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Ophthalmology
OPHTHALMOLOGY (/ˌɒfθɑːlˈmɑːlədʒi/ or /ˌɒpθɑːlˈmɒlədʒi/ ) is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit. An OPHTHALMOLOGIST is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems. Their credentials include an M.D. or D.O. degree, and an additional four years of residency. Ophthalmologists are allowed to medically treat eye disease, implement laser therapy, and perform incisional surgery when warranted
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Rufus Of Ephesus
RUFUS OF EPHESUS (Greek : Ῥοῦφος ὁ Ἐφέσιος, fl. late 1st century AD) was a Greek physician and author who wrote treatises on dietetics , pathology , anatomy , and patient care. He was to some extent a follower of Hippocrates
Hippocrates
, although he at times criticized or departed from that author's teachings. His writings dealt with subjects often neglected by other authors, such as the treatment of slaves and the elderly. Some of his works survive to this day. He was particularly influential in the East, and some of his works survive only in Arabic . His teachings emphasized the importance of anatomy, and sought pragmatic approaches to diagnosis and treatment. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 Notes * 4 References LIFELittle is known about Rufus's life
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Posterior Chamber Of Eyeball
The POSTERIOR CHAMBER is a narrow space behind the peripheral part of the iris , and in front of the suspensory ligament of the lens and the ciliary processes . The Posterior Chamber consists of small space directly posterior to the iris but anterior to the lens. The posterior chamber is part of the anterior segment and should not be confused with the vitreous chamber (in the posterior segment ). CONTENTS * 1 Additional images * 2 References * 3 See also * 4 External links ADDITIONAL IMAGES* The upper half of a sagittal section through the front of the eyeball (posterior chamber of eye labeled at center right) REFERENCESThis article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray\'s Anatomy (1918) * ^ www.arkeo.com, produced by Arkeo, Inc.,. "Visual System - Segments of the Eye". teaching.pharmacy.umn.edu
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Vesalius
ANDREAS VESALIUS (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish / Netherlandish
Netherlandish
anatomist , physician , and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy , De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body). Vesalius
Vesalius
is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy . He was born in Brussels
Brussels
, which though now part of Belgium
Belgium
, was then part of the Habsburg Netherlands
Habsburg Netherlands
. He was professor at the University of Padua
University of Padua
and later became Imperial physician at the court of Emperor Charles V . Andreas Vesalius
Vesalius
is the Latinized form of the Dutch ANDRIES VAN WESEL. It was a common practice among European scholars in his time to Latinize their names
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Aristotle
ARISTOTLE (/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/ ; Greek : Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced ; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira , Chalkidice , on the northern periphery of Classical Greece
Greece
. Along with Plato, Aristotle
Aristotle
is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", which from his teachings inherited almost its entire lexicon, including problems and methods of inquiry, so influencing almost any form of knowledge known to the modern world. His father, Nicomachus , died when Aristotle
Aristotle
was a child, whereafter Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato\'s Academy in Athens
Athens
and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC)
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Alcamaeon
ALCMAEON OF CROTON (in Magna Graecia ) (/ælkˈmiːən/ ; Greek : Ἀλκμαίων ὁ Κροτωνιάτης, Alkmaiōn, gen.: Ἀλκμαίωνος; 5th century BCE) was one of the most eminent natural philosophers and medical theorists of antiquity. His father's name was Pirithous. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 Pythagorean * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYHe is said by some to have been a pupil of Pythagoras
Pythagoras
, and he is believed to have been born c. 510 BCE. Although he wrote primarily about medical topics, there is some suggestion that he was a philosopher of science, not a physician. He also practiced astrology and meteorology . Nothing more is known of the events of his life
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Leeuwenhoek
ANTONIE PHILIPS VAN LEEUWENHOEK (/ˈleɪvənhʊk/ , Dutch: ( listen ); 24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman , scientist , and one of the notable representatives of the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology . A largely self-taught man in science, he is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology
Microbiology
", and often considered to be the first acknowledged microscopist and microbiologist . Van Leeuwenhoek is best known for his pioneering work in the field of microscopy and for his contributions toward the establishment of microbiology as a scientific discipline . Raised in Delft
Delft
, in the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
, van Leeuwenhoek worked as a draper in his youth and founded his own shop in 1654. He became well recognized in municipal politics and eventually, developed an interest in lensmaking
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Empiricism
In philosophy, EMPIRICISM is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience . It is one of several views of epistemology , the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism . Empiricism
Empiricism
emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, over the idea of innate ideas or traditions ; empiricists may argue however that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences. Empiricism
Empiricism
in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments . It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition , or revelation
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Tear Duct
The NASOLACRIMAL DUCT (sometimes called the TEAR DUCT) carries tears from the lacrimal sac of the eye into the nasal cavity . The duct begins in the eye socket between the maxillary and lacrimal bones , from where it passes downwards and backwards. The opening of the nasolacrimal duct into the inferior nasal meatus of the nasal cavity is partially covered by a mucosal fold (valve of Hasner or plica lacrimalis). Excess tears flow through nasolacrimal duct which drains into the inferior nasal meatus. This is the reason the nose starts to run when a person is crying or has watery eyes from an allergy, and why one can sometimes taste eye drops. For the same reason when applying some eye drops it is often advised to close the nasolacrimal duct by pressing it with a finger to prevent the medicine from escaping the eye and having unwanted side effects elsewhere in the body
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Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus
GOTTFRIED REINHOLD TREVIRANUS (4 February 1776, Bremen
Bremen
– 16 February 1837, Bremen) was a German physician , naturalist , proto-evolutionary biologist , and . His younger brother, Ludolph Christian Treviranus (1779–1864), was also a naturalist and botanist, and also a notable taxonomist and zoologist . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Works * 1.1.1 Selected writings * 2 References * 3 External links HISTORYTreviranus was born in Bremen
Bremen
and studied medicine at the University of Göttingen , where he took his doctor's degree in 1796. During the following year, he was appointed professor of medicine and mathematics at the Bremen
Bremen
lyceum. In 1816, he was elected a corresponding member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

