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Old Persian
Western Iranian languages Old Persian
Old Persian
(c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian
Old Persian
cuneiform Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scripts
Pahlavi scripts
Manichaean alphabet
Manichaean alphabet
Avestan
Avestan
alphabet Modern Persian
Modern Persian
(from 800) Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
• Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet Old Persian
Old Persian
is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan). Old Persian
Old Persian
appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE)
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Proto-Indo-Iranians
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Clay Tablet
In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾)[1] were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and well into the Iron Age. Cuneiform
Cuneiform
characters were imprinted on a wet clay tablet with a stylus often made of reed (reed pen). Once written upon, many tablets were dried in the sun or air, remaining fragile. Later, these unfired clay tablets could be soaked in water and recycled into new clean tablets. Other tablets, once written, were fired in hot kilns (or inadvertently, when buildings were burnt down by accident or during conflict) making them hard and durable. Collections of these clay documents made up the very first archives. They were at the root of first libraries
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Armenian Language
Semi-official or unofficial (de facto) status: Georgia (Samtskhe-Javakheti)[a]  Lebanon[b]  Turkey[c]  Iran  United States (California)[d]Regulated by Institute of Language (Armenian National Academy of Sciences)[22]Language codesISO 639-1 hyISO 639-2 arm (B) hye (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: hye – Eastern Armenian hyw – Western Armenian xcl – Classical Armenian axm – Middle ArmenianGlottolog arme1241[23]Linguasphere 57-AAA-aThe Armenian-speaking world:   regions where Armenian is the language of the majorityThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Xenophon
Xenophon
Xenophon
of Athens (/ˈzɛnəfən, -ˌfɒn/; Greek: Ξενοφῶν Greek pronunciation: [ksenopʰɔ̂ːn], Xenophōn; c. 430–354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.[1] As a historian, Xenophon
Xenophon
is known for recording the history of his contemporary time, the late-5th and early-4th centuries BC, in such works as the Hellenica, about the final seven years and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), a thematic continuation of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. As one of the Ten Thousand (Greek mercenaries), he also participated in Cyrus the Younger's failed campaign to claim the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II of Persia
Artaxerxes II of Persia
and recounted the events in Anabasis, his most notable history
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Shalmaneser III
Shalmaneser may refer to: Shalmaneser I, King of Assyria (1274–1245 BC) Shalmaneser II, King of Assyria (1031–1019 BC) Shalmaneser III, King of Assyria (859–824 BC) Shalmaneser IV, King of Assyria (783–773 BC) Shalmaneser V, King of Assyria (727–722 BC) and Biblical conqueror of Israel (Northern Kingdom)See also[edit]Salmanazar, a wine bottle size measuring 9 litres George Psalmanazar
George Psalmanazar
(c. 1679–1763), a Frenchman who posed as a Formosan immigrantThis disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name
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Written Language
A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system. Written language
Written language
is an invention in that it must be taught to children, who will pick up spoken language (oral or sign) by exposure even if they are not specifically taught. A written language exists only as a complement to a specific spoken language, and no natural language is purely written.Contents1 Compared to spoken language 2 See also 3 Further reading 4 External linksCompared to spoken language[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Written languages change more slowly than corresponding spoken languages. When at least one register of a language is strongly divergent from spoken language, the resulting situation is called diglossia
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University Of Chicago
The University
University
of Chicago
Chicago
(UChi, U of C, Chicago, or UChicago) is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. It holds top-ten positions in various national and international rankings.[9][10][11][12] The university is composed of the College, various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions and seven professional schools. Beyond the arts and sciences, Chicago
Chicago
is also well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, the Divinity School and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies
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Egypt
Coordinates: 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30Arab Republic
Republic
of Egyptجمهورية مصر العربيةArabic: Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyahEgyptian: Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country"Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217Official languages Arabic[a]National language Egyptian ArabicReligion90% Islam 9% Orthodox Christian 1% Other Christian[1]Demonym EgyptianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentAbdel Fattah el-Sisi• Prime MinisterSherif IsmailLegislature House of RepresentativesEstablishment• Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt[2][3][b]c
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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Iraq
Coordinates: 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic
Republic
of Iraqجمهورية العراق (Arabic) کۆماری عێراق (Kurdish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: الله أكبر (Arabic) "Allahu Akbar" (transliteration) "God is the Greatest"Anthem: "Mawtini" "موطني" (English: "My Homeland")Capital and largest city Baghdad 33°20′N 44°26′E / 33.333°N 44.433°E / 33.333; 44.433Official languagesArabic KurdishReligion IslamDemonym IraqiGovernment Federal parliamentary republic•&#
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Bahrain
Bahrain
Bahrain
(/bɑːˈreɪn/ ( listen); Arabic: البحرين‎ al-Baḥrayn IPA: [aɫ baħrajn] ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain
Bahrain
(Arabic: مملكة البحرين‎  Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn), is an Arab
Arab
constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf. It is an island country consisting of a small archipelago centered around Bahrain
Bahrain
Island, situated between the Qatar peninsula and the north eastern coast of Saudi Arabia, to which it is connected by the 25-kilometre (16 mi) King
King
Fahd Causeway. Bahrain's population is 1,234,571 (c
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Romania
Coordinates: 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25Romania România  (Romanian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Deșteaptă-te, române! '"Awaken thee, Romanian!"Location of  Romania  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Bucharest 44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417°N 26.100°E / 44.417; 26.100Official languages Romanian[1]Recognised minority languages[2]Albanian Armenian Bulgarian Czech Croatian German Greek Italian Macedonian Hungarian Polish Romani Russian Rusyn Serbian Slovak Tatar Turkish Ukrainian YiddishEthnic groups (2011[3])88.9% Romanians 6.1% Hungarians 3.0% Roma 0.2% Ukrainians 0.2% GermansDemonym RomanianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentKlaus Iohannis• Pr
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Seal (device)
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, or the cover of a container or package holding valuables or other objects. The seal-making device is also referred to as the seal matrix or die; the imprint it creates as the seal impression (or, more rarely, the sealing).[1] If the impression is made purely as a relief resulting from the greater pressure on the paper where the high parts of the matrix touch, the seal is known as a dry seal; in other cases ink or another liquid or liquefied medium is used, in another color than the paper. In most traditional forms of dry seal the design on the seal matrix is in intaglio (cut below the flat surface) and therefore the design on the impressions made is in relief (raised above the surface)
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ISO 639-2
 ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes. The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA)
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