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Onset Of Action
ONSET OF ACTION is the duration of time it takes for a drug 's effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration , it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question. Other methods of ingestion such as smoking or injection can take as little as seconds to minutes to take effect. The determination of the onset of action, however, is not completely dependent upon route of administration . There are several other factors that determine the onset of action for a specific drug, including drug formulation , dosage , and the patient receiving the drug. EFFECT OF ADMINISTRATION ROUTE ON THE ONSET OF ACTIONA drug's pharmacological effects can only occur once it has been fully solubilized and has entered the blood stream
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Microvilli
MICROVILLI (singular: MICROVILLUS) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption , secretion , cellular adhesion , and mechanotransduction . CONTENTS* 1 Locations * 1.1 Structure * 1.2 Relationship to cell * 1.3 Enzymes * 1.4 Glycocalyx * 1.5 Destruction * 1.6 See also * 1.7 References * 1.8 External links LOCATIONSThousands of microvilli form a structure called the brush border that is found on the apical surface of some epithelial cells , such as the small intestines . (Microvilli should not be confused with intestinal villi , which are made of many cells. Each of these cells has many microvilli.) Microvilli are observed on the plasma surface of eggs, aiding in the anchoring of sperm cells that have penetrated the extracellular coat of egg cells
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Loading Dose
A LOADING DOSE is an initial higher dose of a drug that may be given at the beginning of a course of treatment before dropping down to a lower MAINTENANCE DOSE . A loading dose is most useful for drugs that are eliminated from the body relatively slowly, i.e. have a long systemic half-life . Such drugs need only a low maintenance dose in order to keep the amount of the drug in the body at the appropriate therapeutic level , but this also means that, without an initial higher dose, it would take a long time for the amount of the drug in the body to reach that level. Drugs which may be started with an initial loading dose include digoxin , teicoplanin , voriconazole , procainamide and fulvestrant
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Neurotoxicology
NEUROTOXINS are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity ). Neurotoxins are an extensive class of exogenous chemical neurological insults that can adversely affect function in both developing and mature nervous tissue. The term can also be used to classify endogenous compounds, which, when abnormally contacted, can prove neurologically toxic. Though neurotoxins are often neurologically destructive, their ability to specifically target neural components is important in the study of nervous systems. Common examples of neurotoxins include lead , ethanol (drinking alcohol), manganese glutamate , nitric oxide , botulinum toxin (e.g. Botox), tetanus toxin , and tetrodotoxin . Some substances such as nitric oxide and glutamate are in fact essential for proper function of the body and only exert neurotoxic effects at excessive concentrations
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Drug
A DRUG is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled , injected , smoked , consumed , absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body. In pharmacology , a pharmaceutical drug , also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat , cure , prevent , or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being . Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants , but more recently also by organic synthesis . Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders . Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classes —groups of related drugs that have similar chemical structures , the same mechanism of action (binding to the same biological target ), a related mode of action , and that are used to treat the same disease
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Intestinal Villus
INTESTINAL VILLI (singular: VILLUS) are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine . Each villus is approximately 0.5–1.6 mm in length (in humans), and has many microvilli projecting from the enterocytes of its epithelium which collectively form the striated or brush border . Each of these microvilli are much smaller than a single villus. The intestinal villi are much smaller than any of the circular folds in the intestine. Villi increase the internal surface area of the intestinal walls making available a greater surface area for absorption. An increased absorptive area is useful because digested nutrients (including monosaccharide and amino acids ) pass into the semipermeable villi through diffusion, which is effective only at short distances. In other words, increased surface area (in contact with the fluid in the lumen) decreases the average distance travelled by nutrient molecules, so effectiveness of diffusion increases
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Dose (biochemistry)
A DOSE is a measured quantity of a medicine, nutrient, or pathogen which is delivered as a unit. The greater the quantity delivered, the larger the dose. Doses are most commonly measured for compounds in medicine. The term is usually applied to the quantity of a drug or other agent administered for therapeutic purposes, but may be used to describe any case where a substance is introduced to the body. In nutrition , the term is usually applied to how much of a specific nutrient is in a person's diet or in a particular food, meal, or dietary supplement . For bacterial or viral agents, dose typically refers to the amount of the pathogen required to infect a host. For information on dosage of toxic substances, see Toxicology
Toxicology
. For information on excessive intake of pharmaceutical agents, see Drug overdose
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Oral Administration
ORAL ADMINISTRATION is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth . PER OS (P.O.) is sometimes used as an abbreviation for medication to be taken orally. Many medications are taken orally because they are intended to have a systemic effect , reaching different parts of the body via the bloodstream , for example. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Scope * 3 Facilitating methods * 4 See also * 5 References TERMINOLOGY"Per os" (/ˌpɜːrˈoʊs/ ; P.O.) is an adverbial phrase meaning literally from Latin "by opening" or "by way of the opening." The expression is used in medicine to describe a treatment that is taken orally. The abbreviated P.O. is often used on medical prescriptions . P.O. is also occasionally rendered per orem, which is sometimes corrupted to per oram. These are grammatically incorrect; "os" is a neuter noun of the 3rd declension and thus the accusative case is the same as the nominative case
