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Non-governmental Organization
A NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION (NGO) is a nonprofit organization that is independent of governments and international governmental organizations. They are usually funded by donations but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for political, religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II
World War II
, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development , particularly in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation. The number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 3.7 million. Russia has 277,000 NGOs
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Grassroots
A GRASSROOTS movement (often referenced in the context of a political movement ) is one which uses the people in a given district as the basis for a political or economic movement. Grassroots movements and organizations use collective action from the local level to effect change at the local, regional, national, or international level. Grassroots movements are associated with bottom-up, rather than top-down decision making, and are sometimes considered more natural or spontaneous than more traditional power structures. Grassroots movements, using self-organization, encourages community members to contribute by taking responsibility and action for their community. Grassroots movements utilize a variety of strategies from fundraising and registering voters, to simply encouraging political conversation. Goals of specific movements vary, but the movements are consistent in their focus on increasing mass participation in politics
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Romance Languages
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Bad
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Rockefeller Foundation
The ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. It was established by the six-generation Rockefeller family . The Foundation was started by Standard Oil
Standard Oil
owner John D. Rockefeller
John D. Rockefeller
("Senior"), along with his son John D. Rockefeller Jr. ("Junior"), and Senior's principal oil and gas business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates , in New York State
New York State
on May 14, 1913, when its charter was formally accepted by the New York State Legislature
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Ford Foundation
The FORD FOUNDATION is a New York-headquartered, globally oriented private foundation with the mission of advancing human welfare. Created in 1936 by Edsel Ford and Henry Ford
Henry Ford
, it was originally funded by a US$25,000 gift from Edsel Ford. By 1947, after the death of the two founders, the foundation owned 90% of the non-voting shares of the Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
. (The Ford family retained the voting shares.) Between 1955 and 1974, the foundation sold its Ford Motor Company holdings and now plays no role in the automobile company. For years, the foundation was the largest, and one of the most influential foundations in the world, with global reach and special interests in economic empowerment, education, human rights, democracy, the creative arts, and Third World development. The foundation makes grants through its headquarters and ten international field offices
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Professional Association
A PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION (also called a PROFESSIONAL BODY, PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION, or PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY) is usually a nonprofit organization seeking to further a particular profession , the interests of individuals engaged in that profession and the public interest . The roles of these professional associations have been variously defined: "A group of people in a learned occupation who are entrusted with maintaining control or oversight of the legitimate practice of the occupation;" also a body acting "to safeguard the public interest;" organizations which "represent the interest of the professional practitioners," and so "act to maintain their own privileged and powerful position as a controlling body." Many professional bodies are involved in the development and monitoring of professional educational programs, and the updating of skills, and thus perform professional certification to indicate that a person possesses qualifications in the subject area
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SOS Children's Villages
SOS CHILDREN\'S VILLAGES is an independent, non-governmental international development organization which has been working to meet the needs and protect the interests and rights of children since 1949. It was founded by Hermann Gmeiner in Imst
Imst
, Austria
Austria
. According to the Financial Times
Financial Times
, the 2004 turnover of SOS Children's Villages altogether was US$
US$
807 million, and it was ranked 33 out of a 100 global NGOs
NGOs
for "global accountability". Its international umbrella organisation, SOS-Kinderdorf International, was founded in 1960, after national associations had been established in France
France
, Germany
Germany
and Italy
Italy
in addition to the original Austrian association. Over a hundred national associations across the world have since been established
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QUANGO
A QUANGO or QUANGO (less often QUANGO or QANGO) is a QUASI-AUTONOMOUS NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION. The concept is most often applied in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and, to a lesser degree, Australia
Australia
, Canada
Canada
, Ireland , New Zealand
New Zealand
, the United States
United States
, and other English-speaking countries. As its name suggests, a quango is a hybrid form of organization, with elements of both non-government organizations (NGOs) and public sector bodies. It is typically an organisation to which a government has devolved power, but which is still partly controlled and/or financed by government bodies. In the UK, the term quango covers different "arm's-length" government bodies, including "non-departmental public bodies ", non-ministerial departments, and executive agencies
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American National Standards Institute
The AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI, /ˈænsi/ AN-see ) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide. ANSI accredits standards that are developed by representatives of other standards organizations , government agencies , consumer groups , companies, and others. These standards ensure that the characteristics and performance of products are consistent, that people use the same definitions and terms, and that products are tested the same way. ANSI also accredits organizations that carry out product or personnel certification in accordance with requirements defined in international standards
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Drinking Water
DRINKING WATER, also known as POTABLE WATER or IMPROVED DRINKING WATER, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation , without risk of health problems. Globally, in 2015, 91% of people had access to water suitable for drinking. Nearly 4.2 billion had access to tap water while another 2.4 billion had access to wells or public taps. 1.8 billion people still use an unsafe drinking water source which may be contaminated by feces . This can result in infectious diarrhea such as cholera and typhoid among others. Water
Water
is essential for life. The amount of drinking water required is variable. It depends on physical activity, age, health issues, and environmental conditions. It is estimated that the average American drinks about one litre of water a day with 95% drinking less than three litres per day. For those working in a hot climate, up to 16 liters a day may be required
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FFDA
The FORUM FOR FACT-FINDING DOCUMENTATION AND ADVOCACY (FFDA) is an Indian human rights monitoring organization founded in 1995 that fights to promote and protect human rights in India
India
by working with the victims of human rights violations and their organizations. It educates the victims and their communities, and facilitates and builds the capacity of organizations of victims to take collective action on their own. It addresses the issues of displacement and forced eviction, violence against women and children, exploitation, torture, abuse and discrimination against Dalits (untouchable and low caste poor), and attacks on minorities and indigenous communities. Based on learning and work experiences, FFDA integrated democracy monitoring into its core activity as the basic path to rights for the above-mentioned target group; participating in decision making and asking for accountability and good governance of the state in particular
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World Bank
The WORLD BANK is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital programs . It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the International Development Association (IDA). The World Bank
World Bank
is a component of the WORLD BANK GROUP . The World Bank's stated official goal is the reduction of poverty . However, according to its Articles of Agreement, all its decisions must be guided by a commitment to the promotion of foreign investment and international trade and to the facilitation of capital investment
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Epistemic Community
An EPISTEMIC COMMUNITY is a transnational network of knowledge-based experts who help decision-makers to define the problems they face, identify various policy solutions and assess the policy outcomes. The definitive conceptual framework of an epistemic community is widely accepted as that of Peter M. Haas . He describes them as "...a network of professionals with recognised expertise and competence in a particular domain and an authoritative claim to policy relevant knowledge within that domain or issue-area." :3 Although the members of an epistemic community may originate from a variety of academic or professional backgrounds, they are linked by a set of unifying characteristics for the promotion of collective amelioration and not collective gain. This is termed their "normative component". In the big picture, epistemic communities are socio-psychological entities that create and justify knowledge
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Natural Environment
The NATURAL ENVIRONMENT encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally , meaning in this case not artificial . The term is most often applied to the Earth
Earth
or some parts of Earth. This environment encompasses the interaction of all living species , climate , weather, and natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity
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YWCA
www.worldywca.org www.ywca.org (USA) The WORLD YOUNG WOMEN\'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION (WORLD YWCA) is a movement working for the empowerment, leadership and rights of women, young women and girls in more than 120 countries. The members and supporters include women from many different faiths, ages, backgrounds, beliefs and cultures. Their common goal is that "by 2035, 100 million young women and girls will transform power structures to create justice, gender equality and a world without violence and war; leading a sustainable YWCA
YWCA
movement, inclusive of all women". The World office is currently based in Geneva, Switzerland
Switzerland
. The YWCA
YWCA
is independent of the YMCA
YMCA
, but many local YMCA
YMCA
and YWCA associations have merged into YM/YWCAs or YMCA-YWCAs, and belong to both organizations while providing the programs of each
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Social Movement Organization
In social movement theory, a SOCIAL MOVEMENT ORGANIZATION (often capitalized in academic literature as Social Movement Organization or abbreviated as SMO) is an organized component of a social movement (SM). SMO usually is only part of a particular social movement; in other words, a specific social movement is usually composed of many social movement organizations – formal organizations that share movement's goals. Social movement
Social movement
organizations usually have coordinating roles in social movements, but do not actually employ or direct most of the participants, who are part of a wider social movement community . Social movement
Social movement
organizations carry out the tasks that are necessary for any social movement to survive and to be successful
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