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Mussel
Pteriomorphia (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta
Heterodonta
(zebra mussels ) MUSSEL is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs , from saltwater and freshwater habitats. These groups have in common a shell whose outline is elongated and asymmetrical compared with other edible clams, which are often more or less rounded or oval. The word "mussel" is most frequently used to mean the edible bivalves of the marine family Mytilidae , most of which live on exposed shores in the intertidal zone, attached by means of their strong byssal threads ("beard") to a firm substrate. A few species (in the genus Bathymodiolus ) have colonised hydrothermal vents associated with deep ocean ridges. In most marine mussels the shell is longer than it is wide, being wedge-shaped or asymmetrical
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Balanidae
See text The BALANIDAE comprise a family of barnacles of the order Sessilia , containing these genera: * †Alessandriella Carriol, 2001 * Amphibalanus Pitombo, 2004 * Arossia Newman, 1982 * Austromegabalanus Newman, 1979 * Balanus
Balanus
Da Costa, 1778 * † Concavus Newman, 1982 * Fistulobalanus Zullo, 1984 * Fosterella Buckridge, 1983 * Megabalanus Hoek, 1913 * Menesiniella Newman, 1982 * Notomegabalanus Newman, 1979 * Paraconcavus Zullo, 1992 * Perforatus Pitombo, 2004 * †Tamiosoma Conrad, 1857 * Tetrabalanus Cornwall, 1941 * †Zulloa Ross "> * ^ Benny K. K. Chan (2011). "Balanidae". World Register of Marine Species . Retrieved January 22, 2012. * ^ F. B. Pitombo (2004). "Phylogenetic analysis of the Balanidae (Cirripedia, Balanomorpha)". Zoologica Scripta
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Voxel
A VOXEL represents a value on a regular grid in three-dimensional space. As with pixels in a bitmap , voxels themselves do not typically have their position (their coordinates ) explicitly encoded along with their values. Instead, rendering systems infer the position of a voxel based upon its position relative to other voxels (i.e., its position in the data structure that makes up a single volumetric image). In contrast to pixels and voxels, points and polygons are often explicitly represented by the coordinates of their vertices. A direct consequence of this difference is that polygons can efficiently represent simple 3D structures with lots of empty or homogeneously filled space, while voxels excel at representing regularly sampled spaces that are non-homogeneously filled. Voxels are frequently used in the visualization and analysis of medical and scientific data. Some volumetric displays use voxels to describe their resolution
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Calcium Carbonate
CALCIUM CARBONATE is a chemical compound with the formula Ca C O 3. It is a common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite (most notably as limestone , which contains both of those minerals) and is the main component of pearls and the shells of marine organisms , snails , and eggs. Calcium
Calcium
carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime and is created when calcium ions in hard water react with carbonate ions to create limescale . It is medicinally used as a calcium supplement or as an antacid , but excessive consumption can be hazardous
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Periostracum
The PERIOSTRACUM is a thin organic coating or "skin" which is the outermost layer of the shell of many shelled animals, including molluscs and brachiopods . Among molluscs it is primarily seen in snails and clams , i.e. in gastropods and bivalves , but it is also found in cephalopods such as Allonautilus scrobiculatus . Periostracum is an integral part of the shell, and it forms as the shell forms, along with the other shell layers. Periostracum
Periostracum
is visible as the outer layer of the shell of many molluscan species from terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats, and may be seen in land snails , river mussels and other kinds of freshwater bivalves, as well as in many kinds of marine shelled molluscs. The word "periostracum" means "around the shell", meaning that the periostracum is wrapped around what is usually the more calcareous part of the shell
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Computed Tomography
A CT SCAN makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic ) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting. Other terms include computed axial tomography (CAT scan) and computer aided tomography. Digital geometry processing is used to further generate a three-dimensional volume of the inside of the object from a large series of two-dimensional radiographic images taken around a single axis of rotation . Medical imaging
Medical imaging
is the most common application of X-ray
X-ray
CT. Its cross-sectional images are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines
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3D Rendering
3D RENDERING is the 3D computer graphics
3D computer graphics
process of automatically converting 3D wire frame models into 2D images with 3D photorealistic effects or non-photorealistic rendering on a computer. CONTENTS * 1 Rendering methods * 2 Real-time * 3 Non real-time * 4 Reflection and shading models * 4.1 Surface shading algorithms * 4.2 Reflection * 4.3 Shading * 4.4 Transport * 4.5 Projection * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links RENDERING METHODS A photo realistic 3D render of 6 computer fans using radiosity rendering, DOF and procedural materials RENDERING is the final process of creating the actual 2D image or animation from the prepared scene. This can be compared to taking a photo or filming the scene after the setup is finished in real life. Several different, and often specialized, rendering methods have been developed
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Sessility (zoology)
In biology , SESSILITY (in the sense of positional movement or motility ) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile. This is distinct from the second meaning of sessility which refers to an organism or biological structure attached directly by its base without a stalk. Sessile organisms can move through outside sources (such as water currents) but are usually permanently attached to something. Organisms such as corals lay down their own substrate from which they grow. Other organisms grow from a solid such as a rock, dead tree trunk, or a manmade object such as a buoy or ship's hull
