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Middle Eastern
The Middle East[note 1] is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East
Near East
(as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population.[2] Minorities of the Middle East
Middle East
include Jews, Baloch, Greeks, Assyrians, and other Arameans, Berbers, Circassians
Circassians
(including Kabardians), Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. In the Middle East, there is also a Romani community
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Middle East (other)
The Middle East may refer to:Middle East, a historical and political region of Afro-Eurasia Greater Middle East, a new proposed political region Middle East Airlines, the flag carrier airline of Lebanon The Middle East (nightclub), a live music venue, bar, and restaurant in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA Middle East, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, a neighborhood Middle East Television, a Christian television station The Middle East (band), an Australian Indie band from Townsville, Queensland The Middle East (magazine), a London-based magazine Mideast Youth, a Bahrain-based regional digital network Mid-East Region, Ireland, a region of the Republic of IrelandThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Middle East. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Coptic Language
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲣⲙ̄ⲛ̄ⲕⲏⲙⲉ t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt
Egypt
until at least the 17th century.[2] Egyptian began to be written in the Coptic alphabet, an adaptation of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
with the addition of six or seven signs from demotic to represent Egyptian sounds the Greek language
Greek language
did not have, in the first century AD.[3] Several distinct Coptic dialects are identified, the most prominent of which are Sahidic, originating in parts of Upper Egypt, and Bohairic, originally from the western Nile Delta
Nile Delta
in Lower Egypt. Coptic and Demotic are grammatically closely related to Late Egyptian, which was written with Egyptian hieroglyphs
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Armenian Language
Semi-official or unofficial (de facto) status: Georgia (Samtskhe-Javakheti)[a]  Lebanon[b]  Turkey[c]  Iran  United States (California)[d]Regulated by Institute of Language (Armenian National Academy of Sciences)[22]Language codesISO 639-1 hyISO 639-2 arm (B) hye (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: hye – Eastern Armenian hyw – Western Armenian xcl – Classical Armenian axm – Middle ArmenianGlottolog arme1241[23]Linguasphere 57-AAA-aThe Armenian-speaking world:   regions where Armenian is the language of the majorityThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Abaza Language
The Abaza language
Abaza language
(абаза бызшва, abaza byzšwa; Adyghe: абазэбзэ) is a language of the Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains in Russia and many of the exiled communities in Turkey. In fact the language has gone through several different orthographies based primarily on Arabic, Roman, and Cyrillic
Cyrillic
letters. The syntax and phonology are rather unique as its consonant to vowel ratio is remarkably high; making it quite similar to many other languages from the same parent chain. The language evolved during its popularity in the mid to late 1800s and eventually started to die out. [3] Abaza is spoken by approximately 35,000 people in Russia, where it is written in a Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet, as well as another 10,000 in Turkey, where the Latin script
Latin script
is used
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Abkhaz Language
Cyrillic
Cyrillic
(Abkhaz alphabet) Historically: Latin, GeorgianOfficial statusOfficial language inRepublic of Abkhazia;[a] Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, GeorgiaLanguage codesISO 639-1 ab AbkhazianISO 639-2 abk AbkhazianISO 639-3 abk AbkhazianGlottolog abkh1244  Abkhazian[2]Abkhaz (/æbˈkɑːz/;[3] /æpˈhɑːz/;[4] sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа /apʰswa bɨzʃʷa/), also known as Abkhazian,[2][5][6] is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza. It is spoken mostly by the Abkhaz people. It is one of the official languages of Abkhazia[a], where around 100,000 people speak it.[1] Furthermore, it is spoken by thousands of members of the Abkhazian diaspora in Turkey, Georgia's autonomous republic of Adjara, Syria, Jordan
Jordan
and several Western countries
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Amharic
Amharic
Amharic
(/æmˈhærɪk/[5][6][7] or /ɑːmˈhɑːrɪk/;[8] Amharic: አማርኛ, Amarəñña, IPA: [amarɨɲːa] ( listen)) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch, a member of the Ethiosemitic group. It is spoken as a mother tongue by the Amhara, and as a lingua franca by other populations residing in major cities and towns of Ethiopia
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Azerbaijani Language
 Azerbaijan  Russia DagestanRegulated by Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
National Academy of SciencesLanguage codesISO 639-1 azISO 639-2 azeISO 639-3 aze – inclusive code Individual codes: azj – North Azerbaijani azb – South Azerbaijani slq – Salchuq qxq – QashqaiGlottolog azer1255  North Azeri–Salchuq[2] sout2696  South Azeri–Qashqa'i[3]Linguasphere part of 44-AAB-aLocation of Azerbaijani speakers in Transcaucasia   regions where Azerbaijani is the language of the majority   regions where Azerbaijani is the language of a significant minorityThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Bosniak Language
The Bosnian language (/ˈbɒzniən/ ( listen); bosanski / босански [bɔ̌sanskiː]) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.[4][5][6] Bosnian is one of three such varieties considered official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina,[7] along with Croatian and Serbian, and also an officially recognized minority or regional language in Serbia,[8] Montenegro,[9] and the Republic of Kosovo.[10] Bosnian uses both Latin and Cyrillic alphabet,[Note 1] with Latin in everyday use.[11] It is notable among the varieties of Serbo-Croatian for a number of Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Persian loanwords, largely due to the language's interaction with those cultures through Islamic ties.[12][13][14] Bosnian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin
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Chinese Language
Legend:   Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language   Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers   Major Chinese-speaking settlementsThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Circassian Language
Circassian /sɜːrˈkæsiən/, also known as Cherkess /tʃərˈkɛs/, is a subdivision of the Northwest Caucasian language family. There are two Circassian languages, defined by their literary standards, Adyghe (КӀахыбзэ, also known as West Circassian), with half a million speakers, and Kabardian (Къэбэрдейбзэ, also known as East Circassian), with a million. The languages are mutually intelligible with one another. The earliest extant written records of the Circassian languages
Circassian languages
are in the Arabic script, recorded by the Turkish traveller Evliya Çelebi
Evliya Çelebi
in the 17th century.[2] There is a strong consensus among the linguistic community about the fact that Adyghe and Kabardian are typologically distinct languages.[3][4][5] However, the local terms for these languages refer to them as dialects
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Crimean Tatar Language
 Russia Republic of Crimea[2]Recognised minority language in Ukraine[3] Autonomous Republic of Crimea[2] Romania[4]Language codesISO 639-2 crhISO 639-3 crhGlottolog crim1257[5]Linguasphere part of 44-AAB-aCrimean Tatar-speaking worldThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Balkan Gagauz Turkish
Balkan Gagauz Turkish, also known as Balkan Turkic, is a Turkic language spoken in European Turkey, in Dulovo and the Deliorman
Deliorman
area in Bulgaria, and in the Kumanovo
Kumanovo
and Bitola
Bitola
areas of the Republic of Macedonia.[3] Dialects include Gajal, Gerlovo Turk, Karamanli, Kyzylbash, Surguch, Tozluk Turk, Yuruk, and Macedonian Gagauz. Although it is mutually intelligible with both Gagauz[3] and Turkish to a considerable degree, it is usually classified as a spearate language due to foreign influences from neighboring languages spoken in the Balkans. References[edit]^ Balkan Gagauz Turkish at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Balkan Gagauz Turkish". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0
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