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Microscope
A MICROSCOPE (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. Microscopy
Microscopy
is the science of investigating small objects and structures using such an instrument. Microscopic means invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope. There are many types of microscopes, and they may be grouped in different ways. One way is to describe the way the instruments interact with a sample to create images, either by sending a beam of light or electrons to a sample in its optical path, or by scanning across, and a short distance from, the surface of a sample using a probe. The most common microscope (and the first to be invented) is the optical microscope , which uses light to pass through a sample to produce an image
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Frederik Ruysch
FREDERIK RUYSCH (March 28, 1638 – February 22, 1731) was a Dutch botanist and anatomist , remembered for his developments in anatomical preservation and the creation of dioramas or scenes incorporating human parts. Ruysch came to recognition with his proof of valves in the lymphatic system , the Vomeronasal organ
Vomeronasal organ
in snakes, and arteria centralis oculi (the central artery of the eye). He was also the first to describe the disease that is today known as Hirschsprung\'s disease . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 Sources * 4 External links LIFE Frederik Ruysch
Frederik Ruysch
was born in The Hague
The Hague
as the son of a government functionary and started as a pupil of druggist
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Francois Pourfour Du Petit
FRANçOIS (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a French masculine given name and surname, equivalent to the English name Francis . PEOPLE WITH THE GIVEN NAME * Francis I of France
Francis I of France
, King of France
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Malpighi
MARCELLO MALPIGHI (10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician , who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology". Malpighi's name bears to several physiological features related to the biological excretory system , such as the Malpighian corpuscles and Malpighian pyramids of the kidneys and the Malpighian tubule system of insects . The splenic lymphoid nodules are often called the "Malpighian bodies of the spleen" or Malpighian corpuscles . The botanical family Malpighiaceae is also named after him. He was the first person to see capillaries in animals, and he discovered the link between arteries and veins that had eluded William Harvey
William Harvey
. Malpighi was one of the earliest people to observe red blood cells under a microscope, after Jan Swammerdam
Jan Swammerdam

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Hand Lens
A MAGNIFYING GLASS (called a HAND LENS in laboratory contexts) is a convex lens that is used to produce a magnified image of an object. The lens is usually mounted in a frame with a handle (see image). A magnifying glass can be used to focus light, such as to concentrate the sun's radiation to create a hot spot at the focus for fire starting. A SHEET MAGNIFIER consists of many very narrow concentric ring-shaped lenses, such that the combination acts as a single lens but is much thinner. This arrangement is known as a Fresnel lens . The magnifying glass is an icon of detective fiction , particularly that of Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes

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Anatomy
ANATOMY is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy
Anatomy
(Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times. Anatomy
Anatomy
is inherently tied to embryology , comparative anatomy , evolutionary biology , and phylogeny , as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine . The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy . Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy , is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight . Gross anatomy
Gross anatomy
also includes the branch of superficial anatomy
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