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Smoking
SMOKING is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Most commonly the substance is the dried leaves of the tobacco plant which have been rolled into a small square of rice paper to create a small, round cylinder called a "cigarette ". Smoking
Smoking
is primarily practiced as a route of administration for recreational drug use because the combustion of the dried plant leaves vaporizes and delivers active substances into the lungs where they are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and reach bodily tissue. In the case of cigarette smoking these substances are contained in a mixture of aerosol particles and gasses and include the pharmacologically active alkaloid nicotine ; the vaporization creates heated aerosol and gas to form that allows inhalation and deep penetration into the lungs where absorption into the bloodstream of the active substances occurs
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Injection (medicine)
INJECTION (often referred to as a "SHOT" in US English , or a "JAB" in UK English ) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug , into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle ) and a syringe . Injection is a technique for delivering drugs by parenteral administration , that is, administration via a route other than through the digestive tract. Parenteral injection includes subcutaneous , intramuscular , intravenous , intraperitoneal , intracardiac , intraarticular and intracavernous injection . Injection is generally administered as a bolus , but can possibly be used for continuous drug administration as well. Even when administered as a bolus, the medication may be long-acting, and can then be called depot injection . Administration by an indwelling catheter is generally preferred instead of injection in case of more long-term or recurrent drug administration
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Drug Formulation
PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION, in pharmaceutics , is the process in which different chemical substances, including the active drug , are combined to produce a final medicinal product . The word formulation is often used in a way that includes dosage form . CONTENTS* 1 Stages and timeline * 1.1 Container closure * 2 Formulation types * 3 Enteral formulations * 3.1 Tablet * 3.2 Capsule * 3.3 Sustained release * 4 Parenteral formulations * 4.1 Liquid * 4.2 Lyophilized * 5 Topical formulations * 5.1 Cutaneous * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links STAGES AND TIMELINEFormulation studies involve developing a preparation of the drug which is both stable and acceptable to the patient. For orally administered drugs, this usually involves incorporating the drug into a tablet or a capsule
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Route Of Administration
A ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug , fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action is. Action may be topical (local), enteral (system-wide effect, but delivered through the gastrointestinal tract), or parenteral (systemic action, but delivered by routes other than the GI tract)
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Bacteriostatic Agent
A BACTERIOSTATIC AGENT or BACTERIOSTAT, abbreviated BSTATIC, is a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria from reproducing, while not necessarily killing them otherwise. Depending on their application, bacteriostatic antibiotics , disinfectants , antiseptics and preservatives can be distinguished. When bacteriostatic antimicrobials are used, the duration of therapy must be sufficient to allow host defense mechanisms to eradicate the bacteria. Upon removal of the bacteriostat, the bacteria usually start to grow again. This is in contrast to bactericides , which kill bacteria. Bacteriostats are often used in plastics to prevent growth of bacteria on surfaces. Bacteriostats commonly used in laboratory work include sodium azide (which is acutely toxic) and thiomersal
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Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
In microbiology , the MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION (MIC) is the lowest concentration of a chemical which prevents visible growth of a bacterium (in other words, at which it has bacteriostatic activity). This is in difference to the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) which is the concentration resulting in microbial death In other words, the concentration at which it is bactericidal . The MIC of a chemical is determined by preparing solutions of the chemical in vitro at increasing concentrations, incubating the solutions with the separate batches of cultured bacteria, and measuring the results using agar dilution or broth microdilution . Results have been graded into susceptible (often called sensitive), intermediate, or resistant to a particular antibiotic by using a cut off point. Cut off points are agreed upon values, published in guidelines of a reference body, such as the U.S
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Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics
ANTIMICROBIAL PHARMACODYNAMICS is the relationship between concentration of antibiotic and its ability to inhibit vital processes of endo- or ectoparasites and microbial organisms. This branch of pharmacodynamics relates concentration of an anti-infective agent to effect, but specifically to its antimicrobial effect. CONCENTRATION-DEPENDENT EFFECTSThe minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration are used to measure in vitro activity antimicrobial and is an excellent indicator of antimicrobial potency. They don't give any information relating to time-dependent antimicrobial killing the so-called post antibiotic effect. POST ANTIBIOTIC EFFECTThe post antibiotic effect (PAE) is defined as persistent suppression of bacterial growth after a brief exposure (1 or 2 hours) of bacteria to an antibiotic even in the absence of host defense mechanisms
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Mechanism Of Action
In pharmacology , the term MECHANISM OF ACTION (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect. A mechanism of action usually includes mention of the specific molecular targets to which the drug binds, such as an enzyme or receptor . Receptor sites have specific affinities for drugs based on the chemical structure of the drug, as well as the specific action that occurs there. Drugs that do not bind to receptors produce their corresponding therapeutic effect by simply interacting with chemical or physical properties in the body. Common examples of drugs that work in this way are antacids and laxatives . In comparison, a mode of action (MoA) describes functional or anatomical changes, at the cellular level, resulting from the exposure of a living organism to a substance
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