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Gonochorism
In biology , GONOCHORISM (Greek offspring + disperse) or UNISEXUALISM or GONOCHORY describes the state of having just one of at least two distinct sexes in any one individual organism. The term is most often used with animals, in which the individual organisms are often gonochorous. Gonochory is less common in plants . For example, in flowering plants , individual flowers may be hermaphrodite (i.e. with both stamens and ovaries) or gonochorous (unisexual), having either no stamens (i.e. no male parts) or no ovaries (i.e. no female parts). Among flowering plant species that have unisexual flowers, some also produce hermaphrodite flowers, and the three types occur in different arrangements on separate plants; the plants can be monoecious , dioecious , polygamomonoecious , polygamodioecious , andromonoecious , or gynomonoecious . Unlike most flatworms , schistosomes are gonochoristic
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Muscle
MUSCLE is a soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle
Muscle
cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion . They are primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture , locomotion , as well as movement of internal organs , such as the contraction of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis . Muscle
Muscle
tissues are derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells in a process known as myogenesis . There are three types of muscle, skeletal or striated, cardiac , and smooth . Muscle
Muscle
action can be classified as being either voluntary or involuntary. Cardiac and smooth muscles contract without conscious thought and are termed involuntary, whereas the skeletal muscles contract upon command
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Conchin
CONCHIOLINS (sometimes referred to as CONCHINS) are complex proteins which are secreted by a mollusc 's outer epithelium (the mantle ). These proteins are part of a matrix of organic macromolecules, mainly proteins and polysaccharides, that assembled together form the microenvironment where crystals nucleate and grow. This organic matrix also holds and binds to the crystals of aragonite which give such shells their stiffness. The ions necessary to form calcium carbonate are also secreted by the mantle, but it is the tailored environment created by the organic matrix which causes aragonite (rather than calcite ) crystals to nucleate, in much the same way that collagen nucleates hydroxyapatite crystals
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Sessility (motility)
In biology , SESSILITY (in the sense of positional movement or motility ) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile. This is distinct from the second meaning of sessility which refers to an organism or biological structure attached directly by its base without a stalk. Sessile organisms can move through outside sources (such as water currents) but are usually permanently attached to something. Organisms such as corals lay down their own substrate from which they grow. Other organisms grow from a solid such as a rock, dead tree trunk, or a manmade object such as a buoy or ship's hull
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Plankton
PLANKTON (singular PLANKTER) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in the water column of large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current. They provide a crucial source of food to many large aquatic organisms, such as fish and whales . These organisms include bacteria , archaea , algae , protozoa and drifting or floating animals that inhabit, for example, the pelagic zone of oceans , seas , or bodies of fresh water . Essentially, plankton are defined by their ecological niche rather than any phylogenetic or taxonomic classification. Though many planktonic species are microscopic in size, plankton includes organisms covering a wide range of sizes, including large organisms such as jellyfish . Technically the term does not include those organisms on the surface of the water which are called Pleuston or those which swim actively in the water which are termed Nekton
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Cilia
A CILIUM ( Latin
Latin
for eyelash ; the plural is CILIA) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are slender protuberances that project from the much larger cell body . There are two types of cilia: motile cilia and nonmotile, or primary cilia, which typically serve as sensory organelles. In eukaryotes, motile cilia and flagella together make up a group of organelles known as undulipodia . Eukaryotic cilia are structurally identical to eukaryotic flagella, although distinctions are sometimes made according to function and/or length. Biologists have various ideas about how the various flagella may have evolved
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Gill
A GILL (/ɡɪl/ ( listen )) is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide . The gills of some species, such as hermit crabs , have adapted to allow respiration on land provided they are kept moist. The microscopic structure of a gill presents a large surface area to the external environment. BRANCHIA (pl. branchiae) is the zoologists' name for gills. With the exception of some aquatic insects , the filaments and lamellae (folds) contain blood or coelomic fluid , from which gases are exchanged through the thin walls. The blood carries oxygen to other parts of the body. Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
passes from the blood through the thin gill tissue into the water. Gills or gill-like organs, located in different parts of the body, are found in various groups of aquatic animals, including mollusks , crustaceans , insects, fish, and amphibians
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Northern California
NORTHERN CALIFORNIA, often abbreviated NORCAL, is the northern portion of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of California
California
. Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties, in contrast to the 10 counties of Southern California
California
, its main population centers include the San Francisco Bay Area (anchored by the cities of San Francisco
San Francisco
, San Jose , and Oakland
Oakland
), the Greater Sacramento
Sacramento
area (anchored by the state capital Sacramento
Sacramento
), and the Metropolitan Fresno
Fresno
area (anchored by the city of Fresno
Fresno
)
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