dissociation in the context of acid–base reactions . In aqueous solution, the equilibrium of acid dissociation can be written symbolically as: H A + H 2 O A + H 3 O + {displaystyle mathrm {HA+H_{2}Orightleftharpoons A^{-}+H_{3}O^{+}} } where HA is a generic acid that dissociates into A−, known as the conjugate base of the acid and a hydrogen ion which combines with a water molecule to make a hydronium ion. In the example shown in the figure, HA represents acetic acid , and A− represents the acetate ion, the conjugate base. The chemical species HA, A− and H3O+ are said to be in equilibrium when their concentrations do not change with the passing of time
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INTEGRAL
In mathematics , an INTEGRAL assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data. Integration is one of the two main operations of calculus , with its inverse, differentiation , being the other. Given a function f of a real variable x and an interval of the real line , the DEFINITE INTEGRAL a b f ( x ) d x {displaystyle int _{a}^{b}!f(x),dx} is defined informally as the signed area of the region in the xy-plane that is bounded by the graph of f, the x-axis and the vertical lines x = a and x = b. The area above the x-axis adds to the total and that below the x-axis subtracts from the total. Roughly speaking, the operation of integration is the reverse of differentiation. For this reason, the term integral may also refer to the related notion of the antiderivative , a function F whose derivative is the given function f
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Dynamic Equilibrium
In chemistry , a DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM exists once a reversible reaction ceases to change its ratio of reactants/products, but substances move between the chemicals at an equal rate, meaning there is no net change. It is a particular example of a system in a steady state . In thermodynamics a closed system is in thermodynamic equilibrium when reactions occur at such rates that the composition of the mixture does not change with time. Reactions do in fact occur, sometimes vigorously, but to such an extent that changes in composition cannot be observed. Equilibrium constants can be expressed in terms of the rate constants for elementary reactions. CONTENTS * 1 Examples * 2 Relationship between equilibrium and rate constants * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links EXAMPLESIn a new bottle of soda the concentration of carbon dioxide in the liquid phase has a particular value
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Blood Plasma
BLOOD PLASMA is a straw coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension ; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells. It makes up about 55% of the body's total blood volume. It is the intravascular fluid part of extracellular fluid (all body fluid outside of cells). It is mostly water (up to 95% by volume), and contains dissolved proteins (6–8%) (i.e.—serum albumins , globulins , and fibrinogen ), glucose , clotting factors , electrolytes (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3−, Cl−, etc.), hormones , carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation) and oxygen . Plasma also serves as the protein reserve of the human body. It plays a vital role in an intravascular osmotic effect that keeps electrolytes in balanced form and protects the body from infection and other blood disorders
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Concentration
In chemistry , CONCENTRATION is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture. Several types of mathematical description can be distinguished: mass concentration , molar concentration , number concentration , and volume concentration . The term concentration can be applied to any kind of chemical mixture, but most frequently it refers to solutes and solvents in solutions . The molar (amount) concentration has variants such as normal concentration and osmotic concentration
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Solubility
capacity of a specific solvent to hold a specific solute in solution in specified conditions "Soluble" redirects here. For the algebraic object called a "soluble group", see Solvable group . SOLUBILITY is the property of a solid , liquid , or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent . The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. The solubility of a substance is an entirely different property from the rate of solution , which is how fast it dissolves. Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture
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Veterinary Medicine
VETERINARY MEDICINE is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals . The scope of veterinary medicine is wide, covering all animal species, both domesticated and wild , with a wide range of conditions which can affect different species. Veterinary medicine
Veterinary medicine
is widely practiced, both with and without professional supervision. Professional care is most often led by a veterinary physician (also known as a vet, veterinary surgeon or veterinarian), but also by paraveterinary workers such as veterinary nurses or technicians. This can be augmented by other paraprofessionals with specific specialisms such as animal physiotherapy or dentistry , and species relevant roles such as farriers
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Glucuronosyltransferase
URIDINE 5\'-DIPHOSPHO-GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE (UDP -glucuronosyltransferase, UGT) is a cytosolic glycosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.17) that catalyzes the transfer of the glucuronic acid component of UDP-glucuronic acid to a small hydrophobic molecule. This is a glucuronidation reaction. Alternative names: * glucuronyltransferase * UDP-glucuronyl transferase * UDP-GTCONTENTS * 1 Function * 2 Diseases * 3 Genes * 4 References * 5 External links FUNCTION Main article: Glucuronidation Glucuronosyltransferases are responsible for the process of glucuronidation , a major part of phase II metabolism . Arguably the most important of the Phase II (conjugative) enzymes, UGTs have been the subject of increasing scientific inquiry since the mid-to-late 1990s
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