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Minister Of Defence (France)
The MINISTRY OF THE ARMED FORCES (French : Ministre des Armées) is the French cabinet member charged with running the French Armed Forces . The minister in charge of the Armed Forces has evolved within the epoque and regimes. The minister is always attached to a ministry or state secretary bureau, today attached to the MINISTRY OF THE ARMED FORCES. The SECRETARY OF STATE OF WAR was one of the four specialised secretaries of state established in France
France
in 1589. This State Secretary was responsible for the French Army
French Army
(similarly, the Naval Ministers of France
France
and the Colonies was created in 1669). In 1791, the secretary of state of war becomes MINISTER OF WAR, with this ministerial function being abolished in 1794 and re-established in 1795. In 1930, the position was often referred to as MINISTER OF WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE
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Court Of Cassation (France)
The COURT OF CASSATION (French : Cour de cassation; French pronunciation: ​ ) founded in 1804 is one of France 's courts of last resort having jurisdiction over all matters triable in the judicial stream with scope of certifying questions of law and review in determining miscarriages of justice. The Court is located in the Palais de Justice building in Paris . The Court is the court of final appeal for civil and criminal matters. As a judicial court, it does not hear cases involving claims against administrators or public bodies. These generally fall within the purview of administrative courts , for which the Council of State acts as the supreme court of appeal . Nor does the Court adjudicate constitutional issues; instead, constitutional review lies solely with the Constitutional Council
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Conseil D'État (France)
In France , the COUNCIL OF STATE (French : Conseil d'État; French pronunciation: ​ ) is a body of the French national government that acts both as legal adviser of the executive branch and as the supreme court for administrative justice . Established in 1799 by Napoléon Bonaparte as a successor to the King\'s Council (Conseil du Roi), it is located in the Palais-Royal in Paris and is primarily made up of top-level legal officers. The Vice President of the Council of State is the highest-ranking civil servant in France. The Conseil d'État, which is also a Grand Corps of the French State (grand corps de l'État), mainly recruits among the top ranking students graduating from the École nationale d\'administration
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Court Of Audit Of France
The COURT OF AUDITORS (in French Cour des comptes) is a quasi-judicial body of the French government charged with conducting financial and legislative audits of most public institutions and some private institutions, including the central Government, national public corporations , social security agencies (since 1950), and public services (since 1976). The Court is essentially a cross between a court of exchequer , comptroller general's office, and auditor general 's office in common-law countries. It is as well a Grand Corps of the French State mainly recruiting among the best students graduating from the Ecole nationale d\'administration . The Court's three duties are to conduct financial audits of accounts, conduct good governance audits, and provide information and advice to the French Parliament and Administration
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Cour De Justice De La République
The COUR DE JUSTICE DE LA RéPUBLIQUE (CJR, "Law Court of the Republic") is a special French court established to try cases of ministerial misconduct. Its remit only extends to government ministers (or former ministers) concerning offences committed in the exercise of their functions. It was created by French president François Mitterrand on 27 July 1993 following the "infected blood" scandal , which saw three French ministers (including the then-Prime Minister) charged with manslaughter . Before that, ministers in France benefitted from a degree of judicial immunity. French ministers can still be tried in a "normal" French court, if the alleged offence is not related to their ministerial duties (for example, Brice Hortefeux , who was fined in 2010 for making racial slurs). On July 3, 2017 President Emmanuel Macron announced his intention to abolish the court
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Administrative Divisions Of France
(incl. overseas regions ) Departments (incl. overseas departments ) Arrondissements Cantons Intercommunality Métropole Communauté urbaine Communauté d\'agglomération Communauté de communes Communes Associated communes Municipal arrondissements Others in Overseas France Overseas collectivities Sui generis collectivity Overseas country Overseas territory Clipperton Island
Clipperton Island
The ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF FRANCE are concerned with the institutional and territorial organization of French territory. There are many administrative divisions, which may have political (local government ), electoral (districts), or administrative (decentralized services of the state) objectives
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Constitutional Council (France)
The CONSTITUTIONAL COUNCIL (French : Conseil constitutionnel; French pronunciation: ​ ) is the highest constitutional authority in France. It was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958, and its duty is to ensure that the principles and rules of the constitution are upheld. Its main activity is to rule on whether proposed statutes conform with the Constitution, after they have been voted by Parliament and before they are signed into law by the President of the Republic (a priori review); since 1 March 2010, individual citizens party to a trial or lawsuit can also ask for the Council to review whether the law applied in the case is constitutional
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Congress Of The French Parliament
The CONGRESS OF THE FRENCH PARLIAMENT (French : Congrès du Parlement français) is the name given to the body created when both houses of the present-day French Parliament —the National Assembly and the Senate —meet at the Palace of Versailles to vote on revisions to the Constitution or to listen to an address by the President of the French Republic . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Composition and organization * 3 Constitutional revision * 4 Address by the President of France * 5 Stamp collecting * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYHistorically, during the Third and Fourth Republics, the Congress was gathered in Versailles to elect the President of France. The last president elected this way was René Coty who was elected on 23 December 1953
