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Merrie Melodies
MERRIE MELODIES is an American animated series of comedy short films produced by Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
between 1931 and 1969, during the golden age of American animation . As with its sister series, Looney Tunes , it featured some of the most famous cartoon characters ever created; including Bugs Bunny , Daffy Duck , Porky Pig and Elmer Fudd . Merrie Melodies
Merrie Melodies
was originally produced by Harman-Ising Pictures from 1931 to 1933, and then Leon Schlesinger
Leon Schlesinger
Productions from 1933 to 1944. Schlesinger sold his studio to Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
in 1944, and the newly renamed Warner Bros. Cartoons continued production until 1963. It was outsourced to DePatie-Freleng Enterprises and Format Films from 1964 to 1967, and Warner Bros
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Maurice Noble
MAURICE NOBLE (May 1, 1911 – May 18, 2001) was an American animation production designer, background artist and layout designer whose contributions to the industry spanned more than 60 years. He was a long-time associate of animation director Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
, most notably at Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
in the 1950s. His work contributed to such cartoon classics as Duck Dodgers in the 24½th Century , What\'s Opera, Doc? , and the Road Runner series. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and work * 2 The Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
years * 3 MGM
MGM
and Dr. Seuss
Dr. Seuss
* 4 Later years * 5 Selected filmography * 6 Legacy * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links EARLY LIFE AND WORKMaurice James Noble was born in Spooner Township, Minnesota
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Robert Gribbroek
ROBERT GRIBBROEK (March 16, 1906 – October 13, 1971) was a layout artist and background painter at the Warner Bros. Cartoons
Warner Bros. Cartoons
from 1945 until 1964. He was first credited in Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
' Lost and Foundling (1944), and he worked mainly for Jones until 1952 when he joined Robert McKimson
Robert McKimson
's unit (Jones, meanwhile, replaced him with Maurice Noble ). After the Warner's cartoon unit closed, he rejoined Jones at the MGM
MGM
cartoon department. He retired in 1965. His last original credited work was as a layout artist on the 1966 Spanish animated feature El mago de los sueños (though Gribbroek would be credited on later Warner compilation specials/features, for his work on the classic Warner cartoons)
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Bill Meléndez
JOSé CUAUHTéMOC MELéNDEZ (November 15, 1916 – September 2, 2008), known as BILL MELENDEZ, was a Mexican American character animator , film director, voice artist and producer, known for his cartoons for Walt Disney Productions (working on four Disney films Pinocchio , Fantasia , Dumbo and Bambi
Bambi
), Warner Bros. Cartoons , UPA and the Peanuts series. Melendez provided the voices of Snoopy and Woodstock in the latter as well. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Warner Bros., UPA and commercial animation work * 3 Peanuts TV specials, movies and TV shows * 4 Death * 5 Posthumous return to Peanuts * 6 Related companies * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFEA native of Hermosillo, Sonora
Sonora
, Mexico, Melendez was educated in U.S. public schools in Douglas, Arizona
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Ben Washam
BENJAMIN ALFRED WASHAM (March 15, 1915 – March 28, 1984) was an American animator who is best known for working under director Chuck Jones for nearly 30 years. Washam worked at Warner Bros. Cartoons
Warner Bros. Cartoons
from 1941 until 1963, mainly under the direction of Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
. He also worked on made-for-television cartoons in the early 1960s. After Jones was fired from Warner Bros, Washam with other animators working under Jones at Warner Bros. joined Jones at MGM ; he also directed a few Tom and Jerry cartoons for release in 1967. For several years beginning in the fall of 1967 Washam, a gifted natural teacher, gladly taught animation at no charge to eager, young students in weekly classes conducted at his Laurel Canyon home in Los Angeles. He explained that "animation has been good to me and I want to give something back." Indeed, he did
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Virgil Ross
