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Oculesics
OCULESICS, a subcategory of kinesics , is the study of eye movement, eye behavior, gaze , and eye-related nonverbal communication . The specific definition varies depending on whether it applies to the fields of medicine or social science . CONTENTS * 1 Introduction * 2 Nonverbal
Nonverbal
Communication
Communication
* 2.1 Dimensions of Oculesics
Oculesics
* 2.1.1 Dimension 1: Eye Contact * 2.1.2 Dimension 2: Eye Movement * 2.1.3 Dimension 3: Pupil
Pupil
Dilation * 2.1.4 Dimension 4: Gaze
Gaze
Direction * 2.2 Theorists and Studies * 2.2.1 Ray Birdwhistell * 2.2.2 Paul Ekman
Paul Ekman
* 2.2.3 W
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Washington, D.C.
WASHINGTON, D.C., formally the DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA and commonly referred to as "WASHINGTON", "THE DISTRICT", or simply "D.C.", is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast . The U.S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia
Virginia
each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria . Named in honor of President George Washington
George Washington
, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital
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Georgetown University
GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, the capital of the United States
United States
. Founded in 1789 as Georgetown College
College
, the university has since grown to comprise nine undergraduate and graduate schools, including the School of Foreign Service , School of Business , a Medical Center , and a Law School . Georgetown's main campus is located on a hill above the Potomac River . Georgetown offers degree programs in forty-eight disciplines, enrolling an average of 7,500 undergraduate and 10,000 post-graduate students from more than 130 countries. The campus is identifiable by its flagship Healy Hall , which is a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark

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Robert Plutchik
ROBERT PLUTCHIK (21 October 1927 – 29 April 2006) was professor emeritus at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and adjunct professor at the University of South Florida. He received his Ph.D. from Columbia University and he was also a psychologist . He authored or coauthored more than 260 articles, 45 chapters and eight books and edited seven books. His research interests included the study of emotions , the study of suicide and violence , and the study of the psychotherapy process. CONTENTS* 1 Theory of emotion * 1.1 Plutchik\'s wheel of emotions * 2 Publications * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links THEORY OF EMOTIONRobert Plutchik's psychoevolutionary theory of emotion is one of the most influential classification approaches for general emotional responses
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Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing
EYE MOVEMENT DESENSITIZATION AND REPROCESSING (EMDR) is a form of psychotherapy developed by Francine Shapiro that emphasizes the role of distressing memories in some mental health disorders, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is an evidence-based therapy used to help with the symptoms of PTSD. It is thought that when a traumatic or distressing experience occurs, it may overwhelm normal coping mechanisms . The memory and associated stimuli are inadequately processed and stored in an isolated memory network. EMDR therapy is as effective as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in chronic PTSD. However, after decades of research, controversy persists as to whether the novel eye movement element is an active ingredient in improved patient outcomes. The goal of EMDR is to reduce the long-lasting effects of distressing memories by engaging the brain's natural adaptive information processing mechanisms, thereby relieving present symptoms
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Francine Shapiro
FRANCINE SHAPIRO is an American psychologist and educator who originated and developed Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a form of psychotherapy for resolving the symptoms of traumatic and other disturbing life experiences. In 1987, she made the chance observation that moving her eyes from side to side appeared to reduce the disturbance of negative thoughts and memories. This experience led her to examine this phenomenon more systematically. Working with approximately 70 volunteers, she developed standardized procedures to maximize therapeutic outcomes, conducted additional research and a published randomized controlled study with trauma victims. After further research and elaboration of the methodology, she published a textbook in 1995 detailing the eight phases of this form of psychotherapy
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Facial Action Coding System
FACIAL ACTION CODING SYSTEM (FACS) is a system to taxonomize human facial movements by their appearance on the face, based on a system originally developed by a Swedish anatomist named Carl-Herman Hjortsjö. It was later adopted by Paul Ekman
Paul Ekman
and Wallace V. Friesen, and published in 1978. Ekman, Friesen, and Joseph C. Hager published a significant update to FACS in 2002. Movements of individual facial muscles are encoded by FACS from slight different instant changes in facial appearance. It is a common standard to systematically categorize the physical expression of emotions , and it has proven useful to psychologists and to animators . Due to subjectivity and time consumption issues, FACS has been established as a computed automated system that detects faces in videos, extracts the geometrical features of the faces, and then produces temporal profiles of each facial movement
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Orbicularis Oculi Muscle
The ORBICULARIS OCULI is a muscle in the face that closes the eyelids . It arises from the nasal part of the frontal bone , from the frontal process of the maxilla in front of the lacrimal groove , and from the anterior surface and borders of a short fibrous band, the medial palpebral ligament . From this origin, the fibers are directed laterally, forming a broad and thin layer, which occupies the eyelids or palpebræ, surrounds the circumference of the orbit, and spreads over the temple, and downward on the cheek. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Orbital orbicularis * 1.2 Palpebral orbicularis * 1.3 Lacrimal orbicularis * 2 Function * 3 Other muscles involved * 3.1 Levator palpebrae superior * 3.2 Sympathetic * 4 Note * 4.1 Adjacent facial muscles * 5 Additional images * 6 References * 7 External links STRUCTUREThere are at least 3 clearly defined sections of the orbicularis muscle
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Lie To Me