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François De Rugy
FRANçOIS HENRI GOULLET DE RUGY (born 6 December 1973 in Nantes
Nantes
) is a French politician who has been President of the National Assembly of France
France
since 2017. He represents the Loire-Atlantique
Loire-Atlantique
department, originally as a member of the Democratic and Republican Left , a parliamentary group that includes his political party Europe Ecology – The Greens . Coat of arms of house de Rugy established in the 16th century Reelected in 2012, he has been proclaimed co-president of the ecologist parliamentary group, in association with Barbara Pompili . In 2015, he broke with EELV to form his own party, Écologistes! , which supported the administration of François Hollande
François Hollande
. In 2016, he entered the Socialist Party presidential primary in which he secured 3.82% of votes in the first round, outstripping polls
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Senate Of France
Coordinates : 48°50′54″N 2°20′14.2″E / 48.84833°N 2.337278°E / 48.84833; 2.337278 Senate Sénat TYPE TYPE Upper house of the French Parliament HISTORY FOUNDED 1799 LEADERSHIP PRéSIDENT Gérard Larcher STRUCTURE SEATS 348 POLITICAL GROUPS * CRC (18) * SOC (86) * RDSE (16) * REM (29) * UC (42) * LR (142) * RASNAG (13) * Vacant (2) ELECTIONS VOTING SYSTEM
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List Of Presidents Of The French Senate
The French Senate is the Upper House of the French Parliament. It is presided over by a President. Although there had been Senates in both the First and Second Empires, these had not technically been legislative bodies, but rather advisory bodies on the model of the Roman Senate . France's first experience with an upper house was under the Directory from 1795 to 1799, when the Council of Ancients was the upper chamber. With the Restoration in 1814, a new Chamber of Peers was created, on the model of the British House of Lords . At first it contained hereditary peers, but following the July Revolution of 1830, it became a body to which one was appointed for life. The Second Republic returned to a unicameral system after 1848, but soon after the establishment of the Second French Empire in 1852, a Senate was established as the upper chamber
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Gérard Larcher
GéRARD PHILIPPE RENé ANDRé LARCHER (born 14 September 1949) is a French politician who has been President of the Senate of France since 2014. He previously served in the same post from 2008 to 2011. A member of the center-right The Republicans , he was a Senator for the Yvelines département from 1986 to 2004 and has been again since 2007. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Political career * 1.2.1 Local mandates * 1.2.2 Government minister * 1.2.3 President of the Senate * 2 Political career * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYEARLY LIFE Gérard Larcher
Gérard Larcher
was born in Flers , Orne to a Catholic family. He is the son of Philippe Larcher, director of a textile factory and former mayor of Saint-Michel-des-Andaines , a small town in the Orne
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Regions Of France
(incl. overseas regions ) Departments (incl. overseas departments ) Arrondissements Cantons Intercommunality Métropole Communauté urbaine Communauté d\'agglomération Communauté de communes Communes Associated communes Municipal arrondissements Others in Overseas France Overseas collectivities Sui generis collectivity Overseas country Overseas territory Clipperton Island France
France
is divided into 18 administrative REGIONS (French : région, ), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions . The 13 metropolitan regions (including 12 mainland regions and Corsica) are each further subdivided into 2 to 13 departments , while the overseas regions consist of only one department each and hence are also referred to as "overseas departments"
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Departments Of France
(incl. overseas regions ) Departments (incl. overseas departments ) Arrondissements Cantons Intercommunality Métropole Communauté urbaine Communauté d\'agglomération Communauté de communes Communes Associated communes Municipal arrondissements Others in Overseas France Overseas collectivities Sui generis collectivity Overseas country Overseas territory Clipperton Island In the administrative divisions of France , the DEPARTMENT (French : département, pronounced ) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities "), between the administrative regions and the commune . There are 97 departments in metropolitan France , and 5 overseas departments , which are also classified as regions
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Foreign Alliances Of France
The FOREIGN ALLIANCES OF FRANCE have a long and complex history spanning more than a millennium. One traditional characteristic of the French diplomacy of alliances has been the "Alliance de revers" (i.e. "Rear alliance"), aiming at allying with countries situated on the opposite side or "in the back" of an adversary, in order to open a second front encircling the adversary and thus re-establish a balance of power . Another has been the alliance with local populations, against European colonial powers . CONTENTS * 1 Strategic "Alliances de revers" * 2 Autochthonous alliances * 2.1 American continent * 2.2 India * 3 Tactical alliances * 4 References STRATEGIC "ALLIANCES DE REVERS"Over the centuries, France has constantly been looking for Eastern allies, as a counterbalance to Continental enemies
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France And The United Nations
The FRENCH REPUBLIC is a charter member of the UNITED NATIONS and one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council . The nation originally joined the UN as the Provisional Government of the French Republic (PGFR) before being succeeded by the French Fourth Republic in 1946, however, after a series of crises, the French Fourth Republic collapsed. A constitutional referendum was held on 28 September 1958; 82.6% voted for constitution for the French Fifth Republic
French Fifth Republic
. The French Fifth Republic
French Fifth Republic
succeeded the seat of the former Fourth Republic, including its permanent membership on the Security Council in the United Nations
United Nations

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