VIRGIL WALTER ROSS (August 8, 1907 – May 15, 1996) was an American artist, cartoonist, and animator best known for his work on the Warner Bros. animated shorts. CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Cartooning and animation * 3 Awards * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY YEARS Virgil Ross (as he was usually known) spent his early years in New York state and in Michigan
Michigan
, but his family moved to Long Beach , California
California
, when he was in his late teens. This state was to be his primary home for the rest of his life. CARTOONING AND ANIMATIONHis introduction to cartooning was in high-school, where he took a class in that art form. Early work was done for Charles B. Mintz (later Screen Gems
Screen Gems
), Ub Iwerks
Ub Iwerks
studio, and then on to Walter Lantz , where he began animation work
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Warren Foster
WARREN FOSTER (October 24, 1904 – December 13, 1971) was an American writer, cartoonist and composer for the animation division of Warner Brothers
Warner Brothers
and later with Hanna-Barbera
Hanna-Barbera
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Death * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY LIFEHe was born in Brooklyn, New York to Marion B. Foster and Charles C. Foster. Foster was educated at Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Technical High School and later at the Pratt Institute
Pratt Institute
, joining ASCAP
ASCAP
in 1956. CAREERFoster's long career with Warner Brothers
Warner Brothers
began in 1938 as a writer on the Porky Pig short, Porky in Wackyland and ended nearly 171 cartoons later in 1958 after finishing his work on the Tweety Pie short, Tweet Dreams
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Ken Harris
KARYL ROSS "KEN" HARRIS (July 31, 1898 – March 24, 1982) was an American animator best known for his work at Warner Bros. Cartoons under the supervision of director Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
. He is widely considered to be one of the most talented animators in the Golden age of American animation . CONTENTS * 1 Life and career * 2 Awards * 3 References * 4 External links LIFE AND CAREER Ken Harris
Ken Harris
was born in Tulare Co. California . His first job as an artist was for the Los Angeles Herald Examiner , where he worked from 1927 to around 1930, when he joined the ill-fated Romer Grey studio. Harris finally ended up at Leon Schlesinger Productions under the Friz Freleng unit. This lasted for a short while as he was relocated into the Frank Tashlin unit. Eventually, Tashlin left and the unit was taken over by Chuck Jones
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Paul Julian (artist)
PAUL HULL HUSTED (June 25, 1914 – September 5, 1995), better known as PAUL JULIAN, was an American background animator, sound effects artist, and voice actor for Warner Bros. Animation
Warner Bros. Animation
Studios . Julian worked on Looney Tunes
Looney Tunes
short films , primarily on director Friz Freleng 's Sylvester and Tweety Bird shorts. During his time at WB, Julian also provided the vocal effects of the Road Runner . His warm and tightly-cropped urban scenes were also featured early in his career in the 1946 Bugs Bunny
Bugs Bunny
film Baseball Bugs
Baseball Bugs
, and in the crime syndicate-themed Daffy Duck
Daffy Duck
film Golden Yeggs . Julian also worked extensively as a WPA mural artist
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Animated Cartoon
An ANIMATED CARTOON is a film for the cinema , television or computer screen, which is made using sequential drawings , as opposed to animations in general, which include films made using clay , puppet and other means. Animated cartoons are still created for commercial, educational, and personal purposes. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Early years * 1.2 Silent era * 1.3 "Golden Age" * 2 Feature films * 3 Television
Television
* 3.1 Commercial animation * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Bibliography * 7 External links HISTORY Main article: History of animation
History of animation
EARLY YEARSEarly examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion into a still drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings , where animals are often depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion
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Short Film
A SHORT FILM is any motion picture not long enough to be considered a feature film . The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
