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Old Persian
Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
------------------------- OLD PERSIAN (c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian cuneiform ------------------------- MIDDLE PERSIAN (c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scripts Manichaean alphabet Avestan alphabet ------------------------- MODERN PERSIAN (from 800) Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
• Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet The OLD PERSIAN LANGUAGE is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages
Iranian languages
(the other being Avestan ). Old Persian
Old Persian
appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets , and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE)
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Turkey
Coordinates : 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35 Republic of Turkey Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish ) Flag ANTHEM: * " İstiklâl Marşı " * "The Independence March" * CAPITAL Ankara
Ankara
39°55′N 32°50′E / 39.917°N 32.833°E / 39.917; 32.833 LARGEST CITY Ista
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Egypt
Coordinates : 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30 Arab Republic
Republic
of Egypt جمهورية مصر العربية * ARABIC : Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyah EGYPTIAN : Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyah Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Bilady, Bilady, Bilady " "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country" Capital and largest
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Iraq
Coordinates : 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic
Republic
of Iraq * جمهورية العراق ( Arabic
Arabic
) * کۆماری عێراق (Kurdish ) Flag Coat of arms
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Bahrain
BAHRAIN (/bɑːˈreɪn/ ( listen ); Arabic : البحرين‎ al-Baḥrayn IPA: ( listen )), officially the KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN (Arabic : مملكة البحرين‎ Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn ), is an Arab
Arab
constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
. It is an island country consisting of a small archipelago centered around Bahrain Island , situated between the Qatar
Qatar
peninsula and the north eastern coast of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, to which it is connected by the 25 km (16 mi) King Fahd Causeway . Bahrain's population is 1,234,571 (c. 2010), including 666,172 non-nationals. It is 765.3 km2 in size, making it the third smallest nation in Asia
Asia
after the Maldives
Maldives
and Singapore
Singapore

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Romania
Coordinates : 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25 Romania România (Romanian ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Deșteaptă-te, române! '"Awaken thee, Romanian!" Location of Romania
Romania
(dark green) – in Europe
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University Of Chicago
Urban 217 acres (87.8 ha) (Main Campus) 42 acres (17.0 ha) (Warren Woods Ecological Field Station, Warren Woods State Park ) 30 acres (12.1 ha) ( Yerkes Observatory ) COLORS Maroon and White ATHLETICS NCAA Division III – UAA NICKNAME Maroons AFFILIATIONS AAU NAICU URA MASCOT Phoenix WEBSITE www.uchicago.eduTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO (U OF C, CHICAGO, or UCHICAGO) is a private research university in Chicago
Chicago
, Illinois
Illinois
established in 1890. It holds top-ten positions in numerous national and international rankings. The university is composed of the College
College
, various graduate programs, and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions and seven professional schools
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Written Language
A WRITTEN LANGUAGE is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system . Written language
Written language
is an invention in that it must be taught to children, who will pick up spoken language (oral or sign ) by exposure even if they are not specifically taught. A written language exists only as a complement to a specific spoken language, and no natural language is purely written. CONTENTS * 1 Compared to spoken language * 2 See also * 3 Further reading * 4 External links COMPARED TO SPOKEN LANGUAGE This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (February 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )Written languages change more slowly than corresponding spoken languages
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Loanword
A LOANWORD (also LOAN WORD or LOAN-WORD) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation . This is in contrast to cognates , which are words in two or more languages that are similar because they share an etymological origin, and calques , which involve translation
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Proto-Indo-Iranians
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Bad
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Armenian Language
The ARMENIAN LANGUAGE (classical : հայերէն; reformed : հայերեն hayeren) occupies an independent branch of the Indo-European language tree. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia
Armenia
and the Republic of Artsakh
Republic of Artsakh
. It has historically been spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands
and today is widely spoken in the Armenian diaspora . Armenian is written using the Armenian alphabet
Armenian alphabet
, introduced in AD 405 by Mesrop Mashtots . Armenian has developed since the separation from Indo-European mother tongue in the third millennium BC to at least the time of the first Armenian dynasty (the Yervanduni dynasty , founded in the 6th century BC). Hellenistic influences during the Artashesian Dynasty (2nd century BC to 1st century AD) led to word borrowings from Greek and Latin
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Xenophon
XENOPHON OF ATHENS (/ˈzɛnəfən, -ˌfɒn/ ; Greek : Ξενοφῶν Greek pronunciation: , Xenophōn; c. 430–354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher , historian , soldier and mercenary, and a student of Socrates
Socrates
. As a historian, Xenophon
Xenophon
is known for recording the history of his contemporary time, the late-5th and early-4th centuries BC, such as the Hellenica , about the final seven years and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC); as such, the Hellenica is a thematic continuation of Thucydides
Thucydides
' History of the Peloponnesian War . As a mercenary soldier of the Ten Thousand , he participated in the failed campaign of Cyrus the Younger , to claim the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II of Persia , and recounts the events in Anabasis , his most notable history
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Clay Tablet
In the Ancient Near East , CLAY TABLETS (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform , throughout the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and well into the Iron Age
Iron Age
. Cuneiform
Cuneiform
characters were imprinted on a wet clay tablet with a stylus often made of reed (reed pen ). Once written upon, many tablets were dried in the sun or air, remaining fragile. Later, these unfired clay tablets could be soaked in water and recycled into new clean tablets. Other tablets, once written, were fired in hot kilns (or inadvertently, when buildings were burnt down by accident or during conflict) making them hard and durable. Collections of these clay documents made up the very first archives . They were at the root of first libraries . Tens of thousands of written tablets, including many fragments, have been found in the Middle East
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Seal (device)
A SEAL is a device for making an impression in wax , clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, or the cover of a container or package holding valuables or other objects. The seal-making device is also referred to as the seal matrix or die; the imprint it creates as the SEAL IMPRESSION (or, more rarely, the sealing). If the impression is made purely as a relief resulting from the greater pressure on the paper where the high parts of the matrix touch, the seal is known as a dry seal; in other cases ink or another liquid or liquefied medium is used, in another color than the paper. In most traditional forms of dry seal the design on the seal matrix is in intaglio (cut below the flat surface) and therefore the design on the impressions made is in relief (raised above the surface)
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Linguist List
The LINGUIST LIST is a major online resource for the academic field of linguistics . It was founded by Anthony Aristar in early 1990 at the University of Western Australia
University of Western Australia
, and is used as a reference by the National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
in the United States. Its main and oldest feature is the premoderated electronic mailing list , now with thousands of subscribers all over the world, where queries and their summarized results, discussions, journal table of contents, dissertation abstracts, calls for papers, book and conference announcements, software notices and other useful pieces of linguistic information are posted. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Services * 3 Projects * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYBetween 1991 and 2013 the resource has been run by Anthony Aristar and Helen Aristar-Dry
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables
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