LIE TO ME (stylized as LIE TO ME*) is an American crime drama television series. It originally ran on the Fox network from January 21, 2009 to January 31, 2011. In the show, Dr. Cal Lightman (Tim Roth ) and his colleagues in The Lightman Group accept assignments from third parties (commonly local and federal law enforcement), and assist in investigations, reaching the truth through applied psychology : interpreting microexpressions , through the Facial Action Coding System , and body language . In May 2009, the show was renewed for a second season consisting of 13 episodes; Season two premiered on September 28, 2009. On November 24, 2009, Fox ordered an extra nine episodes for season two, bringing the season order to 22 episodes. On May 12, 2010, Entertainment Weekly
Entertainment Weekly
reported that Lie to Me received a 13-episode third season pick-up. The third season of Lie to Me was originally set to premiere on November 10, 2010
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14th Dalai Lama
The 14TH DALAI LAMA (/ˈdɑːlaɪ ˈlɑːmə/ (US ), /ˌdælaɪ ˈlɑːmə/ ; (UK ) (religious name : TENZIN GYATSO, shortened from JETSUN JAMPHEL NGAWANG LOBSANG YESHE TENZIN GYATSO, born LHAMO THONDUP, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama . Dalai Lamas are important monks of the Gelug school, the newest school of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
which is nominally headed by the Ganden Tripas . From the time of the 5th Dalai Lama to 1959, the central government of Tibet, the Ganden Phodrang , invested the position of Dalai Lama with temporal duties. The 14th Dalai Lama was born in Taktser village, Amdo , Tibet
Tibet
and was selected as the tulku of the 13th Dalai Lama in 1937 and formally recognized as the 14th Dalai Lama at a public declaration near the town of Bumchen in 1939
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Duchenne Smile
A SMILE is a facial expression formed primarily by flexing the muscles at the sides of the mouth . Some smiles include a contraction of the muscles at the corner of the eyes , an action known as a "Duchenne smile". Smiles performed without the eye contraction may be perceived as insincere. Among humans , smiling is an expression denoting pleasure , sociability , happiness , joy or amusement . It is distinct from a similar but usually involuntary expression of anxiety known as a grimace. Although cross-cultural studies have shown that smiling is a means of communication throughout the world, there are large differences between different cultures, with some using smiles to convey confusion or embarrassment
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Duchenne De Boulogne
GUILLAUME-BENJAMIN-AMAND DUCHENNE (DE BOULOGNE) (September 17, 1806 in Boulogne-sur-Mer
Boulogne-sur-Mer
– September 15, 1875 in Paris) was a French neurologist who revived Galvani\'s research and greatly advanced the science of electrophysiology . The era of modern neurology developed from Duchenne's understanding of neural pathways and his diagnostic innovations including deep tissue biopsy, nerve conduction tests (NCS ), and clinical photography. This extraordinary range of activities (mostly in the Salpêtrière ) was achieved against the background of a troubled personal life and a generally indifferent medical and scientific establishment
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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) is a mental disorder that can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault , warfare , traffic collisions , or other threats on a person's life. Symptoms may include disturbing thoughts, feelings, or dreams related to the events, mental or physical distress to trauma-related cues, attempts to avoid trauma-related cues, alterations in how a person thinks and feels, and an increase in the fight-or-flight response . These symptoms last for more than a month after the event. Young children are less likely to show distress but instead may express their memories through play. A person with PTSD is at a higher risk for suicide and intentional self-harm . Most people who have experienced a traumatic event will not develop PTSD
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Emotion
EMOTION is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a high degree of pleasure or displeasure . Scientific discourse has drifted to other meanings and there is no consensus on a definition. Emotion
Emotion
is often intertwined with mood , temperament , personality , disposition , and motivation . In some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion. Those acting primarily on the emotions they are feeling may seem as if they are not thinking, but mental processes are still essential, particularly in the interpretation of events. For example, the realization of our believing that we are in a dangerous situation and the subsequent arousal of our body's nervous system (rapid heartbeat and breathing, sweating, muscle tension) is integral to the experience of our feeling afraid. Other theories, however, claim that emotion is separate from and can precede cognition. Emotions are complex
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Disgust
DISGUST is an emotional response of revulsion to something considered offensive, distasteful, or unpleasant. In The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
Animals
, Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
wrote that disgust is a sensation that refers to something revolting. Disgust
Disgust
is experienced primarily in relation to the sense of taste (either perceived or imagined), and secondarily to anything which causes a similar feeling by sense of smell , touch , or vision . Musically sensitive people may even be disgusted by the cacophony of inharmonious sounds. Research continually has proven a relationship between disgust and anxiety disorders such as arachnophobia , blood-injection-injury type phobias , and contamination fear related obsessive–compulsive disorder (also known as OCD)
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Desire (emotion)
DESIRE is a sense of LONGING or hoping for a person, object, or outcome. The same sense is expressed by emotions such as "CRAVING". When a person desires something or someone, their sense of longing is excited by the enjoyment or the thought of the item or person, and they want to take actions to obtain their goal. The motivational aspect of desire has long been noted by philosophers; Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) asserted that human desire is the fundamental motivation of all human action. While desires are often classified as emotions by laypersons, psychologists often describe desires as different from emotions; psychologists tend to argue that desires arise from bodily structures, such as the stomach's need for food, whereas emotions arise from a person's mental state
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