defines a short film as "an original motion picture that has a running time of 40 minutes or less, including all credits". The term featurette originally applied to a film longer than a short subject, but shorter than a standard feature film . The increasingly rare term "short subject" means approximately the same thing. It is an industry term which carries more of an assumption that the film is shown as part of a presentation along with a feature film. "SHORT" is an abbreviation for either term. Short films are often screened at local, national, or international film festivals and made by independent filmmakers for non profit , either with a low budget or no budget at all. They are usually funded by film grants, non profit organizations, sponsor , or personal funds
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Pete Alvarado
PETER J. ALVARADO, JR. (February 22, 1920 – December 27, 2003) was an American animation and comic book artist. Alvarado's animation career spanned almost 60 years. He was also a prolific contributor to Western Publishing
Western Publishing
's line of comic books. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Animation
Animation
* 1.2 Comic books * 2 Notes * 3 External links BIOGRAPHYANIMATIONAlvarado was born in Raton, New Mexico, and grew up in Glendale, California . He attended the Chouinard Art Institute in the 1930; after graduation he was hired as an assistant animator by the Walt Disney
Disney
Studio . He provided uncredited work on Snow White and the Seven Dwarves . Around 1939 Alvarado left Disney
Disney
to find work in New York City, where he provided his earliest comic book art for Funnies Inc
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Technicolor
TECHNICOLOR is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating from 1916, and followed by improved versions over several decades. It was the second major color process, after Britain's Kinemacolor , and the most widely used color process in Hollywood
Hollywood
from 1922 to 1952. Technicolor
Technicolor
became known and celebrated for its highly saturated color, and was initially most commonly used for filming musicals such as The Wizard of Oz (1939) and Down Argentine Way (1940), costume pictures such as The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938) and Gone with the Wind (1939), and animated films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) and Fantasia (1940). As the technology matured it was also used for less spectacular dramas and comedies. Occasionally, even a film noir —such as Leave Her to Heaven (1945) or Niagara (1953)—was filmed in Technicolor
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Black-and-white
BLACK AND WHITE, often abbreviated B/W or B The New York Times
The New York Times
and The Washington Post
The Washington Post
remained in black-and-white until the 1990s. Some claim that USA Today
USA Today
was the major impetus for the change to color. In the UK, color was only slowly introduced from the mid-1980s. Even today, many newspapers restrict color photographs to the front and other prominent pages since mass-producing photographs in black-and-white is considerably less expensive than color. Similarly, daily comic strips in newspapers were traditionally black-and-white with color reserved for Sunday strips . Color
Color
printing is more expensive. Sometimes color is reserved for the cover
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Gerry Chiniquy
GERMAIN ADOLPH "GERRY" CHINIQUY (pronounced "CHIN-nick-ee") (June 23, 1912 – November 22, 1989) was an American animator . He is best known for his work with Friz Freleng
Friz Freleng
, at both Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
and DePatie-Freleng Enterprises . Chiniquy joined Freleng's animation team in the early 1940s. His work can best be seen in the many "dance numbers" that Freleng liked to use in his shorts. As crewmembers working on Golden Age Warner Brothers's cartoons were seldom credited, Chiniquy and the other animators would often add their names into the backgrounds of cartoons. Chiniquy's name can be seen in Bugs Bunny Rides Again (1948); look for "G. Chiniquy, Blacksmith" painted on a rooftop
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Hawley Pratt
HAWLEY PRATT (June 9, 1911 – March 2, 1999) was an American film director , animator , and illustrator . He is best known for his work during the heyday of Warner Bros. Cartoons
Warner Bros. Cartoons
and as the right-hand man of director Friz Freleng
Friz Freleng
as a layout artist and later as a director. Pratt also worked for Walt Disney Studios , Filmation
Filmation
, and DePatie-Freleng Enterprises where he co-created The Pink Panther . CONTENTS * 1 Early life and career * 2 Awards * 3 References * 4 External links EARLY LIFE AND CAREERBorn in Seattle
Seattle
and raised in the Bronx
Bronx
by his widowed mother Mabel, Pratt graduated from the Pratt Institute
Pratt Institute
in Brooklyn
Brooklyn

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