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Oyster
OYSTER is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats. In some species the valves are highly calcified, and many are somewhat irregular in shape. Many, but not all, oysters are in the superfamily Ostreoidea . Some kinds of oysters are commonly consumed by humans, cooked or raw, and are regarded as a delicacy . Some kinds of pearl oysters are harvested for the pearl produced within the mantle . Windowpane oysters are harvested for their translucent shells, which are used to make various kinds of decorative objects
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Old French
OLD FRENCH (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France
France
from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d\'oïl , contrasting with the langue d\'oc or Occitan language
Occitan language
in the south of France. The mid-14th century is taken as the transitional period to Middle French , the language of the French Renaissance
French Renaissance
, specifically based on the dialect of the Île-de-France
Île-de-France
region
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Mantle (mollusc)
The MANTLE (also known by the Latin word PALLIUM meaning mantle, robe or cloak, adjective PALLIAL) is a significant part of the anatomy of molluscs : it is the dorsal body wall which covers the visceral mass and usually protrudes in the form of flaps well beyond the visceral mass itself. In many species of molluscs the epidermis of the mantle secretes calcium carbonate and conchiolin , and creates a shell . In sea slugs there is a progressive loss of the shell and the mantle becomes the dorsal surface of the animal. The words mantle and pallium both originally meant cloak or cape, see mantle (vesture) . This anatomical structure in molluscs often resembles a cloak because in many groups the edges of the mantle, usually referred to as the mantle margin, extend far beyond the main part of the body, forming flaps, double-layered structures which have been adapted for many different uses, including for example, the siphon
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Pteriidae
See text PTERIIDAE, also called the FEATHER OYSTERS, is a family of medium-sized to large saltwater clams. They are pearl oysters, marine bivalve molluscs in the order Pterioida . Some of the species in this family are important economically as the source of saltwater pearls . GENERAGenera in the family Pteriidae
Pteriidae
include: * Crenatula Lamarck, 1803 * Electroma Stoliczka, 1871 * Isognomon Lightfoot, 1786 - tree oysters * Pinctada Röding, 1798 * Pteria Scopoli, 1777 - winged oysters * Vulsella Röding, 1798REFERENCES * ^ Pteriidae
Pteriidae
Gray, 1847. Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 9 July 2010. * "Pteriidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Integrated Taxonomic Information System
. * Powell A. W. B
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Brackish Water
BRACKISH WATER or BRINY WATER is water that has more salinity than fresh water , but not as much as seawater . It may result from mixing of seawater with fresh water, as in estuaries , or it may occur in brackish fossil aquifers. The word comes from the Middle Dutch root "brak". Certain human activities can produce brackish water, in particular civil engineering projects such as dikes and the flooding of coastal marshland to produce brackish water pools for freshwater prawn farming. Brackish water
Brackish water
is also the primary waste product of the salinity gradient power process. Because brackish water is hostile to the growth of most terrestrial plant species, without appropriate management it is damaging to the environment (see article on shrimp farms ). Technically, brackish water contains between 0.5 and 30 grams of salt per litre—more often expressed as 0.5 to 30 parts per thousand (‰), which is a specific gravity of between 1.005 and 1.010
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Latinisation (literature)
LATINISATION (also spelled LATINIZATION : see spelling differences ) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style . It is commonly found with historical personal names , with toponyms , and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation , which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic
Cyrillic
). This was often done in the classical era for much the same reason as English-speaking cultures produce English versions of some foreign names. In the case of personal names in the post-Roman era this may be done to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent
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Ton
The TON is a unit of measure . It has a long history and has acquired a number of meanings and uses over the years. It is used principally as a unit of mass. Its original use as a measurement of volume has continued in the capacity of cargo ships and in terms such as the freight ton. It can also be used as a measure of energy, for truck classification, or as a colloquial term. It is derived from the tun , the term applied to a cask of the largest size. This could contain a volume between 175 and 213 imperial gallons (210 and 256 US gal ), which could weigh around 2,000 pounds (910 kg ) and occupy some 60 cubic feet (1.7 m3 ) of space. The origin for the word ton comes from ancient Greek θύννος (thúnnos, tuna fish). In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
the ton is defined as 2,240 avoirdupois pounds (1,016 kg). This is equivalent to 20 hundredweight , a hundredweight being eight stone , and a stone weighing 14 pounds
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Nacre
NACRE (/ˈneɪkər/ NAY-kər also /ˈnækrə/ NAK-rə ), also known as MOTHER OF PEARL, is an organic-inorganic composite material produced by some molluscs as an inner shell layer; it also makes up the outer coating of pearls . It is strong, resilient, and iridescent . Nacre
Nacre
is found in some of the most ancient lineages of bivalves , gastropods , and cephalopods . However, the inner layer in the great majority of mollusc shells is porcellaneous , not nacreous, and this usually results in a non-iridescent shine, or more rarely in non-nacreous iridescence such as flame structure as is found in conch pearls. The outer layer of pearls and the inside layer of pearl oyster and freshwater pearl mussel shells are made of nacre
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Pigment
A PIGMENT is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength -selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence , phosphorescence , and other forms of luminescence , in which a material emits light. Many materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them ideal for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures. For industrial applications, as well as in the arts, permanence and stability are desirable properties. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive . Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some eventually blacken. Pigments are used for coloring paint , ink , plastic , fabric , cosmetics , food , and other materials
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Marine (ocean)
MARINE is an adjective for things relating to the sea or ocean , such as marine biology , marine ecology and marine geology . As a noun it can be a term for a kind of navy , those enlisted in such a navy, or members of troops attached to a navy, e.g. the United States Marine Corps or the UK Royal Marines . In scientific contexts, the term almost always refers exclusively to saltwater environments, although in other contexts (e.g., engineering ) it may refer to any (usually navigable) body of water
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Gill
A GILL (/ɡɪl/ ( listen )) is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide . The gills of some species, such as hermit crabs , have adapted to allow respiration on land provided they are kept moist. The microscopic structure of a gill presents a large surface area to the external environment. BRANCHIA (pl. branchiae) is the zoologists' name for gills. With the exception of some aquatic insects , the filaments and lamellae (folds) contain blood or coelomic fluid , from which gases are exchanged through the thin walls. The blood carries oxygen to other parts of the body. Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
passes from the blood through the thin gill tissue into the water. Gills or gill-like organs, located in different parts of the body, are found in various groups of aquatic animals, including mollusks , crustaceans , insects, fish, and amphibians
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Common Name
In biology , a COMMON NAME of a taxon or organism (also known as a VERNACULAR NAME, English name, colloquial name, trivial name , trivial epithet, country name, popular name, or farmer's name) is a name that is based on the normal language of everyday life; this kind of name is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism, which is Latinized. A common name is sometimes frequently used, but that is by no means always the case. Sometimes common names are created by authorities on one particular subject, in an attempt to make it possible for members of the general public (including such interested parties as fishermen, farmers, etc.) to be able to refer to one particular species of organism without needing to be able to memorise or pronounce the Latinized scientific name
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France
FRANCE (French: ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (French: République française, pronounced ), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe
Europe
, as well as several overseas regions and territories . The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea
North Sea
, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America
South America
and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Mucus
MUCUS (/mjuːkəs/ MYOO-kəss ) is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes . It is typically produced from cells found in mucous glands, although it may also originate from mixed glands, which contain both serous and mucous cells. It is a viscous colloid containing inorganic salts , antiseptic enzymes (such as lysozymes ), immunoglobulins , and glycoproteins such as lactoferrin and mucins , which are produced by goblet cells in the mucous membranes and submucosal glands . Mucus serves to protect epithelial cells (that line the tubes) in the respiratory , gastrointestinal , urogenital , visual, and auditory systems; the epidermis in amphibians ; and the gills in fish , against infectious agents such as fungi , bacteria and viruses . The average human nose produces about a liter of mucus per day. Most of the mucus produced is in the gastrointestinal tract
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